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English Language Arts 10-20-30 (2003)

© Alberta Education, Canada 
 Table of Contents   Program of Studies
Introduction

There are two basic aims of senior high school English language arts. One aim is to encourage, in students, an understanding and appreciation of the significance and artistry of literature. A second aim is to enable each student to understand and appreciate language and to use it confidently and competently for a variety of purposes, with a variety of audiences and in a variety of situations for communication, personal satisfaction and learning.

An appreciation of literature and an ability to use language effectively enhance students' opportunities to become responsible, contributing citizens and lifelong learners while experiencing success and fulfillment in life. As strong language users, students will be able to meet Alberta's graduation requirements and will be prepared for entry into post-secondary studies or the workplace. Students will also acquire employability skills: the fundamental, personal management and teamwork skills they need to enter, stay in and progress in the world of work. Senior high school students must be prepared to meet evolving literacy demands in Canada and the international community.

The Importance of Studying Literature

The study of literature allows students to experience, vicariously, persons, places, times and events that may be far removed from their day-to-day experiences. Literature invites students to reflect on the significance of cultural values and the fundamentals of human existence; to think about and discuss essential, universal themes; and to grapple with the intricacies of the human condition. The study of literature provides students with the opportunity to develop self-understanding. They imagine the worlds that literature presents and understand and empathize with the characters that literature creates.

By studying Canadian literature, students are able to reflect on ideas and experiences of citizenship from Canadian perspectives. The study of Canadian literature helps students to develop respect for cultural diversity and common values.

By studying works of literature, students come to understand how text creators use language to produce effects, such as suspense, humour and pathos, and to create multiple layers of meaning. By studying the craft of text creators, students develop their own creative and cognitive abilities.

The Importance of Language
The Nature of Language

Language is the basis of communication and the primary instrument of thought. It is a social and uniquely human means of exploring and communicating meaning. As well as being an important element of culture, language is essential for forming interpersonal relationships, extending experience, reflecting on thought and action, and contributing to society.

Language Development

Language development is contextual. Students enhance their language abilities by using what they know, continuously and recursively, in new and more complex contexts and with increasing sophistication. They reflect on and use prior knowledge to extend and enhance their language abilities and understanding. By learning and incorporating new language structures into their repertoire and using them in a variety of contexts, students develop language fluency and proficiency.

Language Learning and English Language Arts

While students learn about language in all subject areas and in contexts outside of school, English language arts teachers have a central role in language learning because of their focus on language, its forms and its functions. It is the English language arts teacher who helps students develop and apply strategies for comprehending, responding to and creating a variety of texts in a variety of situations.

Critical Thinking and Learning through Language

Critical thinking, learning and language are interrelated. Students use language to make sense of and bring order to their world and to play an active role in various communities of learners within and beyond the classroom. They use language to examine new experiences and knowledge in relation to their prior knowledge, experiences and beliefs. They make connections, anticipate possibilities, reflect upon and evaluate ideas, and determine courses of action. By becoming critical thinkers, students also become independent, successful and contributing members of society.

Metacognition

Language study helps students develop an awareness of the strategies that they use to complete learning tasks successfully and to talk about, write about and represent themselves as learners. In essence, the study of language enables students to develop metacognition: it enables them to become more consciously aware of their own thinking and learning processes and to gain greater control of these processes.

Essentially, metacognition involves reflection, critical awareness and analysis, monitoring, and reinvention. Students who are engaged in metacognition recognize the requirements of the task at hand, reflect on the strategies and skills they may employ, appraise their strengths and weaknesses in the use of these strategies and skills, make modifications, and monitor subsequent strategies.

Many of the specific outcomes in this program of studies emphasize metacognition. Students recall and describe what they have done in a particular situation, and recount how, when and why. Students then assess the value of the strategies they have used, make modifications to them or abandon them in favour of new approaches, and monitor the use of these reworked or new strategies in future situations.

The English Language Arts

The senior high school English language arts program highlights six language arts - listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and representing.

Senior high school students engage all six language arts as they study texts and as they create their own texts in relevant situations for a variety of purposes and audiences. All of the language arts are interrelated and interdependent; facility in one strengthens and supports facility in the others.

Listening and Speaking

Oral language is the foundation of literacy. Through listening and speaking, individuals communicate thoughts, feelings, experiences, information and opinions, and learn to understand themselves and others. Oral language is used to tell a community's stories and to convey many of its values, beliefs and traditions.

Listening and speaking enable students to explore ideas and concepts, as well as to understand and organize their experiences and knowledge. Students use oral language to learn, solve problems and reach goals. To become discerning, lifelong learners, students need to develop fluency and confidence in their oral language abilities. They benefit from many opportunities to listen and speak, both informally and formally, for a variety of purposes and with a variety of audiences.

Reading and Writing

Written language is a powerful means of communicating and learning. Reading and writing enable students to extend their thinking and their knowledge and use of language, to increase their understanding of themselves and others, and to experience enjoyment and personal satisfaction.

Reading provides students with a means of accessing the ideas, perspectives and experiences of others. By using effective reading strategies, students construct meaning and develop thoughtful and critical understandings and interpretations of a variety of texts. They also use reading strategies to reconstruct the meanings of others.

Writing enables students to explore, shape and clarify their thoughts and to communicate these thoughts to others. By using effective writing strategies, students discover and refine ideas, and compose and revise with increasing confidence and skill.

Viewing and Representing

Visual imagery is an integral part of contemporary life. By developing viewing strategies and skills, students come to understand the ways in which images may be used to convey ideas, values and beliefs. Critical viewing enables students to acquire and assess information, appreciate the experiences of others, and understand and evaluate others' ideas and perspectives.

Representing may be envisioned as the expressive counterpart of viewing. Visual representation enables students to communicate their ideas through a variety of text forms, including posters, diagrams, photographs, collages, video presentations, visual art, tableaux and mime.

Representing, however, extends beyond the visual. For example, representations may have an oral component. A speaker's tone of voice can convey, or represent, his or her feelings and attitudes. Music and sound effects that are selected to accompany a dramatic monologue, a dialogue or a readers' theatre presentation may be representational in that they set a mood and convey an atmosphere.

Representing is also manifested in print. Tables and figures that accompany informative texts may suggest spatial relationships, time sequences, and relationships between and among concepts and ideas. Posters and other examples of promotional print texts typically employ design principles, such as alignment and repetition, to represent relationships and to create emphases.

Text and Context
Broadening the Definition of "Text"

This program of studies defines the word "text" broadly. The texts that senior high school students study in their English language arts courses include works of literature and other texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms. Students also create texts in a variety of forms and media.

Oral texts include storytelling, speechmaking, discussion and conversation. Oral texts are used in a wide range of contexts: casual and formal, immediate and distant. As speakers and listeners, students need opportunities to use oral texts with a variety of audiences for a variety of pragmatic and aesthetic purposes. By creating and responding to a variety of oral texts, students obtain and communicate information, build relationships with others, and develop self-confidence and self-understanding.

Print texts include books, journals, magazines and newspapers. Both as writers and readers, students need to experience a wide range of print texts and use print texts for a variety of purposes. Students read literary, informative and persuasive texts for pleasure and knowledge. They write texts to communicate ideas clearly, artistically and with integrity. Through written response to literature, students come to appreciate the ways in which literature engages the imagination, conveys human experience and comments on the human condition. Students write a variety of texts, including informative and persuasive texts, to make sense of ideas and to convey these ideas. They write to express their own and others' experiences and perspectives and to provide enjoyment for themselves and others.

Visual texts include pictures, collages, diagrams, tableaux, mime and nonverbal communication. Visual texts, like their oral and print counterparts, have a variety of purposes and audiences, and occur in a wide range of contexts. Students need opportunities to create and respond to a range of visual texts; they need to recognize, analyze and respond to ways in which visual texts construct reality and influence their perceptions.

Multimedia texts include demonstrations and oral presentations, videos and films, graphic novels and cartoon strips, plays, drum dancing, and Internet Web sites. Any text that combines an oral component with a visual component, a print component with an oral component, or a print component with a visual component is a multimedia text. Many multimedia texts combine components of all three text types - oral, print and visual - to achieve their effects.

Defining "Context" - Purpose, Audience and Situation

"Context" includes any element present in a communication situation that influences the creation and interpretation of text. This program of studies emphasizes the importance of context, including purpose, audience and situation, in the student's engagement with and creation of text. A text creator's understanding of purpose and audience will influence his or her selection and development of form and content. Similarly, other elements of the context within which a text is being produced, such as constraints of time and space and issues of gender and culture, will affect the production of text.

Students comprehend, respond to and create texts for a variety of purposes. When involved in the study and creation of literary texts, and when responding to literature personally, critically and creatively, students reflect upon the human condition and develop and refine their understandings of themselves as human beings. They also learn to appreciate the artistic quality of language and how language may engage both mind and spirit.

At other times, students comprehend, respond to and create texts to present information, to convey ideas and to persuade. When involved in studying and creating informative and persuasive texts, students form understandings about the interplay between fact and opinion, support and generalization, connotation and denotation, literal meaning and figurative meaning, and argument and emotion.

In some communication situations, the audience is imagined by the originator of the communication. This audience can also be somewhat removed from the immediate context of the communication; and the context itself can be free of constraints of time and space, such as when one reads a novel. In other communication situations, the audience is specific and actual - a "target" audience - and is present within the immediate context of the communication. The context itself may be defined by limitations of time and space and by expectations influenced by audience characteristics, such as age, gender and culture.

Senior high school students must be able to communicate well in a variety of contexts - for a variety of purposes, with a variety of audiences and given a variety of situations.

Balancing Expectations for Matters of Correctness and Matters of Choice

Within certain contexts in each course, student mastery of spelling, punctuation and capitalization, usage, grammar, and sentence construction is expected. However, the degree to which such mastery is expected will depend on the length and complexity of created texts and the familiarity of contexts.

When students are engaged in familiar contexts - straightforward purposes, familiar audiences and straightforward situations - control of matters of correctness is expected. When students are engaged in less familiar contexts and are taking risks by experimenting with matters of choice, e.g., using more complicated textual structures, rhetorical devices and stylistic techniques, they may demonstrate less control of matters of correctness.

This program of studies contains many specific outcomes that deal with matters of correctness. See subheading 4.2.4 under General Outcome 4. In English Language Arts 10-1 and 10-2, students are expected to consolidate their learnings from the K-9 program of studies and to master aspects of correctness, such as punctuation, grammatical agreement and sentence construction. In English Language Arts 20-1, 20-2, 30-1 and 30-2, students are expected to apply this mastery in contexts that are increasingly sophisticated and complex.

Technology and English Language Arts

Primarily, students will learn how to use information and communication technologies by taking courses in career and technology studies (CTS). However, it is appropriate that students be encouraged to apply the knowledge, strategies and skills that they have learned in CTS, at home and in the community, by using, as appropriate, design elements, inquiry technologies and presentation technologies as tools for managing information and communicating in their English language arts classes.

Senior High School English Language Arts Course Sequences

Two course sequences have been developed in order to accommodate a diverse range of student needs, interests and aspirations - English Language Arts (ELA) 10-1, 20-1, 30-1 and English Language Arts (ELA) 10-2, 20-2, 30-2. English Language Arts 10-1, 20-1, 30-1 replaces English 10-20-30, and English Language Arts 10-2, 20-2, 30-2 replaces English 13-23-33.

Both course sequences are organized according to the same five general outcomes. In addition, the specific outcomes that support General Outcomes 1, 3 and 5 are exactly the same for students in ELA 10-1 and 10-2, for students in ELA 20-1 and 20-2, and for students in ELA 30-1 and 30-2. Combined, the specific outcomes supporting these three general outcomes constitute approximately one third of the entire program of studies.

The two course sequences are similar also in that they both:

  • maintain high standards to meet graduation requirements
  • require that students write a diploma examination upon completion of the 30-level course
  • can be used toward the application of the Alexander Rutherford Scholarships for High School Achievement
  • feature the six language arts-listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and representing
  • encourage student metacognition, student self-assessment, and student collaboration and teamwork
  • emphasize correct and effective communication in a variety of formats, including communication for pragmatic purposes
  • have a minimum requirement for Canadian content
  • connect with some of the information and communication technology outcomes
  • require students to apply inquiry or research skills
  • emphasize career development directions
  • emphasize the importance of context, including studying purpose, audience and situation, in the creation and comprehension of texts
  • emphasize a definition of "text" that includes oral, print, visual and multimedia forms.

There are, however, important differences between the two course sequences. These differences are found in this program of studies in the specific outcomes supporting General Outcomes 2 and 4. Combined, these specific outcomes constitute approximately two thirds of the program of studies. Differences are also found in two important sections - Minimum Requirements: Text Study and Minimum Requirements: Text Creation. In general, differences between the two course sequences correspond to differences in student needs, interests and aspirations.

In terms of student needs, there are different expectations for students in each course sequence. For example, in relation to the study of texts, standards vary according to the complexity of the material and the development of reading skills. Generally, these standards are lower for students in the ELA 10-2, 20-2, 30-2 course sequence, which explains why in Specific Outcome 2.1.2 (a), six additional reading comprehension strategies are provided for students, including the strategy of seeking teacher assistance. This example illustrates that differences in student needs may be related to the degree of independence demonstrated and the level of skills acquired.

This is an important distinction between the two course sequences. To provide a comparison for the same specific outcome, students in the ELA 10-1, 20-1, 30-1 course sequence are expected to understand the subtle nuances and symbolic language found in increasingly sophisticated literary texts. To do this successfully, these students are expected to develop close reading skills in order to understand contextual elements and subtext. In addition to developing reading comprehension skills, students in the ELA 10-1, 20-1, 30-1 course sequence may need to develop or improve critical and analytical reading skills.

In relation to the creation of texts, students in the ELA 10-1, 20-1, 30-1 course sequence for Specific Outcome 4.2.4 (f) are expected to demonstrate proficiency with sentence construction and to be able to review and revise texts in progress to correct common sentence faults, such as the comma splice, run-on sentences and unintended sentence fragments, by the end of ELA 10-1. On the other hand, students in the ELA 10-2, 20-2, 30-2 course sequence for Specific Outcome 4.2.4 (f) are expected to develop sentence construction skills and to be able to detect and correct common sentence faults, such as run-on sentences and unintended sentence fragments, over the three years they are enrolled in senior high school. An additional expectation for ELA 20-1 and 30-1 is that students are expected to use punctuation and rhetorical structures in a unique way to create effect. These examples illustrate that differences in student needs between the two course sequences may also be related to differences in the length of time needed and the degree of difficulty involved in learning the skills.

The program of studies also presents distinctions between the two course sequences in terms of the emphasis given to particular forms of texts that students will study and create. These distinctions provide assumptions about differences in student interests for each of the two course sequences. For example, in the ELA 10-1, 20-1, 30-1 course sequence a greater degree of emphasis is given to the study of essays and Shakespearean plays, while in the ELA 10-2, 20-2, 30-2 course sequence a greater degree of emphasis is given to the study of popular nonfiction (news stories, feature articles, reviews, interviews and other forms of informative and persuasive text, including technical writing) and feature films.

In terms of the emphases on texts that students will create, differences occur in the types of responses that will be generated. While the ELA 10-2, 20-2, 30-2 course sequence places a greater degree of emphasis on the creation of personal responses to contexts (elements present in any communication situation), the ELA 10-1, 20-1, 30-1 course sequence places a greater degree of emphasis on the creation of personal responses to texts. Further, the ELA 10-1, 20-1, 30-1 course sequence places a greater degree of emphasis on critical/analytical responses to literary texts, while the ELA 10-2, 20-2, 30-2 course sequence places a greater degree of emphasis on critical/analytical responses to print and nonprint texts other than literary texts.

These differences between the course sequences in terms of the emphasis on texts that students will study and create may appeal to student interests when they make the decision to take a particular course sequence. Students who are interested in the study of popular culture and in real-world contexts may prefer to take the ELA 10-2, 20-2, 30-2 course sequence. Students who are interested in the study, creation and analysis of literary texts may prefer to take the ELA 10-1, 20-1, 30-1 course sequence.

Student interests will directly influence their future aspirations for post-secondary study as well. Since the ELA 10-1, 20-1, 30-1 course sequence provides a more in-depth study of text in terms of textual analysis, students who aspire to careers that involve the development, production, teaching and study of more complex texts need to register in this course sequence. Since the ELA 10-2, 20-2, 30-2 course sequence provides for the study of texts at a variety of different levels of sophistication, to meet the needs of a more diverse student population in terms of student aspirations and abilities, students who aspire to post-secondary education, but not necessarily to careers related to the English language arts, may register in this course sequence.

Not all post-secondary institutions, however, accept ELA 30-2 for entry. In general, students who plan to attend a post-secondary institution, regardless of their specific career aspirations, need to familiarize themselves with the entry requirements of the institution and program they plan to enter.

For students who require ELA 30-1 to enter a post-secondary program and are registered in the ELA 10-2, 20-2, 30-2 course sequence, the preferred transfer point to the other course sequence is at the 20-level, depending on the student's ability. Students who meet the requirements may decide to take ELA 20-2, transfer to the other course sequence and take ELA 20-1, and then take ELA 30-1. Students generally experience more success following this pathway.

A variety of characteristics, such as family backgrounds, learning experiences, peer relationships, learning styles, and the accompanying changes involved in making the transition to Grade 10, can influence a student's placement and success in a course. Teachers need to understand the differences between the two course sequences in terms of their students' needs, interests and aspirations to ensure that appropriate placement occurs and to accommodate student differences within each course when the classroom is blended.

Local jurisdictions will continue to group students for instruction to meet their needs and the needs of the local community. Some schools may choose to group students by past achievement, according to Grade 9 results, or by teacher evaluation of course sequence appropriateness, according to Grade 10 results in the first two weeks. Some schools will offer separate English language arts courses at each grade level. Other schools may choose to offer a blended English language arts course at each grade level and to differentiate instruction to meet student needs, interests and aspirations within the blended classroom.

Organization of the Program of Studies

Five general outcomes serve as the foundation for the program. General outcomes are broad statements identifying what students are expected to demonstrate with increasing competence and confidence from the beginning to the end of the program. The following are the five general outcomes in this program of studies.

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to:

  • explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences
  • comprehend literature and other texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, and respond personally, critically and creatively
  • manage ideas and information
  • create oral, print, visual and multimedia texts, and enhance the clarity and artistry of communication
  • respect, support and collaborate with others.

Each general outcome encompasses a number of specific outcomes. For organizational purposes, specific outcomes are categorized under headings (e.g., 1.1 Discover possibilities) and subheadings (e.g., 1.1.1 Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions).

The specific outcomes are statements identifying the component knowledge, skills and attitudes of a general outcome. They are relevant for all students in a variety of learning environments and are cumulative across the courses in a particular sequence. Students are expected to demonstrate the specific outcomes for their current course while building on and maintaining their ability to demonstrate the specific outcomes from previous courses.

Approximately one third of the specific outcomes included in each course are organized under General Outcomes 1, 3 and 5. Approximately one third are organized under General Outcome 2, and approximately one third are organized under General Outcome 4. It is important to note, however, that the general outcomes are interrelated and interdependent; each is to be achieved through a variety of listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and representing experiences.

It is also important to note that some of the specific outcomes include bracketed sections beginning with "such as" or "for example." These sections are not prescriptive but are provided as an illustration of how the outcomes might be developed. (Further detail regarding how the outcomes might be developed and achieved is included in the Senior High School English Language Arts Guide to Implementation.)

Some of the specific outcomes in a particular course are discrete to that course and are, therefore, exit outcomes for that course. Other specific outcomes are developed over two levels and are exit outcomes for the higher-level course in the sequence. Yet other specific outcomes are developed over all three levels and are exit outcomes for the third course in the sequence.

Minimum Requirements for Text Study

In meeting the specific outcomes listed in this program of studies, students must satisfy certain minimum requirements in their study of works of literature and other texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms. These minimum requirements are presented in two broad categories - extended texts and shorter texts - in the chart found in the Minimum Requirements: Text Study section below. Jurisdictions and schools are encouraged to increase requirements for text study beyond these minimum requirements, as time permits, when such extension would meet the needs, interests and aspirations of their students and the expectations of their communities.

Note: In the chart found in the Minimum Requirements: Text Study section below, the dotted line dividing "Essay" and "Popular Nonfiction" indicates that the separation of these two genres is somewhat arbitrary. In the minimum requirements for text study, this division has been used as a means of differentiating between course sequences.

Canadian Literature Requirements

A minimum of one third of the texts studied in each senior high school English language arts course must be texts authored by Canadians.

Minimum Requirements for Text Creation

In meeting the specific outcomes listed in this program of studies, students must satisfy the minimum requirements for text creation presented in the two charts found in the Minimum Requirements: Text Creation section below. The first chart categorizes texts to be created by response type - personal response and critical/analytical response; the second chart categorizes texts to be created by text form - prose, poetry, script and oral/visual/ multimedia presentation. The two charts work together to provide a picture of the minimum requirements for text creation in each course.

Note: In the first chart found in the Minimum Requirements: Text Creation section below, the dotted line dividing personal response to texts and personal response to contexts indicates that the separation of these two response types is somewhat arbitrary. In the minimum requirements for text creation, this division has been used as a means of differentiating between course sequences.

Teachers will assess various texts created by students for various formative and summative purposes. The use of a mixture of effective assessment strategies is encouraged; e.g., student self-assessment, peer assessment, conferencing, portfolio assessment, observations, anecdotal records and assessments made using scoring guides.

Students will create a variety of texts for a variety of purposes and audiences. Each student will create oral texts, print texts, visual texts and multimedia texts in each course in senior high school English language arts. Also, students should be encouraged to collaborate in creating texts; and they should be encouraged to emulate models of effective texts to enhance their personal understanding of text varieties, forms and techniques.

Minimum Requirements: Text Study

In meeting the outcomes presented in this program of studies, students must satisfy the minimum requirements for text study indicated in the chart below. Many of the text types that are listed may be presented through various media. For example, a feature film could be viewed in a theatre or via videocassette, television or the Internet.

The table below indicates the relative emphases intended by the wording used in the chart below to specify requirements. For example, "A Variety Required" indicates that students should study a variety of forms and styles within the specified text form.

Using these minimum requirements as a guide, jurisdictions and schools are free to specify additional requirements for text study as best fits the needs, interests and aspirations of their students and the expectations of their local communities. For example, teachers may wish to specify numbers of texts to be studied in each course, as time permits.

Students will study oral, print, visual and multimedia texts

EXTENDED TEXTSELA 10-1ELA 20-1ELA 30-1
Novel1 of the 2 RequiredRequired1 of the 2 Required
Book-length Nonfiction1 of the 2 Required
Feature FilmRequired1 of the 2 Required
Modern Play1 of the 2 RequiredEncouraged
Shakespearean PlayRequiredRequired
SHORTER TEXTSELA 10-1ELA 20-1ELA 30-1
Poetry (including song)A Variety RequiredA Variety RequiredA Variety Required
Short StoryA Variety RequiredA Variety RequiredA Variety Required
Visual & Multimedia Text*RequiredRequiredRequired
* Visual & Multimedia Text includes short films, video clips and photographs.
EssayRequiredA Variety RequiredA Variety Required
Popular Nonfiction**EncouragedEncouragedRequired
** Popular Nonfiction includes news stories, feature articles, reviews, interviews and other forms of informative and persuasive text, including technical writing.

EXTENDED TEXTSELA 10-2ELA 20-2ELA 30-2
Novel1 of the 2 RequiredRequired1 of the 2 Required
Book-length Nonfiction1 of the 2 Required
Feature FilmRequiredRequired
Modern Play1 of the 2 Required1 of the 2 Required1 of the 2 Required
Shakespearean Play
SHORTER TEXTSELA 10-2ELA 20-2ELA 30-2
Poetry (including song)A Variety RequiredA Variety RequiredA Variety Required
Short StoryA Variety RequiredA Variety RequiredA Variety Required
Visual & Multimedia Text*RequiredRequiredRequired
* Visual & Multimedia Text includes short films, video clips and photographs.
EssayEncouragedEncouragedRequired
Popular Nonfiction**RequiredA Variety RequiredA Variety Required
** Popular Nonfiction includes news stories, feature articles, reviews, interviews and other forms of informative and persuasive text, including technical writing.

CANADIAN LITERATURE REQUIREMENTS: In each senior high school English language arts course, it is expected that a significant proportion of texts that students study will be Canadian texts. The required minimum proportion of Canadian texts studied is one third of all texts studied in each course. Teachers are encouraged to select Canadian texts for study whenever possible and appropriate.

Minimum Requirements: Text Creation

In meeting the outcomes presented in this program of studies, students must satisfy the minimum requirements for text creation indicated in the charts below.

The table below indicates the relative emphases intended by the wording used in the charts below. For example, "Emphasis Required" indicates response and form categories that should be emphasized in a course. Students should create a variety of text types or styles within the categories that are emphasized.

Using these minimum requirements as a guide, jurisdictions and schools are free to specify additional requirements for text creation as best fits the needs, interests and aspirations of their students and the expectations of their local communities. For example, teachers may wish to specify numbers of texts to be created in each course, as time permits.

Students will create a variety of RESPONSES ...

PERSONAL RESPONSEELA 10-1ELA 20-1ELA 30-1
• to textsEmphasis RequiredEmphasis RequiredEmphasis Required
• to contextsRequiredRequiredRequired
CRITICAL/ANALYTICAL RESPONSEELA 10-1ELA 20-1ELA 30-1
• to literary textsRequiredEmphasis RequiredEmphasis Required
• to other print and nonprint textsEncouragedRequiredRequired
• to contextsRequiredRequiredRequired

PERSONAL RESPONSEELA 10-2ELA 20-2ELA 30-2
• to textsRequiredRequiredRequired
• to contextsEmphasis RequiredEmphasis RequiredEmphasis Required
CRITICAL/ANALYTICAL RESPONSEELA 10-2ELA 20-2ELA 30-2
• to literary textsEncouragedRequiredRequired
• to other print and nonprint textsRequiredEmphasis RequiredEmphasis Required
• to contextsRequiredRequiredRequired

... using a variety of print and nonprint FORMS

ELA 10-1ELA 20-1ELA 30-1
PROSENarrative Forms
Factual and Fictional)
RequiredRequiredRequired
Informative and Persuasive Forms*RequiredEmphasis RequiredEmphasis Required
* Informative and Persuasive Forms include essays, commentaries, articles and reviews.
ELA 10-1ELA 20-1ELA 30-1
POETRYRequiredEncouragedEncouraged
SCRIPTEncouragedRequiredEncouraged
ORAL/VISUAL/MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATION**RequiredRequiredRequired
** Oral/Visual/Multimedia Presentation includes readers' theatre, demonstrations and prepared speech.

ELA 10-2ELA 20-2ELA 30-2
PROSENarrative Forms
Factual and Fictional)
RequiredRequiredRequired
Informative and Persuasive Forms*Required
(including reports)
Emphasis Required
(including proposals)
Emphasis Required
* Informative and Persuasive Forms include essays, commentaries, articles and reviews.
ELA 10-2ELA 20-2ELA 30-2
POETRYRequiredEncouragedEncouraged
SCRIPTEncouragedRequiredEncouraged
ORAL/VISUAL/MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATION**RequiredRequiredRequired
** Oral/Visual/Multimedia Presentation includes readers' theatre, demonstrations and prepared speech.

Program Outline

General Outcome 1

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

  • 1.1 Discover possibilities
    • 1.1.1 Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions
    • 1.1.2 Experiment with language, image and structure
  • 1.2 Extend awareness
    • 1.2.1 Consider new perspectives
    • 1.2.2 Express preferences, and expand interests
    • 1.2.3 Set personal goals for language growth

General Outcome 2

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend literature and other texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, and respond personally, critically and creatively.

  • 2.1 Construct meaning from text and context
    • 2.1.1 Discern and analyze context
    • 2.1.2 Understand and interpret content
    • 2.1.3 Engage prior knowledge
    • 2.1.4 Use reference strategies and reference technologies
  • 2.2 Understand and appreciate textual forms, elements and techniques
    • 2.2.1 Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content
    • 2.2.2 Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects
  • 2.3 Respond to a variety of print and nonprint texts
    • 2.3.1 Connect self, text, culture and milieu
    • 2.3.2 Evaluate the verisimilitude, appropriateness and significance of print and nonprint texts
    • 2.3.3 Appreciate the effectiveness and artistry of print and nonprint texts

General Outcome 3

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

  • 3.1 Determine inquiry or research requirements
    • 3.1.1 Focus on purpose and presentation form
    • 3.1.2 Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources
  • 3.2 Follow a plan of inquiry
    • 3.2.1 Select, record and organize information
    • 3.2.2 Evaluate sources, and assess information
    • 3.2.3 Form generalizations and conclusions
    • 3.2.4 Review inquiry or research process and findings

General Outcome 4

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to create oral, print, visual and multimedia texts, and enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

  • 4.1 Develop and present a variety of print and nonprint texts
    • 4.1.1 Assess text creation context
    • 4.1.2 Consider and address form, structure and medium
    • 4.1.3 Develop content
    • 4.1.4 Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent with context
  • 4.2 Improve thoughtfulness, effectiveness and correctness of communication
    • 4.2.1 Enhance thought and understanding and support and detail
    • 4.2.2 Enhance organization
    • 4.2.3 Consider and address matters of choice
    • 4.2.4 Edit text for matters of correctness

General Outcome 5

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

  • 5.1 Respect others and strengthen community
    • 5.1.1 Use language and image to show respect and consideration
    • 5.1.2 Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective
    • 5.1.3 Recognize accomplishments and events
  • 5.2 Work within a group
    • 5.2.1 Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes
    • 5.2.2 Understand and evaluate group processes
General Outcome 1 Overview

GENERAL OUTCOME 1 Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

Exploration is fundamental to learning. The specific outcomes that support General Outcome 1 set the foundation for learning in the other outcomes. Students engage in exploration to discover possibilities and to extend their awareness. Through exploration, students begin to formulate their thoughts and ideas, organize and make sense of their experiences, and acknowledge and express their feelings. Exploration enables students to discover and understand what they think and who they are. It also helps them to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses as language users and language learners.

As students become engaged in exploration, they express their preferences and interests, and they set personal goals for language growth. When they are faced with a new task or assignment and when they study a new text, students explore possibilities and form tentative interpretations and positions. They experiment with language and forms of expression to continually expand the horizon of opportunities that language learning offers to them as they consider new perspectives and form new understandings. Ultimately, through exploration, students expand their interest in a variety of texts.

Through talk and conversation, students make observations, ask questions, generate hypotheses, make predictions and form opinions. Often, students discover what they think or how they feel at the point of utterance.

Writing and representing help students to clarify and expand their thinking. When students use such means as dialogue journals to aid their exploration, and when they see their ideas, feelings and experiences in writing, they can reconsider, revise and elaborate on them in thoughtful ways. Students may also use diagrams, thought webs, collages, charts and other representational forms to explore ideas and interpretations and to make and present new connections among ideas.

Listening, reading and viewing also enable students to explore and consider new perspectives and to gather and verify information, identify areas for further inquiry or research, and develop support for opinions. A climate conducive to exploration and risk taking fosters learning in General Outcome 1.

Learning effective exploration strategies is interrelated with learning in the other general outcomes:

  • Exploratory talk, writing and representation enhance students' comprehension, by focusing their prior knowledge and experiences before listening, reading and viewing and when analyzing, evaluating and responding to texts (General Outcome 2).
  • Exploration also helps students to find and manage information (General Outcome 3).
  • Students are involved in exploration when deciding how to use language more effectively when they are creating their own texts (General Outcome 4).
  • Students often use exploratory talk when they work together to collaborate on projects and to develop a classroom learning community (General Outcome 5).
General Outcome 2 Overview

GENERAL OUTCOME 2 Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend literature and other texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, and respond personally, critically and creatively.

Note: The what and the how of a text (text content and text form) have been separated under the first two headings of General Outcome 2 to allow learning outcomes to be more clearly specified. In their study of texts, students should be encouraged to understand the relationship between form and content.

Constructing meaning from texts is fundamental to senior high school English language arts. As students study texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, they use a variety of strategies to determine the what of a text - the content that is being presented by the text creator. Students engage their prior knowledge of content as they encounter new texts. They identify and examine a text creator's purpose and audience, and they consider the interplay between text and context. Students use their skills as listeners, readers and viewers to detect the tones and registers adopted by text creators. They use references, including the understandings and interpretations of others, to assist them in forming their own understandings and interpretations of texts.

Students also use a variety of strategies to understand the craft of the text creator and the how of a text - the form that the text creator has fashioned and the textual elements, rhetorical devices and stylistic techniques that the text creator has employed. By studying a variety of texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, students develop an understanding of the relationship between a text's content and its form. They identify the effects that are created by particular forms, elements, devices and techniques, and relate a text's form, structure and medium to its purpose and audience and to its content.

Students respond personally, critically and creatively - often simultaneously - to the contents and contexts of a variety of texts and to the craft of a variety of text creators. They respond personally by relating texts to their own experiences, feelings, values and beliefs. They respond critically by making interpretations and by evaluating ideas, forms, devices and techniques. They respond creatively by visualizing the settings and situations that are presented in texts and by imagining the persons and characters inhabiting texts. By using their creative imaginations, students synthesize responses that take them more deeply into the world of a text or that extend their own worlds by transforming their understandings and perspectives.

Learning effective comprehension and response strategies is interrelated with learning in all of the other general outcomes:

  • Exploratory talk and writing enhance and extend student understandings and evaluations of texts (General Outcome 1).
  • Student understandings of text forms, structures and media help them to find information when they are involved in inquiry (General Outcome 3).
  • The study of texts provides students with a range of topics and organizing structures for their own text creation (General Outcome 4).
  • As students respond positively to the texts created by their classmates, they help to encourage others and to build a community of learners (General Outcome 5).
General Outcome 3 Overview

GENERAL OUTCOME 3 Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

Students manage ideas and information to fulfill particular inquiry or research needs. Such needs may include communicating with a particular audience, considering a variety of literary interpretations or gathering details that contribute to the verisimilitude of a created text.

Students develop the ability to determine:

  • why they need to pursue inquiry or to conduct research
  • what sorts of questions need to be answered
  • what types of data and information are needed
  • where to locate information sources
  • how to record and organize selected information
  • if chosen sources and gathered information satisfy the requirements of purpose, audience and situation
  • if chosen sources are reputable and of good quality

Students integrate and synthesize their findings, and, in the course of managing ideas and information, they formulate generalizations and conclusions and develop personal perspectives.

Students use inquiry or research findings for a variety of purposes. A finding may simply be a new understanding that a student records in a journal for future use. Findings may also include facts, examples or generalizations that are used immediately by students involved in text creation. Findings often lead students to formulate new questions for further research.

As they progress through their senior high school English language arts courses, students develop strategies for managing ideas and information with increasing independence and sophistication. As well, they evaluate their own and others' inquiry and research processes and findings with a view to refining such processes and considering alternative ways of conducting inquiry or research in the future.

Learning effective strategies for managing ideas and information is interrelated with learning in the other general outcomes:

  • Students explore ideas to frame questions and to plan research processes (General Outcome 1).
  • When students examine sources to identify ideas and gain information, they are engaged in comprehending and responding to text (General Outcome 2).
  • As they record and organize the information and other material that they have uncovered, students are engaged in the creation of text (General Outcome 4).
  • Students often collaborate to conduct research or to pursue inquiry (General Outcome 5).
General Outcome 4 Overview

GENERAL OUTCOME 4 Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to create oral, print, visual and multimedia texts, and enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

Students draft and develop a variety of oral, print, visual and multimedia texts as a means of discovering, understanding and communicating their thoughts, feelings and experiences. When beginning the task of text creation, students assess context: they determine the purpose that they wish to accomplish, they identify their audience, and they consider the nature of the communication situation. They also develop or use form, structure and media consistent with context.

Students develop ideas through text creation. They share their experiences and communicate the events that are significant to them. They create images and develop themes imaginatively and artistically. By creating texts in a variety of oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, students develop their personal voices and learn the craft of the text creator.

As students produce texts for publication or presentation, they ensure that the expectations of the text creation task and the requirements of the communication situation have been met. They also consider the limitations of time and space that a particular text creation, publication or presentation situation invokes.

Students develop confidence and skill by sharing thoughts, ideas and experiences through formal and informal presentations. They select and use presentation technologies that are appropriate to purpose, audience and communication situation.

Students enhance the communicative power of their texts by assessing and revising thought and detail, organization, matters of choice, and matters of correctness. They develop an understanding of how language works, and they use the specialized terminology of the English language arts to communicate that understanding.

Learning effective strategies for creating text and for enhancing the thoughtfulness, effectiveness and correctness of communication is interrelated with learning in the other general outcomes:

  • Students explore text creation possibilities and experiment with language, image and structure (General Outcome 1).
  • Oral, print, visual and multimedia texts that are studied provide vicarious experiences, new perspectives, and potential forms and media that students may use for speaking, writing and representing (General Outcome 2).
  • Students locate, gather, record and organize material to communicate ideas and information (General Outcome 3).
  • Students work in groups to complete tasks and assignments and to collaborate on text creation (General Outcome 5).
General Outcome 5 Overview

GENERAL OUTCOME 5 Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

As students collaborate with others, they use language to show respect and consideration. Together, students access, understand, use and create texts in seeking answers to questions regarding the human condition. They appreciate the diversity of expression, opinion and perspective displayed by other students in their community of learners; and they willingly share their personal knowledge, expertise and perspectives to help build and strengthen that community. They learn to use language in ways that demonstrate sensitivity to the feelings of their peers and enrich the classroom atmosphere.

Students in senior high school English language arts classes develop and display positive attitudes that are observable in the verbal and nonverbal communication that they exhibit. Students' positive attitudes are displayed as they celebrate their own accomplishments and honour the accomplishments of their classmates. Also, as they recognize events of importance to their communities and their cultures, students come to understand their connections to community in a broader sense.

Students learn collaboration skills by working well together. They discuss in groups, build on others' ideas, and plan and work together to meet common goals. They learn to use language to reflect upon their own behaviours and values and the behaviours and values of others. They participate fully and positively in a classroom community.

As they collaborate with others, students demonstrate that they understand and employ group processes. They cooperate with others as they contribute to the processes that their groups are using to complete tasks. They assess and evaluate the work that their groups have accomplished and the processes that their groups have used, so that future collaboration may benefit from the understandings that they have developed.

Students learn the importance of respecting, supporting and collaborating with others, and it is these processes that set the context for students to experience success in the senior high school English language arts classroom.

Learning effective strategies for collaborating with others is interrelated with learning in the other general outcomes:

  • Students work collaboratively to discover possibilities and to experiment with language and forms (General Outcome 1).
  • Students learn from the understandings and interpretations of their classmates as they comprehend and respond to oral, print, visual and multimedia texts (General Outcome 2).
  • Students often work collaboratively to conduct inquiry and research and to share findings (General Outcome 3).
  • Students work collaboratively on text creation: they discuss topics and forms of expression, they act as peer editors to assess their classmates' texts and to offer constructive suggestions for improvement, and they often work together to deliver a presentation (General Outcome 4).
ELA 10-1 
General Outcome 1 (10-1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences. 
1.1 Discover possibilities
1.1.1 Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions

a. generate and experiment with strategies that contribute to forming tentative understandings, interpretations and positions [for example, posing questions, suspending prejudgement as appropriate, recognizing that initial interpretations and positions may be inaccurate and incomplete, and recognizing that texts may be inaccurate, misleading or ambiguous]

b. form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions on ideas and issues communicated in literature and other texts by expressing own explorations and considering others' explorations

1.1.2 Experiment with language, image and structure

a. experiment with language, image and structure to create different effects in particular situations and for particular purposes and audiences [for example, present the same information to two different audiences, and make appropriate changes to the content to suit the audiences]

b. experiment with a variety of strategies, activities and resources to explore ideas, observations, opinions, experiences and emotions [for example, stream-of-consciousness writing, free verse poetry, exploratory talk and improvisation]

1.2 Extend awareness
1.2.1 Consider new perspectives

a. describe personal responses to new perspectives, appraise whether such responses contribute to or inhibit understanding, and identify influences that have contributed to such responses

b. identify own ideas, perspectives and interpretations and evaluate them for depth of explanation, evidence or support; and consider the ideas, perspectives and interpretations of others to broaden own understandings when exploring and responding to texts

1.2.2 Express preferences, and expand interests

a. reflect on personal text preferences, identify influences that have contributed to the formation of these preferences, and select strategies that may be used to expand interests in texts and text creators [for example, complete and share reading inventories, and examine the role marketing plays in shaping popular culture]

b. expand interests in a range of literary genres and in a variety of other text types and text creators [for example, graphic novels, Web sites, advertising and promotional texts, autobiographies, CD-ROMs, anecdotes, memoirs, monologues and folk songs]

1.2.3 Set personal goals for language growth

a. appraise own strengths and weaknesses as a language user and language learner; select appropriate strategies to increase strengths and address weaknesses; monitor the effectiveness of selected strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed to optimize growth [for example, assess growth in writing by using a writing portfolio and portfolio reflections]

b. set goals and identify and experiment with strategies for language growth in relation to formal and informal personal communications [for example, working in a group or taking a leadership role in a club]

c. identify and access learning sources and opportunities; assess, weigh and manage risk; and demonstrate a willingness to continuously learn and grow

General Outcome 2 (10-1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend literature and other texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, and respond personally, critically and creatively.
2.1 Construct meaning from text and context
2.1.1 Discern and analyze context

a. identify a variety of different kinds of texts, audiences and purposes for creating texts [for example, purposes could include to inform, persuade, entertain or inspire; the purpose of a print advertisement is to sell a product]

b. use features found within a text as information to describe the communication situation within which the text was created [for example, use specialized terminology, jargon, acronyms and idioms within a text to describe context]

c. describe the relationship between text and context [for example, constraints of time and space, issues of gender and culture, whether or not the audience is present]

d. identify the impact that personal context - experience, prior knowledge - has on constructing meaning from a text

2.1.2 Understand and interpret content

a. use a variety of strategies to comprehend literature and other texts [for example, reading passages out loud, forming questions, making predictions, using context to determine the connotative meanings of words, using graphic organizers and making annotations], and develop strategies for close reading of literature in order to understand contextual elements [for example, understanding subtext]

b. paraphrase a text's controlling idea, and identify supporting ideas and supporting details

c. summarize the plot of a narrative, describe its setting and atmosphere, describe development of conflict, and identify theme

d. describe the personality traits, motivations, attitudes, values and relationships of characters developed/persons presented in literature and other texts; and identify how the use of archetypes adds to an appreciation of text

e. describe a text creator's tone, and relate tone to purpose and audience

f. differentiate between literal and figurative statements and between imagery and nonsensory language, identify symbol, recognize familiar allusions, and describe how images are developed in texts

g. describe visual elements [such as photographs, lists, tables, graphs, charts and other displays] and aural elements [such as sound effects, music and rhythm], and describe their contributions to the meaning of texts

h. differentiate between audience response to the content of a presentation and audience response to the performance of the presenter

2.1.3 Engage prior knowledge 

a. reflect on and describe strategies used to engage prior knowledge as a means of assisting comprehension of new texts; and select, monitor and modify strategies as needed

b. describe personal expectations for a text to be studied, by recalling prior experiences with and observations about similar contexts, content and text forms

c. recall prior knowledge of rhetorical devices used in previously studied texts [such as anecdotes and rhetorical questions] and textual elements and structures employed or developed [such as characterization and narrative point of view] to assist in understanding new texts

d. classify the genre/form of new texts according to attributes of genres/forms previously studied

2.1.4 Use reference strategies and reference technologies 

a. use a variety of appropriate reference strategies and reference technologies to aid understanding [for example, formulating and refining questions, exploring works cited in other references, taking notes, and using library catalogues and Internet search engines]

b. create and use own reference materials to aid understanding [for example, a personalized dictionary/glossary and a personalized World Wide Web/URL address list]

2.2 Understand and appreciate textual forms, elements and techniques
2.2.1 Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content

a. identify a variety of text forms, including communications forms and literary forms [for example, letters, memoranda, poems, narratives and dramatizations]; and describe the relationships of form to purpose and content

b. describe audience factors that may have influenced a text creator's choice of form and medium [for example, age, gender and culture of the audience]

c. describe a variety of organizational patterns and structural features that contribute to purpose and content

d. describe the characteristics of various common communications media [such as the use of headlines in newspapers, and menus and tabs in Internet Web pages]

2.2.2 Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects 

a. describe rhetorical devices [such as parallel structure and repetition] and stylistic techniques [such as purposeful use of precise denotative language and straightforward sentence structure] that create clarity, coherence and emphasis in print and nonprint texts

b. describe aspects of a text that contribute to atmosphere, tone and voice [for example, textual elements, such as setting, music and lighting, and stylistic techniques, such as a text creator's choice of words and expressions]

c. recognize irony and satire in print and nonprint texts, and identify language used to create irony and satire

d. describe the effects of musical devices, figures of speech and sensory details in print and nonprint texts [for example, alliteration used to create emphasis, metaphor used to evoke images, and sensory details used to evoke pathos]

e. recognize the use of motif and symbol in print and nonprint texts

f. recognize the use of elements of effective oral, visual and multimedia presentations [such as movement, gesture, use of space, shape and colour]; and describe their effects

g. identify persuasive techniques used in a variety of print and nonprint texts [such as appealing to emotion and citing experts]

2.3 Respond to a variety of print and nonprint texts
2.3.1 Connect self, text, culture and milieu

a. identify and consider personal, moral, ethical and cultural perspectives when studying literature and other texts; and reflect on and monitor how perspectives change as a result of interpretation and discussion

b. respond personally and analytically to ideas developed in works of literature and other texts; and analyze the ways in which ideas are reflected in personal and cultural opinions, values, beliefs and perspectives

c. compare choices and motives of characters and people portrayed in texts with choices and motives of self and others

d. identify and examine ways in which cultural and societal influences are reflected in a variety of Canadian and international texts

2.3.2 Evaluate the verisimilitude, appropriateness and significance of print and nonprint texts 

a. identify criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of texts, monitor the effectiveness of the criteria, and modify the criteria as needed [for example, use criteria to assess the adequacy, relevance and effectiveness of content and to assess the text creator's voice and style]

b. assess the appropriateness of own and others' understandings and interpretations of works of literature and other texts, by referring to the works and texts for supporting or contradictory evidence

c. describe settings and plots in terms of reality and plausibility, as appropriate

d. describe character and characterization in terms of consistency of behaviour, motivation and plausibility

e. describe images in print and nonprint texts in terms of created reality and appropriateness to purpose

f. assess the significance of a text's theme or controlling idea, and the adequacy, relevance and effectiveness of its supporting details, examples or illustrations, and content in general

2.3.3 Appreciate the effectiveness and artistry of print and nonprint texts

a. use terminology appropriate to the forms studied for discussing and appreciating the effectiveness and artistry of a variety of text forms

b. describe the effectiveness of various texts, including media texts, for presenting feelings, ideas and information, and for evoking response

General Outcome 3 (10-1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.
3.1 Determine inquiry or research requirements
3.1.1 Focus on purpose and presentation form

a. reflect on and describe strategies to determine the depth and breadth of inquiry or research and to identify the purpose, audience and potential forms of presentation [for example, define parameters of inquiry or research, analyze available resources, create a timeline to guide inquiry or research, and understand purpose and audience]

b. describe the purpose of inquiry or research and the scope of the inquiry or research topic; identify the target audience; and identify the potential form for the presentation of inquiry or research findings, when applicable [such as a narrative, report, diary entry or biography]

c. refine the purpose of inquiry or research by limiting or expanding the topic as appropriate

3.1.2 Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources

a. reflect on and describe strategies for developing an inquiry or research plan that will foster understanding, select and monitor appropriate strategies, and modify strategies as needed to plan inquiry or research effectively [for example, use a research journal to keep and record reflections on the research process, clarify thinking, revisit initial perceptions and ask questions that lead to new research]

b. develop an appropriate inquiry or research plan that will address the topic and satisfy contextual requirements - purpose, audience and situation - and requirements of presentation form

c. determine the breadth and depth of prior knowledge, and formulate questions to determine information needs and to guide the collection of required information

d. identify information sources intended to fill gaps between prior knowledge and required information

e. identify and select potential strategies and technologies for gathering, generating and recording information [for example, outlining, webbing, taking notes in point form, recording sources accurately during information gathering, writing direct quotations correctly and bookmarking Internet sites]

3.2 Follow a plan of inquiry
3.2.1 Select, record and organize information

a. reflect on and describe strategies that may be used to select, record and organize information; select and monitor appropriate strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed

b. select information and other material appropriate to purpose from a variety of print and nonprint sources [for example, from museums, archives, government agencies, periodicals, microfiche, Internet, CD-ROMs, films, television and radio broadcasts, interviews, surveys, and print and online encyclopedias]

c. record information accurately and completely; and document and reference sources, as appropriate [for example, document direct quotations, others' ideas and arguments, maps, charts, statistics, pictures and diagrams from books, magazines, bibliographies, newspapers, audiovisual materials, electronic sources, interviews and films to avoid plagiarism]

d. organize information logically [such as by question, by category, by chronology or by cause and effect]

e. observe guidelines for Internet use [for example, keep passwords, telephone numbers and addresses confidential; visit appropriate sites; respect copyright; and observe rules for citing Internet sources, following correct procedures to avoid plagiarism]

3.2.2 Evaluate sources, and assess information

a. reflect on and describe strategies to evaluate information sources for credibility and bias and for quality; and select, monitor and modify strategies as needed to evaluate sources and detect bias

b. assess information sources for appropriateness to purpose, audience and presentation form

c. assess the accuracy, completeness, currency and relevance of information selected from sources; and assess the appropriateness of the information for purpose

d. identify and describe possible biases of sources [such as possible biases of text creators]

3.2.3 Form generalizations and conclusions

a. form generalizations by integrating new information with prior knowledge

b. draw conclusions that are appropriate to findings, reflect own understandings and are consistent with the identified topic, purpose and situation

c. distinguish between support and generalization, and provide support for generalizations and conclusions

3.2.4 Review inquiry or research process and findings

a. reflect on and assess the effectiveness of strategies used to guide inquiry or research [such as the effective use of time and the division of labour when involved in group research]

b. identify strategies to improve future inquiry or research, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies

c. review the appropriateness, accuracy and significance of findings, conclusions and generalizations drawn from gathered data and information; prepare a detailed record of references; determine how best to share the information; and determine next steps, if any

d. seek feedback from others and use own reflections to evaluate the entire inquiry or research process, strive for craftsmanship and accuracy, and take pride in efforts and accomplishments

General Outcome 4 (10-1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to create oral, print, visual and multimedia texts, and enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.
4.1 Develop and present a variety of print and nonprint texts
4.1.1 Assess text creation context 

a. reflect on the purposes for text creation [for example, to inform, explain, persuade, entertain or inspire] and on own motives for selecting strategies to engage an audience [for example, to communicate information, promote action or build relationships]; and consider potential consequences of choices regarding text creation [for example, follow-up action may be required to clarify information, a position may need to be defended and opposing viewpoints addressed, and tone and style must be appropriate for intended audience]

b. identify purpose and target audience for text creation, and select strategies to accomplish purpose and engage audience [for example, plan a campaign - public relations, advertising or lobbying - identifying the text forms to be used to influence the attitudes of the audience with respect to the chosen issue]

c. describe and address audience factors that affect text creation [such as age, prior knowledge, gender, culture, values, interests, attitudes, position of authority and power of decision]

d. describe expectations and constraints of a communication situation, including assignment parameters, expected standards of quality and availability of resources; and select strategies to address expectations and constraints [for example, paraphrase assignment instructions to identify tasks; seek clarification regarding teacher expectations, including assessment criteria related to quality standards; assess supplies and resources needed; and develop a work plan for completion, which includes a timeline]

4.1.2 Consider and address form, structure and medium

a. select a text form appropriate to the purpose for text creation and consistent with the content to be presented in the text [for example, select a photo essay to demonstrate a personal or critical/analytical response to poetry or other literature when the content to be presented is well suited to the creation of a visual text]

b. identify and use structures consistent with form, content and purpose when creating texts [for example, chronological order to structure events in a narrative, and juxtaposed images to suggest contrast in a poster]

c. explore the interplay among medium, content and context [for example, explore the use of an electronic slide show to make a classroom presentation in terms of whether or not it is an effective way to communicate information]

d. understand the concept of convention; and apply it to oral, print, visual and multimedia text forms when appropriate [for example, understand the common conventions of a modern play script; and include dialogue, stage directions, and directions for lighting and sound effects when creating a script, as appropriate]

4.1.3 Develop content 

a. take ownership of text creation, by selecting or crafting a topic, concept or idea that is personally meaningful and engaging

b. recognize and assess personal variables [such as personal experience and prior knowledge] and contextual variables [such as availability of time and resources] that influence the selection of a topic, concept or idea; and address these variables to increase the likelihood of successful text creation

c. establish a focus for text creation, and communicate scope by framing an effective controlling idea or describing a strong unifying effect

d. develop supporting details, by using developmental aids appropriate to form and purpose [for example, use charts to collect and assemble details in creating character comparisons when developing a comparison and contrast essay, or use a think-aloud reading strategy to make notes from informational text when writing a summary]

e. develop content appropriate to purpose [for example, relate supporting information and examples to conclusions when creating a written or oral report; and relate imagery, figurative language and musical devices to purpose when developing a poem]

f. develop content appropriate to audience and situation [for example, use descriptive details to capture events in a narrative, and craft rich visual images to develop a video that will engage an audience]

g. incorporate effective examples from personal experience, concepts and ideas from exploration, and findings from inquiry and research into created texts, when appropriate [for example, incorporate visual aids in a prepared speech and taped sound effects in a dramatization of a scene from a play]

4.1.4 Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent with context 

a. meet particular production, publication and display requirements for print texts [for example, adhere to a particular manuscript style when creating a research paper]; and explain requirements in light of purpose, audience and situation

b. develop presentation materials; and select strategies and technologies appropriate to purpose, audience and situation [for example, use technologies such as presentation software, videos, CD-ROMs, DVDs, audiotaped interviews and handouts]

c. develop and deliver oral, visual and multimedia presentations, using voice production factors [such as volume, tone and stress], nonverbal factors [such as gestures, posture, distance and eye contact] and visual production factors [such as colour and contrast] appropriate to purpose, audience and situation

d. experiment with various strategies to create rapport between the presenter and the audience [for example, ask questions to involve the audience]

4.2 Improve thoughtfulness, effectiveness and correctness of communication
4.2.1 Enhance thought and understanding and support and detail 

a. review the controlling idea or desired unifying effect of a text in progress for clarity and focus [for example, in a rehearsal, mock-up or draft], and modify the controlling idea or desired unifying effect as appropriate to meet the intended purpose

b. review the accuracy, specificity and precision of details, events, images, facts or other data intended to support a controlling idea or to develop a unifying effect; and add to details, events, images, facts or other data as needed to provide sufficient support or development

c. detect and correct logical fallacies

d. review own critical/analytical response to literature for plausibility, appropriateness of interpretations, and precision, completeness and relevance of evidence; and revise interpretations and evidence, as necessary

4.2.2 Enhance organization 

a. assess the beginning of a text in progress, and revise it as needed to establish purpose [for example, the exposition of a narrative, the initial stanza or opening lines of a poem, or the introduction of a written or oral report]

b. review the organizational components of a text in progress [such as paragraphs, scenes or steps in a process], and revise them as needed to strengthen their effectiveness as units of thought or experience

c. review the closing of a text in progress, and revise it as needed to strengthen its relationship to purpose and to establish a sense of developed understanding

d. assess relationships among controlling idea, supporting ideas and supporting details; and strengthen relationships as needed to enhance the unity of texts

e. assess transitions and transitional devices, and revise them as needed to strengthen coherence [for example, assess the use of repetition and balance in an essay, or fade-outs and dissolves in a video production, to create smooth transitions between elements in a text]

4.2.3 Consider and address matters of choice 

a. reflect on personal vocabulary and repertoire of stylistic choices and on their effectiveness; and expand vocabulary and repertoire of stylistic choices

b. use words and expressions appropriately [for example, use words with straightforward denotations to strengthen clarity in informative and persuasive texts, and use words with connotative meanings to evoke images in poetry and narrative texts]

c. use a variety of sentence patterns and structures appropriately and effectively [for example, use straightforward sentence structures to strengthen clarity in informative and persuasive texts, and use short sentences to create emphasis or to indicate action in narrative texts]

d. describe the effects of own use of stylistic techniques and rhetorical devices [for example, describe the clarity achieved by arranging words and phrases in lists; describe the emphasis created by using repetition, balance or parallel structure; and describe the audience effects achieved by using visual elements and sounds in presentations and multimedia texts]

e. recognize personal voice in texts created; and continue to develop personal craft through practice, using various methods

4.2.4 Edit text for matters of correctness

a. use handbooks and other tools, including electronic tools, as resources to assist with text creation [for example, dictionaries, thesauri, spell checkers and handbooks]

b. know and be able to apply capitalization and punctuation conventions correctly, including end punctuation, commas, semicolons, colons, apostrophes, quotation marks, hyphens, dashes, ellipses, parentheses, underlining and italics

c. know and be able to apply spelling conventions consistently and independently

d. identify and be able to use parts of speech correctly, including nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, definite and indefinite articles, and coordinating and subordinating conjunctions

e. identify parts of the sentence in own and others' texts, including subject, verb, predicate complement, and direct and indirect object

f. review and revise texts in progress to correct common sentence faults - comma splice, run-on sentence and unintended sentence fragment

g. know and be able to use common sentence structures correctly - simple, compound, complex andcompound-complex

h. pay particular attention to punctuation, spelling, grammar, usage and sentence construction when using unfamiliar vocabulary, complex syntax and sophisticated rhetorical devices

i. assess strengths and areas of need [for example, develop a checklist of skills mastered and skills to be developed, and set goals for language growth]

General Outcome 5 (10-1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others. 
5.1 Respect others and strengthen community
5.1.1 Use language and image to show respect and consideration

a. monitor own use of verbal and nonverbal communication in order to convey respect and consideration, as appropriate [for example, use euphemism and body language appropriately and sensitively]

b. analyze and describe language and images used in literature and other texts to convey respectful and considerate, or disrespectful and inconsiderate, perspectives and attitudes [for example, stereotyping that contributes to negative portrayals of characters in literature and persons in life]

c. analyze and describe positive or negative portrayals of characters in literature and persons in life, and be sensitive to the feelings of others

d. analyze and describe verbal and nonverbal communication that contributes to the inclusion or exclusion of individuals involved in a communication situation, and use verbal and nonverbal communication that is inclusive of other individuals [for example, use allusions and acronyms that will be familiar to an audience, and use gender inclusive nouns and pronouns]

e. differentiate between constructive criticism and ridicule, and between irony and sarcasm [for example, seek clarification by asking questions]

5.1.2 Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective 

a. appreciate diversity of thought and expression, select and monitor appropriate strategies for appreciating diversity, and modify selected strategies as needed

b. describe the ways in which selected works of literature and other print and nonprint texts influence individual and group values and behaviours

c. identify the underlying assumptions reflected in the ideas and opinions presented in a text

5.1.3 Recognize accomplishments and events 

a. use language and image to honour own and others' accomplishments [for example, celebrate together when classmates have accomplished a particular task or produced, published or presented a particular text; or celebrate the completion of a portfolio with family and friends by holding a "portfolio launch"]

b. identify formal and informal ways in which language and image are used appropriately to honour people and to celebrate events [for example, eulogy, toast and public service announcements]

5.2 Work within a group
5.2.1 Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes

a. set appropriate personal goals for participation in a group; respect, be open to, and be supportive of the thoughts, opinions and contributions of others in a group; and share personal knowledge, expertise and perspectives with others, as appropriate

b. reflect on and describe strategies used to negotiate, coordinate and cooperate with others; select appropriate strategies for negotiating, coordinating and cooperating with others; monitor selected strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed to accomplish group goals

c. ensure that a team's purpose and objectives are clear

5.2.2 Understand and evaluate group processes 

a. develop and use criteria to monitor and assess group processes [such as division of labour and time management]

b. understand the various potential roles and responsibilities of group members [such as researcher and presenter; director and participant; and chairperson, recorder and timekeeper; or roles of Aboriginal Elders in teaching about the medicine wheel and about respect, humility, kindness, sharing, honesty, faith and perseverance], and appreciate the contribution that these roles make to group processes

c. identify and use various means to facilitate completion of group projects [for example, establish clear purposes and procedures for solving problems, monitor progress, and make modifications to meet stated objectives]

d. analyze the function of teamwork tools [such as checklists, role descriptors, timelines and flow charts, whiteboards for brainstorming, electronic list servers, agendas, and meeting notes], and use such tools as appropriate

ELA 10-2 
General Outcome 1 (10-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences. 
1.1 Discover possibilities
1.1.1 Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions

a. generate and experiment with strategies that contribute to forming tentative understandings, interpretations and positions [for example, posing questions, suspending prejudgement as appropriate, recognizing that initial interpretations and positions may be inaccurate and incomplete, and recognizing that texts may be inaccurate, misleading or ambiguous]

b. form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions on ideas and issues communicated in literature and other texts by expressing own explorations and considering others' explorations

1.1.2 Experiment with language, image and structure

a. experiment with language, image and structure to create different effects in particular situations and for particular purposes and audiences [for example, present the same information to two different audiences, and make appropriate changes to the content to suit the audiences]

b. experiment with a variety of strategies, activities and resources to explore ideas, observations, opinions, experiences and emotions [for example, stream-of-consciousness writing, free verse poetry, exploratory talk and improvisation]

1.2 Extend awareness
1.2.1 Consider new perspectives

a. describe personal responses to new perspectives, appraise whether such responses contribute to or inhibit understanding, and identify influences that have contributed to such responses

b. identify own ideas, perspectives and interpretations and evaluate them for depth of explanation, evidence or support; and consider the ideas, perspectives and interpretations of others to broaden own understandings when exploring and responding to texts

1.2.2 Express preferences, and expand interests

a. reflect on personal text preferences, identify influences that have contributed to the formation of these preferences, and select strategies that may be used to expand interests in texts and text creators [for example, complete and share reading inventories, and examine the role marketing plays in shaping popular culture]

b. expand interests in a range of literary genres and in a variety of other text types and text creators [for example, graphic novels, Web sites, advertising and promotional texts, autobiographies, CD-ROMs, anecdotes, memoirs, monologues and folk songs]

1.2.3 Set personal goals for language growth

a. appraise own strengths and weaknesses as a language user and language learner; select appropriate strategies to increase strengths and address weaknesses; monitor the effectiveness of selected strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed to optimize growth [for example, assess growth in writing by using a writing portfolio and portfolio reflections]

b. set goals and identify and experiment with strategies for language growth in relation to formal and informal personal communications [for example, working in a group or taking a leadership role in a club]

c. identify and access learning sources and opportunities; assess, weigh and manage risk; and demonstrate a willingness to continuously learn and grow

General Outcome 2 (10-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend literature and other texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, and respond personally, critically and creatively.
2.1 Construct meaning from text and context
2.1.1 Discern and analyze context

a. identify a variety of texts, purposes for creating texts and audiences [for example, purposes could include to inform, persuade, entertain or inspire]

b. identify features of a text that provide information about the text [for example, specialized terminology, jargon, acronyms and idioms]

c. describe elements found in a variety of communication situations, and explain how these elements influence the creation of texts [for example, constraints of time and space, issues of gender and culture, whether or not the audience is present in the communication situation]

d. identify the impact that personal context - experience, prior knowledge - has on constructing meaning from a text

2.1.2 Understand and interpret content 

a. use a variety of strategies to comprehend literature and other texts [for example, reading passages out loud, forming questions, making predictions, using context to determine the connotative meanings of words, using graphic organizers, making annotations, inferring, rereading, seeking assistance, using context clues, summarizing and visualizing], develop a daily practice of reading [for example, paired reading, reading log, nightly reading, taped reading], and develop strategies for close reading

b. identify a text's controlling idea, supporting ideas and supporting details

c. retell the plot of a narrative, describe its setting, and identify the conflict developed

d. describe the personality traits, attitudes and relationships of characters developed/persons presented in works of literature and other texts

e. identify a text creator's tone

f. differentiate between literal and figurative statements, describe images developed in texts, and recognize imagery

g. identify visual elements [such as photographs, lists, tables, graphs, charts and other displays] and aural elements [such as sound effects, music and rhythm] that add meaning to texts

h. differentiate between audience response to the content of a presentation and audience response to the performance of the presenter

2.1.3 Engage prior knowledge

a. reflect on and describe strategies used to engage prior knowledge as a means of assisting comprehension of new texts; and select, monitor and modify strategies as needed

b. describe personal expectations for texts to be studied, by recalling prior experiences with and observations about similar contexts and content

c. recall prior knowledge of the development of textual elements in previously studied texts [such as plot, setting and character] to assist in understanding new texts

2.1.4 Use reference strategies and reference technologies

a. use a variety of appropriate reference strategies and reference technologies to aid understanding [for example, formulating and refining questions, exploring works cited in other references, taking notes, and using library catalogues and Internet search engines]

b. create and use own reference materials to aid understanding [for example, a personalized dictionary/glossary and a personalized World Wide Web/URL address list]

2.2 Understand and appreciate textual forms, elements and techniques
2.2.1 Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content

a. identify common text forms and their purposes, including communications forms [such as letters and memoranda] and literary forms [such as poems, narratives and dramatizations]

b. describe audience factors that may have influenced a text creator's choice of form and medium [for example, age, gender and culture of the audience]

c. identify and describe organizational patterns and structural features that contribute to purpose and content [such as the use of chronology to structure a narrative and the use of categories and headings to structure a report]

d. identify and describe the characteristics of various common communications media [such as the use of headlines in newspapers, and menus and tabs in Internet Web pages]

2.2.2 Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects 

a. identify rhetorical devices [such as repetition] and stylistic techniques [such as straightforward sentence structures] that create clarity, coherence and emphasis in print and nonprint texts

b. identify aspects of a text that are effective in the creation of atmosphere [such as setting, music, lighting and choice of words]

c. recognize irony and humour in print and nonprint texts, and identify language and ideas used to create irony and humour

d. recognize the use of simile and metaphor in print and nonprint texts, and describe their effects [for example, in making comparisons and evoking images]

e. explain the contribution of symbol to theme

f. recognize elements of effective oral, visual and multimedia presentations [such as movement, gesture, use of space, shape and colour]; and describe their effects

g. identify persuasive techniques used in a variety of print and nonprint texts [for example, appealing to emotion and citing experts]

2.3 Respond to a variety of print and nonprint texts
2.3.1 Connect self, text, culture and milieu

a. identify and consider personal moral and ethical perspectives, as well as cultural perspectives, when studying literature and other texts; and reflect on and monitor how perspectives change as a result of interpretation and discussion

b. respond personally and analytically to ideas developed in literature and other texts

c. compare choices and motives of characters and people portrayed in texts with choices and motives of self and others

d. recognize Canadian content in texts, and describe contextual elements that represent Canadian culture

2.3.2 Evaluate the verisimilitude, appropriateness and significance of print and nonprint texts

a. identify criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of texts, monitor the effectiveness of the criteria, and modify the criteria as needed [for example, use criteria to assess the adequacy, relevance and effectiveness of content nd to assess the text creator's voice and style]

b. assess the appropriateness of own and others' understandings and interpretations of works of literature and other texts, by referring to the works and texts for supporting or contradictory evidence

c. describe settings and plots in terms of created reality and plausibility

d. describe character and characterization in terms of consistency of behaviour, motivation and plausibility

e. describe images in print and nonprint texts in terms of created reality and appropriateness to purpose

f. assess the significance of a text's theme or controlling idea, and the effectiveness of the content in terms of adequate and relevant supporting details, examples or illustrations

2.3.3 Appreciate the effectiveness and artistry of print and nonprint texts

a. recognize that texts can be effective and artistic, and use terminology appropriate to the forms studied for discussing and appreciating the effectiveness and artistry of a variety of texts

b. describe the effectiveness of various texts, including media texts, for presenting feelings, ideas and information, and for evoking response

General Outcome 3 (10-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.
3.1 Determine inquiry or research requirements
3.1.1 Focus on purpose and presentation form

a. reflect on and describe strategies to determine the depth and breadth of inquiry or research and to identify the purpose, audience and potential forms of presentation [for example, define parameters of inquiry or research, analyze available resources, create a timeline to guide inquiry or research, and understand purpose and audience]

b. describe the purpose of inquiry or research and the scope of the inquiry or research topic; identify the target audience; and identify the potential form for the presentation of inquiry or research findings, when applicable [such as a narrative, report, diary entry or biography]

c. refine the purpose of inquiry or research by limiting or expanding the topic as appropriate

3.1.2 Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources

a. reflect on and describe strategies for developing an inquiry or research plan that will foster understanding, select and monitor appropriate strategies, and modify strategies as needed to plan inquiry or research effectively [for example, use a research journal to keep and record reflections on the research process, clarify thinking, revisit initial perceptions and ask questions that lead to new research]

b. develop an appropriate inquiry or research plan that will address the topic and satisfy contextual requirements - purpose, audience and situation - and requirements of presentation form

c. determine the breadth and depth of prior knowledge, and formulate questions to determine information needs and to guide the collection of required information

d. identify information sources intended to fill gaps between prior knowledge and required information

e. identify and select potential strategies and technologies for gathering, generating and recording information [for example, outlining, webbing, taking notes in point form, recording sources accurately during information gathering, writing direct quotations correctly and bookmarking Internet sites]

3.2 Follow a plan of inquiry
3.2.1 Select, record and organize information

a. reflect on and describe strategies that may be used to select, record and organize information; select and monitor appropriate strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed

b. select information and other material appropriate to purpose from a variety of print and nonprint sources [for example, from museums, archives, government agencies, periodicals, microfiche, Internet, CD-ROMs, films, television and radio broadcasts, interviews, surveys, and print and online encyclopedias]

c. record information accurately and completely; and document and reference sources, as appropriate [for example, document direct quotations, others' ideas and arguments, maps, charts, statistics, pictures and diagrams from books, magazines, bibliographies, newspapers, audiovisual materials, electronic sources, interviews and films to avoid plagiarism]

d. organize information logically [such as by question, by category, by chronology or by cause and effect]

e. observe guidelines for Internet use [for example, keep passwords, telephone numbers and addresses confidential; visit appropriate sites; respect copyright; and observe rules for citing Internet sources, following correct procedures to avoid plagiarism]

3.2.2 Evaluate sources, and assess information

a. reflect on and describe strategies to evaluate information sources for credibility and bias and for quality; and select, monitor and modify strategies as needed to evaluate sources and detect bias

b. assess information sources for appropriateness to purpose, audience and presentation form

c. assess the accuracy, completeness, currency and relevance of information selected from sources; and assess the appropriateness of the information for purpose

d. identify and describe possible biases of sources [such as possible biases of text creators]

3.2.3 Form generalizations and conclusions

a. form generalizations by integrating new information with prior knowledge

b. draw conclusions that are appropriate to findings, reflect own understandings and are consistent with the identified topic, purpose and situation

c. distinguish between support and generalization, and provide support for generalizations and conclusions

3.2.4 Review inquiry or research process and findings

a. reflect on and assess the effectiveness of strategies used to guide inquiry or research [such as the effective use of time and the division of labour when involved in group research]

b. identify strategies to improve future inquiry or research, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies

c. review the appropriateness, accuracy and significance of findings, conclusions and generalizations drawn from gathered data and information; prepare a detailed record of references; determine how best to share the information; and determine next steps, if any

d. seek feedback from others and use own reflections to evaluate the entire inquiry or research process, strive for craftsmanship and accuracy, and take pride in efforts and accomplishments

General Outcome 4 (10-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to create oral, print, visual and multimedia texts, and enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.
4.1 Develop and present a variety of print and nonprint texts
4.1.1 Assess text creation context

a. reflect on the purposes for text creation [for example, to inform, explain, persuade, entertain or inspire] and on own motives for selecting strategies to engage an audience [for example, to communicate information, promote action or build relationships]; and consider potential consequences of choices regarding text creation [for example, follow-up action may be required to clarify information, a position may need to be defended and opposing viewpoints addressed, and tone and style must be appropriate for intended audience]

b. identify the purpose and target audience for text creation, and select strategies to accomplish the purpose and engage the audience [for example, plan a campaign - public relations, advertising or lobbying - identifying the text forms to be used to influence the attitudes of the audience with respect to the chosen issue]

c. identify and address audience factors that affect text creation [such as age, prior knowledge, gender, culture, values, interests, attitudes, position of authority and power of decision]

d. identify expectations and constraints of a communication situation, including assignment parameters, expected standards of quality and availability of resources; and select strategies to address expectations and constraints [for example, paraphrase assignment instructions to identify tasks; seek clarification regarding teacher expectations, including assessment criteria related to quality standards; assess supplies and resources needed; and develop a work plan for completion, which includes a timeline]

4.1.2 Consider and address form, structure and medium

a. select a text form appropriate to the purpose for text creation and consistent with the content to be presented in the text [for example, select a photo essay for the purpose of creating a persuasive or informative text when the content to be presented is well suited to the creation of a visual text]

b. identify and use structures consistent with form, content and purpose when creating texts [for example, chronological order to structure events in a narrative, and juxtaposed images to suggest contrast in a poster]

c. identify and use a medium appropriate to content and context

d. understand the concept of convention; and apply it to oral, print, visual and multimedia text forms when appropriate [for example, understand the common conventions of a modern play script; and include dialogue, stage directions, and directions for lighting and sound effects when creating a script, as appropriate]

4.1.3 Develop content

a. take ownership of text creation, by selecting or crafting a topic, concept or idea that is personally meaningful and engaging

b. recognize and assess personal variables [such as personal experience and prior knowledge] and contextual variables [such as availability of time and resources] that influence the selection of a topic, concept or idea; and address these variables to increase the likelihood of successful text creation

c. establish a focus for text creation, and communicate scope by framing an effective controlling idea or describing a strong unifying effect

d. develop supporting details, by using developmental aids appropriate to form and purpose [for example, use thought webs/mind maps to collect ideas and make connections when writing a personal response to literature, or use a think-aloud reading strategy to make notes from informational text when writing a summary]

e. develop content appropriate to purpose [for example, relate supporting information and examples to conclusions when creating a written or oral report; and relate imagery, use of metaphor and use of musical devices to purpose when developing a poem]

f. develop content appropriate to audience and situation [for example, use descriptive details to capture events in a narrative, and craft rich visual images to develop a video that will engage an audience]

g. incorporate appropriate examples from personal experience into created texts, when appropriate

4.1.4 Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent with context

a. meet production, publication and display requirements for print texts as appropriate to purpose, audience and situation [for example, consider layout, font and visuals, costs and timelines when publishing a brochure]

b. develop presentation materials; and select strategies and technologies appropriate to purpose, audience and situation [for example, use technologies such as presentation software, videos, CD-ROMs, DVDs, audiotaped interviews and handouts]

c. develop and deliver oral, visual and multimedia presentations, using voice production factors [such as volume, tone and stress], nonverbal factors [such as gestures, posture, distance and eye contact] and visual production factors [such as colour and contrast] appropriate to purpose, audience and situation

d. experiment with various strategies to create rapport between the presenter and the audience [for example, use personal anecdotes and examples, ask questions to involve the audience, and use engaging body language]

4.2 Improve thoughtfulness, effectiveness and correctness of communication
4.2.1 Enhance thought and understanding and support and detail

a. identify the controlling idea or desired unifying effect of a text in progress [for example, in a rehearsal, mock-up or draft]

b. review the accuracy, specificity and precision of details, events, images, facts or other data intended to support a controlling idea or to develop a unifying effect; and add to details, events, images, facts or other data as needed to provide sufficient support or development [for example, use a revision strategy such as the Five R's to read, react, rework, reflect and refine work]

c. assess own critical/analytical responses for consistency, completeness and relevance of evidence; and strengthen reasoning as needed by adding to, modifying or deleting details to provide reliable and pertinent evidence and make effective arguments [for example, work with a small group to use a revision strategy like Workshop Advice, where each person in the group provides one suggestion for a sentence change]

4.2.2 Enhance organization

a. assess the beginning of a text in progress, and revise it as needed to establish purpose [for example, the exposition of a narrative, the initial stanza of a poem, or the introduction of a written or oral report]

b. review the organizational components of a text in progress [such as paragraphs, scenes or steps in a process], and revise them as needed to strengthen their effectiveness as units of thought or experience

c. review the closing of a text in progress, and revise it as needed to strengthen its relationship to purpose [for example, to review the closing of a written text, learn two or three common structural patterns for writing conclusions, and practise writing two or three conclusions for a text in progress; then choose the most effective conclusion]

d. assess relationships among controlling idea, supporting ideas and supporting details; and strengthen relationships as needed to enhance the unity of texts [for example, to analyze these relationships write an outline for another student's completed essay and review the outline for own completed essay created by the other student]

e. assess transitions and transitional devices, and revise them as needed to strengthen coherence [for example, assess the use of repetition and balance in an essay, or fade-outs and dissolves in a video production, to create smooth transitions between elements in a text]

4.2.3 Consider and address matters of choice

a. develop a list of effective vocabulary words and stylistic choices [for example, develop a list of effective verbs, by listing all the verbs used in own text and replacing frequently used verbs with new verbs as appropriate]

b. develop the use of appropriate words and expressions [for example, use words with straightforward denotations to strengthen clarity in informative and persuasive texts, and use words with connotative meanings to evoke images in poetry and narrative texts]

c. use a variety of sentence patterns and structures appropriately [for example, use straightforward sentence structures to strengthen clarity of informative and persuasive texts, and use short sentences to indicate action in narrative texts]

d. describe the effects of own use of stylistic techniques and rhetorical devices [for example, underline effective words and phrases in written text, and describe the effects created, such as clarity and emphasis; and describe the use of sound in multimedia text in terms of the effects created, such as humour and realism]

e. recognize personal voice as a text creator, and practise various methods to develop craft [for example, to recognize voice in own writing and to develop craft, note personal preferences related to the types and number of sentences used that follow various patterns; read a section of writing from a favourite author, and note the author's use of the same and different patterns; and rewrite some sentences in own work to achieve variety, noting the effect]

4.2.4 Edit text for matters of correctness 

a. use handbooks and other tools, including electronic tools, as resources to assist with text creation [for example, dictionaries, thesauri, spell checkers and handbooks]

b. know and be able to apply basic capitalization and punctuation conventions correctly

c. know and be able to apply spelling conventions independently or with the use of a handbook or other tools, such as a list of spelling strategies or rules

d. know and be able to identify parts of speech in own and others' texts, including nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs

e. know and be able to identify parts of the sentence in own and others' texts, including subject, verb, direct object and indirect object

f. detect and correct common sentence faults - run-on sentence and unintended sentence fragment

g. identify and be able to use common sentence structures correctly - simple, compound,complex and compound-complex

h. pay particular attention to punctuation, spelling, grammar, usage and sentence construction when using unfamiliar vocabulary, complex syntax and sophisticated rhetorical devices

i. assess strengths and areas of need [for example, develop a checklist of skills mastered and skills to be developed, and set goals for language growth]

j. explain why certain communication situations demand particular attention to correctness of punctuation, spelling, grammar, usage and sentence construction

General Outcome 5 (10-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others. 
5.1 Respect others and strengthen community
5.1.1 Use language and image to show respect and consideration

a. monitor own use of verbal and nonverbal communication in order to convey respect and consideration, as appropriate [for example, use euphemism and body language appropriately and sensitively]

b. analyze and describe language and images used in literature and other texts to convey respectful and considerate, or disrespectful and inconsiderate, perspectives and attitudes [for example, stereotyping that contributes to negative portrayals of characters in literature and persons in life]

c. analyze and describe positive or negative portrayals of characters in literature and persons in life, and be sensitive to the feelings of others

d. analyze and describe verbal and nonverbal communication that contributes to the inclusion or exclusion of individuals involved in a communication situation, and use verbal and nonverbal communication that is inclusive of other individuals [for example, use allusions and acronyms that will be familiar to an audience, and use gender inclusive nouns and pronouns]

e. differentiate between constructive criticism and ridicule, and between irony and sarcasm [for example, seek clarification by asking questions]

5.1.2 Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective 

a. appreciate diversity of thought and expression, select and monitor appropriate strategies for appreciating diversity, and modify selected strategies as needed

b. describe the ways in which selected works of literature and other print and nonprint texts influence individual and group values and behaviours

c. identify the underlying assumptions reflected in the ideas and opinions presented in a text

5.1.3 Recognize accomplishments and events 

a. use language and image to honour own and others' accomplishments [for example, celebrate together when classmates have accomplished a particular task or produced, published or presented a particular text; or celebrate the completion of a portfolio with family and friends by holding a "portfolio launch"]

b. identify formal and informal ways in which language and image are used appropriately to honour people and to celebrate events [for example, eulogy, toast and public service announcements]

5.2 Work within a group
5.2.1 Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes

a. set appropriate personal goals for participation in a group; respect, be open to, and be supportive of the thoughts, opinions and contributions of others in a group; and share personal knowledge, expertise and perspectives with others, as appropriate

b. reflect on and describe strategies used to negotiate, coordinate and cooperate with others; select appropriate strategies for negotiating, coordinating and cooperating with others; monitor selected strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed to accomplish group goals

c. ensure that a team's purpose and objectives are clear

5.2.2 Understand and evaluate group processes 

a. develop and use criteria to monitor and assess group processes [such as division of labour and time management]

b. understand the various potential roles and responsibilities of group members [such as researcher and presenter; director and participant; and chairperson, recorder and timekeeper; or roles of Aboriginal Elders in teaching about the medicine wheel and about respect, humility, kindness, sharing, honesty, faith and perseverance], and appreciate the contribution that these roles make to group processes

c. identify and use various means to facilitate completion of group projects [for example, establish clear purposes and procedures for solving problems, monitor progress, and make modifications to meet stated objectives]

d. analyze the function of teamwork tools [such as checklists, role descriptors, timelines and flow charts, whiteboards for brainstorming, electronic list servers, agendas, and meeting notes], and use such tools as appropriate

ELA 20-1 
General Outcome 1 (20-1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences. 
1.1 Discover possibilities
1.1.1 Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions

a. generate and experiment with strategies that contribute to forming tentative understandings, interpretations and positions [for example, posing questions, suspending prejudgement as appropriate, recognizing that initial interpretations and positions may be inaccurate and incomplete, and recognizing that texts may be inaccurate, misleading or ambiguous]

b. assess the potential of understandings, interpretations and positions on ideas and issues communicated by literature and other texts by connecting own and others' explorations, and by exploring additional aspects of these texts

1.1.2 Experiment with language, image and structure

a. experiment with language, image and structure to create different effects in particular situations and for particular purposes and audiences [for example, present the same information to two different audiences, and make appropriate changes to the content to suit the audiences]

b. experiment with a variety of strategies, activities and resources to explore ideas, observations, opinions, experiences and emotions [for example, stream-of-consciousness writing, free verse poetry, exploratory talk and improvisation]

1.2 Extend awareness
1.2.1 Consider new perspectives

a. select appropriate strategies to extend awareness and understanding of new perspectives, monitor their effectiveness, and modify them as needed [for example, record new understandings in a learning log; develop new group perspectives using a fish bowl organization]

b. compare own ideas, perspectives and interpretations with those of others, through a variety of means, to expand perceptions and understandings when exploring and responding to texts [for example, pro-con charts, alternative Internet search engines, comparison tables and think-pair-share charts]

1.2.2 Express preferences, and expand interests

a. reflect on personal text preferences, identify influences that have contributed to the formation of these preferences, and select strategies that may be used to expand interests in texts and text creators [for example, complete and share reading inventories, and examine the role marketing plays in shaping popular culture]

b. expand interests in a range of genres and in a variety of texts and text creators, and explain how the content and style of various texts appeal to audiences with particular interests and preferences [for example, various versions of the same text]

1.2.3 Set personal goals for language growth

a. appraise own strengths and weaknesses as a language user and language learner; select appropriate strategies to increase strengths and address weaknesses; monitor the effectiveness of selected strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed to optimize growth [for example, assess growth in writing by using a writing portfolio and portfolio reflections]

b. set goals and employ strategies for language growth in relation to formal and informal personal communications and community involvement [for example, auditioning for a play or applying to be a volunteer]

c. identify and access learning sources and opportunities; assess, weigh and manage risk; and demonstrate a willingness to continuously learn and grow

General Outcome 2 (20-1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend literature and other texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, and respond personally, critically and creatively.
2.1 Construct meaning from text and context
2.1.1 Discern and analyze context

a. describe the text creator's purpose, and analyze the target audience

b. describe how societal forces can influence the production of texts [for example, current issues and trends]

c. explain the relationship between text and context in terms of how elements in an environment can affect the way in which a text is created [for example, the historical context in which the text is written; gender-biased language can provide information about the context in which a text was created in terms of dominant culture]

d. identify the impact that personal context - experience, prior knowledge - has on constructing meaning from a text

2.1.2 Understand and interpret content

a. use a variety of strategies to comprehend literature and other texts [for example, reading passages out loud, forming questions, making predictions, using context to determine the connotative meanings of words, using graphic organizers and making annotations], and develop strategies for close reading of literature in order to understand contextual elements [for example, understanding subtext]

b. describe how supporting ideas and supporting details strengthen a text's controlling idea

c. describe the relationships among plot, setting, character, atmosphere and theme when studying a narrative

d. compare the personality traits, roles, relationships, motivations, attitudes, values and archetypal qualities, when appropriate, of characters developed/persons presented in literature and other texts

e. describe a text creator's tone and register; and identify the moral and ethical stance communicated by a text

f. interpret figurative language, symbol and allusions; recognize imagery; and explain how imagery contributes to atmosphere, characterization and theme in a text

g. analyze visual and aural elements, and explain how they contribute to the meaning of texts

h. describe the relationship between audience response to the content of a presentation and audience response to the performance of the presenter

2.1.3 Engage prior knowledge 

a. reflect on and describe strategies used to engage prior knowledge as a means of assisting comprehension of new texts; and select, monitor and modify strategies as needed

b. assess personal expectations for texts to be studied in light of prior experiences with and observations about similar contexts, content and text forms

c. use metacognitive strategies to understand how knowledge of rhetorical devices, textual elements and structures used in previously studied texts contributes to understanding new texts

d. classify the genre/form of new texts according to attributes of genres/forms previously studied

2.1.4 Use reference strategies and reference technologies 

a. use a variety of appropriate reference strategies and reference technologies to aid understanding [for example, formulating and refining questions, exploring works cited in other references, taking notes, and using library catalogues and Internet search engines]

b. create and use own reference materials to aid understanding [for example, a personalized dictionary/glossary and a personalized World Wide Web/URL address list]

2.2 Understand and appreciate textual forms, elements and techniques
2.2.1 Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content

a. identify a variety of text forms, including communications forms and literary forms [for example, letters, memoranda, poems, narratives and dramatizations]; and describe the relationships of form to purpose and content

b. describe audience factors that may have influenced a text creator's choice of form and medium [for example, age, gender and culture of the audience]

c. explain how a variety of organizational patterns and structural features contribute to purpose and content

d. analyze the effect of medium on message

2.2.2 Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects 

a. explain how rhetorical devices and stylistic techniques used in print and nonprint texts create clarity, coherence and emphasis

b. explain how various textual elements and stylistic techniques contribute to the creation of atmosphere, tone and voice [for example, qualification and interrupted movement]

c. analyze the use of irony and satire to create effects in print and nonprint texts [for example, dramatic irony to create suspense, verbal irony to create humour, and satire to evoke response]

d. describe the effects of musical devices, figures of speech and sensory details in print and nonprint texts [for example, alliteration used to create emphasis, metaphor used to evoke images, and sensory details used to evoke pathos]

e. explain the contribution of motif and symbol to controlling idea and theme

f. differentiate between effective and ineffective presentations, and analyze the differences

g. analyze persuasive techniques used in a variety of print and nonprint texts

2.3 Respond to a variety of print and nonprint texts
2.3.1 Connect self, text, culture and milieu

a. identify and consider personal, moral, ethical and cultural perspectives when studying literature and other texts; and reflect on and monitor how perspectives change as a result of interpretation and discussion

b. respond personally and analytically to ideas developed in works of literature and other texts; and analyze the ways in which ideas are reflected in personal and cultural opinions, values, beliefs and perspectives

c. explain how the choices and motives of characters and people presented in texts may provide insight into the choices and motives of self and others

d. identify and examine ways in which cultural and societal influences are reflected in a variety of Canadian and international texts

2.3.2 Evaluate the verisimilitude, appropriateness and significance of print and nonprint texts 

a. identify criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of texts, monitor the effectiveness of the criteria, and modify the criteria as needed [for example, use criteria to assess the adequacy, relevance and effectiveness of content and to assess the text creator's voice and style]

b. assess the appropriateness of own and others' understandings and interpretations of works of literature and other texts, by referring to the works and texts for supporting or contradictory evidence

c. analyze and assess settings and plots in terms of created reality and plausibility [for example, determine the authenticity of the setting of a work of historical fiction]

d. analyze and assess character and characterization in terms of consistency of behaviour, motivation and plausibility, and in terms of contribution to theme [for example, determine the meanings suggested by a change in a character's behaviour or values]

e. analyze and assess images in print and nonprint texts in terms of created reality and appropriateness to purpose and audience

f. assess the significance of a text's theme or controlling idea, and the adequacy, relevance and effectiveness of its supporting details, examples or illustrations, and content in general

2.3.3 Appreciate the effectiveness and artistry of print and nonprint texts

a. use terminology appropriate to the forms studied for discussing and appreciating the effectiveness and artistry of a variety of text forms

b. describe the effectiveness of various texts, including media texts, for presenting feelings, ideas and information, and for evoking response

General Outcome 3 (20-1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.
3.1 Determine inquiry or research requirements
3.1.1 Focus on purpose and presentation form

a. select and monitor the effectiveness of strategies to determine the depth and breadth of inquiry or research and to identify the purpose, audience and form of presentation

b. describe the purpose of inquiry or research and the scope of the inquiry or research topic; identify the target audience; and identify the potential form for the presentation of inquiry or research findings, when applicable [such as a narrative, report, diary entry or biography]

c. refine the purpose of inquiry or research by limiting or expanding the topic as appropriate

3.1.2 Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources

a. reflect on and describe strategies for developing an inquiry or research plan that will foster understanding, select and monitor appropriate strategies, and modify strategies as needed to plan inquiry or research effectively [for example, use a research journal to keep and record reflections on the research process, clarify thinking, revisit initial perceptions and ask questions that lead to new research]

b. select from a repertoire of effective strategies to develop appropriate inquiry or research plans that will address the topic and satisfy contextual and presentation requirements [for example, questions within questions, inquiry charts, preliminary interviews, and consultations with the teacher and/or librarian]

c. determine the breadth and depth of prior knowledge, and formulate questions to determine and categorize information needs and to guide the collection of required information [for example, a chart to demonstrate what is already known and what needs to be learned]

d. identify and predict the usefulness of information sources intended to fill gaps between prior knowledge and required information [for example, whether or not a survey or interview will be useful]

e. identify and select potential strategies and technologies for gathering, generating and recording information [for example, outlining, webbing, taking notes in point form, recording sources accurately during information gathering, writing direct quotations correctly and bookmarking Internet sites]

3.2 Follow a plan of inquiry
3.2.1 Select, record and organize information

a. reflect on and describe strategies that may be used to select, record and organize information; select and monitor appropriate strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed

b. select information and other material appropriate to purpose from a variety of print and nonprint sources [for example, from museums, archives, government agencies, periodicals, microfiche, Internet, CD-ROMs, films, television and radio broadcasts, interviews, surveys, and print and online encyclopedias]

c. record information accurately and completely; and document and reference sources, as appropriate [for example, document direct quotations, others' ideas and arguments, maps, charts, statistics, pictures and diagrams from books, magazines, bibliographies, newspapers, audiovisual materials, electronic sources, interviews and films to avoid plagiarism]

d. organize information logically [such as by question, by category, by chronology or by cause and effect]

e. observe guidelines for Internet use [for example, keep passwords, telephone numbers and addresses confidential; visit appropriate sites; respect copyright; and observe rules for citing Internet sources, following correct procedures to avoid plagiarism]

3.2.2 Evaluate sources, and assess information

a. reflect on and describe strategies to evaluate information sources for credibility and bias and for quality; and select, monitor and modify strategies as needed to evaluate sources and detect bias

b. assess information sources for appropriateness to purpose, audience and presentation form

c. assess the accuracy, completeness, currency and relevance of information selected from sources; and assess the appropriateness of the information for purpose

d. identify and describe possible biases of sources, and describe the possible effects of such biases on the credibility of information [for example, examine the credibility of the author or organization, the proportion of verifiable facts to generalizations, or the sponsor/author/purpose/date of a Web site]

3.2.3 Form generalizations and conclusions

a. form generalizations by integrating new information with prior knowledge

b. draw conclusions that are appropriate to findings, reflect own understandings and are consistent with the identified topic, purpose and situation

c. distinguish between support and generalization, and provide support for generalizations and conclusions

3.2.4 Review inquiry or research process and findings

a. reflect on and assess the effectiveness of strategies used to guide inquiry or research [such as the effective use of time and the division of labour when involved in group research]

b. identify strategies to improve future inquiry or research, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies

c. review the appropriateness, accuracy and significance of findings, conclusions and generalizations drawn from gathered data and information; prepare a detailed record of references; determine how best to share the information; and determine next steps, if any

d. seek feedback from others and use own reflections to evaluate the entire inquiry or research process, strive for craftsmanship and accuracy, and take pride in efforts and accomplishments

General Outcome 4 (20-1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to create oral, print, visual and multimedia texts, and enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.
4.1 Develop and present a variety of print and nonprint texts
4.1.1 Assess text creation context 

a. reflect on the purposes for text creation [for example, to inform, explain, persuade, entertain or inspire] and on own motives for selecting strategies to engage an audience [for example, to communicate information, promote action or build relationships]; and consider potential consequences of choices regarding text creation [for example, follow-up action may be required to clarify information, a position may need to be defended and opposing viewpoints addressed, and tone and style must be appropriate for intended audience]

b. identify purpose and target audience for text creation, and select strategies to accomplish purpose and engage audience [for example, plan a campaign - public relations, advertising or lobbying - identifying the text forms to be used to influence the attitudes of the audience with respect to the chosen issue]

c. address audience factors that affect text creation [for example, reread parts of a text and refine work, when creating the good copy of a personal response to literature, in order to address suggestions made at a peer conference about areas that were overlooked]

d. analyze expectations and constraints of a communication situation, and select preferred strategies to address expectations and constraints [for example, when making a presentation, watch audience cues to determine background knowledge of the subject area, and provide additional information as required; request extra time in advance if time is a constraint]

4.1.2 Consider and address form, structure and medium

a. select a text form appropriate to the purpose for text creation and consistent with the content to be presented in the text [for example, select a photo essay to demonstrate a personal or critical/analytical response to poetry or other literature when the content to be presented is well suited to the creation of a visual text]

b. explore a variety of structures consistent with form, content and purpose when creating texts [for example, explore definition, example and illustration, classification and other methods of development consistent with the essay form when creating an essay]

c. select an effective medium appropriate to content and context, and explain its use [for example, select a medium such as print advertisements in magazines, and explain the use of this medium to sell merchandise; explore the content of the advertisements in terms of the messages and values communicated; and explain the context, including audience and purpose]

d. understand the concept of convention; and apply it to oral, print, visual and multimedia text forms when appropriate [for example, understand the common conventions of a modern play script; and include dialogue, stage directions, and directions for lighting and sound effects when creating a script, as appropriate]

4.1.3 Develop content 

a. take ownership of text creation, by selecting or crafting a topic, concept or idea that is personally meaningful and engaging

b. recognize and assess personal variables [such as personal experience and prior knowledge] and contextual variables [such as availability of time and resources] that influence the selection of a topic, concept or idea; and address these variables to increase the likelihood of successful text creation

c. establish a focus for text creation, and communicate scope by framing an effective controlling idea or describing a strong unifying effect

d. develop supporting details, by using developmental aids appropriate to form and purpose [for example, use charts to collect and assemble details in creating character comparisons when developing a comparison and contrast essay, or use a think-aloud reading strategy to make notes from informational text when writing a summary]

e. develop content to support a controlling idea or to produce a unifying effect [for example, condense information, summarize content and define a thesis statement to construct a précis of a magazine article]

f. develop content appropriate to form and context [for example, provide grounds and evidence to construct an argument, and use chronological order in an informal essay to write a factual narrative account of a personal experience]

g. incorporate effective examples from personal experience, concepts and ideas from exploration, and findings from inquiry and research into created texts, when appropriate [for example, incorporate visual aids in a prepared speech and taped sound effects in a dramatization of a scene from a play]

4.1.4 Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent with context 

a. meet particular production, publication and display requirements for print texts [for example, adhere to a particular manuscript style when creating a research paper]; and explain requirements in light of purpose, audience and situation

b. adapt presentation materials, strategies and technologies to suit purpose, audience and situation [for example, increase audience participation in a lecture by providing a notetaking frame]

c. develop and deliver oral, visual and multimedia presentations, using voice production factors [such as volume, tone and stress], nonverbal factors [such as gestures, posture, distance and eye contact] and visual production factors [such as colour and contrast] appropriate to purpose, audience and situation

d. develop a repertoire of effective strategies that can be used to create rapport with an audience [for example, use personal anecdotes and examples]

4.2 Improve thoughtfulness, effectiveness and correctness of communication
4.2.1 Enhance thought and understanding and support and detail 

a. assess the effectiveness of the controlling idea or desired unifying effect of a text in progress, and refine the controlling idea or desired unifying effect as appropriate to meet the intended purpose

b. review the accuracy, specificity, precision, vividness and relevance of details, events, images, facts or other data intended to support a controlling idea or to develop a unifying effect; and add to, modify or delete details, events, images, facts or other data as needed to provide complete and effective support or development

c. assess reasoning for logic and evidence for consistency, completeness and relevance; and strengthen reasoning as needed by adding to, modifying or deleting details to provide significant evidence and make effective and convincing arguments [for example, work with a small group to use a revision strategy like Workshop Advice, where each person in the group provides one suggestion for a sentence change]

d. assess the plausibility and appropriateness of literary interpretations and the precision, completeness and relevance of evidence when reviewing and revising critical/analytical responses to literature

4.2.2 Enhance organization 

a. assess the beginning of a text in progress, and revise it as needed to establish purpose and engage audience [for example, the thesis statement of an essay, the initial monologue of a script, or the statement of purpose of a proposal]

b. assess the organizational components of a text in progress, and revise them as needed to strengthen their effectiveness as units of thought or experience or to strengthen their contribution to other intended effects [such as emphasis or transition]

c. assess the closing of a text in progress; and revise it as needed to ensure that it is related to purpose, that it establishes a sense of developed understanding and that it will have an appropriate effect on audience

d. assess relationships among controlling idea, supporting ideas and supporting details; and strengthen relationships as needed to enhance the unity of texts

e. assess transitions and transitional devices, and revise them as needed to strengthen coherence [for example, assess the use of repetition and balance in an essay, or fade-outs and dissolves in a video production, to create smooth transitions between elements in a text]

4.2.3 Consider and address matters of choice

a. reflect on personal vocabulary and repertoire of stylistic choices and on their effectiveness; and expand vocabulary and repertoire of stylistic choices

b. assess the appropriateness and effectiveness of diction, and revise word choice as needed to create intended effects

c. assess syntax for appropriateness and effectiveness, and revise sentence structures as needed to create intended effects

d. apply understanding of stylistic techniques and rhetorical devices when creating print and nonprint texts [for example, use imagery to create pathos, use parallel structure to create emphasis, and use sound in multimedia texts to create humour]

e. recognize personal voice in texts created; and continue to develop personal craft through practice, using various methods

4.2.4 Edit text for matters of correctness

a. use handbooks and other tools, including electronic tools, as resources to assist with text creation [for example, dictionaries, thesauri, spell checkers and handbooks]

b. know and be able to apply capitalization and punctuation conventions correctly, including end punctuation, commas, semicolons, colons, apostrophes, quotation marks, hyphens, dashes, ellipses, parentheses, underlining and italics

c. know and be able to apply spelling conventions consistently and independently

d. understand the importance of grammatical agreement; and assess and revise texts in progress to ensure correctness of grammatical agreement, including correct pronoun reference and pronoun-antecedent agreement, and correct use of modifiers and other parts of speech

e. assess and revise texts in progress to ensure correct subject-verb agreement, correct pronoun case and appropriate consistency of verb tense

f. use unconventional punctuation, spelling and sentence structure for effect, when appropriate [for example, use nonstandard spelling to indicate dialect, and use sentence fragments for emphasis, when appropriate]

g. assess and revise texts in progress to ensure the correct use of clauses and phrases, including verbal phrases (participle, gerund and infinitive), and to ensure the correct use of structural features [such as appositives and parallel structure]

h. pay particular attention to punctuation, spelling, grammar, usage and sentence construction when using unfamiliar vocabulary, complex syntax and sophisticated rhetorical devices

i. assess strengths and areas of need [for example, develop a checklist of skills mastered and skills to be developed, and set goals for language growth]

General Outcome 5 (20-1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others. 
5.1 Respect others and strengthen community
5.1.1 Use language and image to show respect and consideration

a. monitor own use of verbal and nonverbal communication in order to convey respect and consideration, as appropriate [for example, use euphemism and body language appropriately and sensitively]

b. explain how language and images are used in literature and other texts to convey respectful and considerate, or disrespectful and inconsiderate, perspectives and attitudes [for example, parody or journalistic bias in print, visual and multimedia texts]

c. analyze and describe positive or negative portrayals of characters in literature and persons in life, and be sensitive to the feelings of others

d. analyze behavioural expectations of a communication situation, explain how verbal and nonverbal communication contributes to the inclusion or exclusion of individuals involved in a communication situation, and use verbal and nonverbal communication that is inclusive of other individuals [for example, use empathetic listening skills when working in groups, and be aware of body language]

e. accept, offer and appreciate the value of constructive criticism [for example, use writing to respond to constructive criticism, and accept and provide feedback in a constructive and considerate manner]

f. analyze the parameters of public tolerance regarding the use of language and images in a specific text, and use appropriate language and images in communication situations

5.1.2 Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective 

a. appreciate diversity of thought and expression, select and monitor appropriate strategies for appreciating diversity, and modify selected strategies as needed

b. explain how selected works of literature and other print and nonprint texts convey, shape and, at times, challenge individual and group values and behaviours

c. analyze the relationship between a text creator's ideas and opinions and his or herunderlying assumptions [such as those deriving from ideology or social status]

5.1.3 Recognize accomplishments and events 

a. use language and image to honour own and others' accomplishments [for example, celebrate together when classmates have accomplished a particular task or produced, published or presented a particular text; or celebrate the completion of a portfolio with family and friends by holding a "portfolio launch"]

b. describe various means by which language and image are used appropriately to honour people and to celebrate events, and explain how these means of using language and image help to build community [for example, heritage day; wall of honour or photography exhibit; and naming ceremonies, religious ceremonies and prayers of First Nations and Aboriginal peoples]

5.2 Work within a group
5.2.1 Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes

a. set appropriate personal goals for participation in a group; respect, be open to, and be supportive of the thoughts, opinions and contributions of others in a group; and share personal knowledge, expertise and perspectives with others, as appropriate

b. reflect on and describe strategies used to negotiate, coordinate and cooperate with others; select appropriate strategies for negotiating, coordinating and cooperating with others; monitor selected strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed to accomplish group goals

c. ensure that a team's purpose and objectives are clear

5.2.2 Understand and evaluate group processes 

a. develop and use criteria to monitor and assess group processes [such as division of labour and time management]

b. understand the various potential roles and responsibilities of group members [such as researcher and presenter; director and participant; and chairperson, recorder and timekeeper; or roles of Aboriginal Elders in teaching about the medicine wheel and about respect, humility, kindness, sharing, honesty, faith and perseverance], and appreciate the contribution that these roles make to group processes

c. identify and use various means to facilitate completion of group projects [for example, establish clear purposes and procedures for solving problems, monitor progress, and make modifications to meet stated objectives]

d. understand and appreciate the function of teamwork tools, assess how to work effectively and collaboratively as a team to accomplish a task, understand the role of conflict in a group to reach solutions, and manage and resolve conflict when appropriate

e. identify and analyze the communications needs of, and assess the working relationships among, individuals and groups involved in a variety of communications careers [such as advertising, public relations and broadcast journalism]

ELA 20-2 
General Outcome 1 (20-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences. 
1.1 Discover possibilities
1.1.1 Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions

a. generate and experiment with strategies that contribute to forming tentative understandings, interpretations and positions [for example, posing questions, suspending prejudgement as appropriate, recognizing that initial interpretations and positions may be inaccurate and incomplete, and recognizing that texts may be inaccurate, misleading or ambiguous]

b. assess the potential of understandings, interpretations and positions on ideas and issues communicated by literature and other texts by connecting own and others' explorations, and by exploring additional aspects of these texts

1.1.2 Experiment with language, image and structure

a. experiment with language, image and structure to create different effects in particular situations and for particular purposes and audiences [for example, present the same information to two different audiences, and make appropriate changes to the content to suit the audiences]

b. experiment with a variety of strategies, activities and resources to explore ideas, observations, opinions, experiences and emotions [for example, stream-of-consciousness writing, free verse poetry, exploratory talk and improvisation]

1.2 Extend awareness
1.2.1 Consider new perspectives

a. select appropriate strategies to extend awareness and understanding of new perspectives, monitor their effectiveness, and modify them as needed [for example, record new understandings in a learning log; develop new group perspectives using a fish bowl organization]

b. compare own ideas, perspectives and interpretations with those of others, through a variety of means, to expand perceptions and understandings when exploring and responding to texts [for example, pro–con charts, alternative Internet search engines, comparison tables and think-pair-share charts]

1.2.2 Express preferences, and expand interests

a. reflect on personal text preferences, identify influences that have contributed to the formation of these preferences, and select strategies that may be used to expand interests in texts and text creators [for example, complete and share reading inventories, and examine the role marketing plays in shaping popular culture]

b. expand interests in a range of genres and in a variety of texts and text creators, and explain how the content and style of various texts appeal to audiences with particular interests and preferences [for example, various versions of the same text]

1.2.3 Set personal goals for language growth

a. appraise own strengths and weaknesses as a language user and language learner; select appropriate strategies to increase strengths and address weaknesses; monitor the effectiveness of selected strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed to optimize growth [for example, assess growth in writing by using a writing portfolio and portfolio reflections]

b. set goals and employ strategies for language growth in relation to formal and informal personal communications and community involvement [for example, auditioning for a play or applying to be a volunteer]

c. identify and access learning sources and opportunities; assess, weigh and manage risk; and demonstrate a willingness to continuously learn and grow

General Outcome 2 (20-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend literature and other texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, and respond personally, critically and creatively.
2.1 Construct meaning from text and context
2.1.1 Discern and analyze context

a. paraphrase key messages in a specific text and identify elements present in the communication situation, in order to describe the text creator's purpose and target audience [for example, understand the subtext in a television commercial to know the intended audience]

b. explain how a text can be studied to understand the context - or aspects of the communication situation within which the text was created [for example, recognize that specialized terminology in a text may represent a particular occupational group and provide insight in understanding the text; understand current issues to recognize satire in a political cartoon]

c. use strategies to gain background knowledge about history and society when studying a particular text [for example, use references, including the personal experiences and understandings of teachers and elders, to help develop background knowledge of the historical period of a particular text]

d. identify the impact that personal context - experience, prior knowledge - has on constructing meaning from a text

2.1.2 Understand and interpret content 

a. use a variety of strategies to comprehend literature and other texts [for example, reading passages out loud, forming questions, making predictions, using context to determine the connotative meanings of words, using graphic organizers, making annotations, inferring, rereading, seeking assistance, using context clues, summarizing and visualizing], develop a daily practice of reading [for example, paired reading, reading log, nightly reading, taped reading], and develop strategies for close reading

b. paraphrase a text's controlling idea, and relate supporting ideas and supporting details to the controlling idea

c. develop an understanding of the relationships among plot, setting and character when studying a narrative text, by relating the text to personal experiences

d. compare the personality traits, relationships, motivations and attitudes of characters developed/persons presented in works of literature and other texts

e. describe a text creator's tone, relate tone to purpose and audience, and identify the point of view communicated by a text

f. identify figurative language [such as metaphor], symbol and familiar allusions in texts; interpret figurative language in terms of its contribution to the meaning of a text; and explain how imagery contributes to the creation of atmosphere, theme and characterization in a text

g. recognize visual and aural elements in texts, and explain how these elements add meaning to texts

h. respond to the content of a presentation; and describe the relationship, in general, between audience response to content and audience response to the performance of a presenter

2.1.3 Engage prior knowledge

a. reflect on and describe strategies used to engage prior knowledge as a means of assisting comprehension of new texts; and select, monitor and modify strategies as needed

b. assess personal expectations for texts to be studied in light of prior experiences with and observations about similar contexts, content and text forms

c. use metacognitive strategies to relate prior understandings of textual elements used in previously studied texts to understandings of new texts

2.1.4 Use reference strategies and reference technologies

a. use a variety of appropriate reference strategies and reference technologies to aid understanding [for example, formulating and refining questions, exploring works cited in other references, taking notes, and using library catalogues and Internet search engines]

b. create and use own reference materials to aid understanding [for example, a personalized dictionary/glossary and a personalized World Wide Web/URL address list]

2.2 Understand and appreciate textual forms, elements and techniques
2.2.1 Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content

a. identify a variety of text forms, including communications forms and literary forms [for example, letters, memoranda, poems, narratives and dramatizations]; and describe the relationship of form to purpose

b. describe audience factors that may have influenced a text creator's choice of form and medium [for example, age, gender and culture of the audience]

c. explain how organizational patterns and structural features contribute to purpose and content

d. analyze the effect of medium on message

2.2.2 Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects

a. identify rhetorical devices [such as repetition] and stylistic techniques [such as straightforward sentence structures] that create clarity, coherence and emphasis in print and nonprint texts

b. describe how textual elements that are effective in the creation of atmosphere are also effective in terms of tone and voice [for example, setting, music, lighting, diction, syntax and image]

c. recognize irony and humour in print and nonprint texts, and identify language and ideas used to create irony and humour

d. describe the effects of musical devices and figures of speech in print and nonprint texts [for example, personification, hyperbole, alliteration, onomatopoeia and imitative harmony]

e. explain the contribution of symbol to theme

f. differentiate between effective and ineffective presentations, identify the differences, and analyze the reasons for the differences

g. analyze persuasive techniques used in a variety of print and nonprint texts

2.3 Respond to a variety of print and nonprint texts
2.3.1 Connect self, text, culture and milieu

a. identify and consider personal moral and ethical perspectives, as well as cultural perspectives, when studying literature and other texts; and reflect on and monitor how perspectives change as a result of interpretation and discussion

b. respond personally and analytically to ideas developed in literature and other texts

c. explain how the choices and motives of characters and people presented in texts may provide insight into the choices and motives of self and others

d. respond personally and critically to cultural and societal influences presented in Canadian and international texts

2.3.2 Evaluate the verisimilitude, appropriateness and significance of print and nonprint texts

a. identify criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of texts, monitor the effectiveness of the criteria, and modify the criteria as needed [for example, use criteria to assess the adequacy, relevance and effectiveness of content nd to assess the text creator's voice and style]

b. assess the appropriateness of own and others' understandings and interpretations of works of literature and other texts, by referring to the works and texts for supporting or contradictory evidence

c. analyze and assess settings and plots in terms of created reality and plausibility [for example, determine the authenticity of the setting of a work of historical fiction]

d. analyze and assess character and characterization in terms of consistency of behaviour, motivation and plausibility, and in terms of contribution to theme [for example, determine the meanings suggested by a change in a character's behaviour or values]

e. analyze and assess images in print and nonprint texts in terms of created reality and appropriateness to purpose and audience

f. assess the significance of a text's theme or controlling idea, and the effectiveness of the content in terms of adequate and relevant supporting details, examples or illustrations

2.3.3 Appreciate the effectiveness and artistry of print and nonprint texts

a. recognize that texts can be effective and artistic, and use terminology appropriate to the forms studied for discussing and appreciating the effectiveness and artistry of a variety of texts

b. describe the effectiveness of various texts, including media texts, for presenting feelings, ideas and information, and for evoking response

General Outcome 3 (20-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.
3.1 Determine inquiry or research requirements
3.1.1 Focus on purpose and presentation form

a. select and monitor the effectiveness of strategies to determine the depth and breadth of inquiry or research and to identify the purpose, audience and form of presentation

b. describe the purpose of inquiry or research and the scope of the inquiry or research topic; identify the target audience; and identify the potential form for the presentation of inquiry or research findings, when applicable [such as a narrative, report, diary entry or biography]

c. refine the purpose of inquiry or research by limiting or expanding the topic as appropriate

3.1.2 Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources

a. reflect on and describe strategies for developing an inquiry or research plan that will foster understanding, select and monitor appropriate strategies, and modify strategies as needed to plan inquiry or research effectively [for example, use a research journal to keep and record reflections on the research process, clarify thinking, revisit initial perceptions and ask questions that lead to new research]

b. select from a repertoire of effective strategies to develop appropriate inquiry or research plans that will address the topic and satisfy contextual and presentation requirements [for example, questions within questions, inquiry charts, preliminary interviews, and consultations with the teacher and/or librarian]

c. determine the breadth and depth of prior knowledge, and formulate questions to determine and categorize information needs and to guide the collection of required information [for example, a chart to demonstrate what is already known and what needs to be learned]

d. identify and predict the usefulness of information sources intended to fill gaps between prior knowledge and required information [for example, whether or not a survey or interview will be useful]

e. identify and select potential strategies and technologies for gathering, generating and recording information [for example, outlining, webbing, taking notes in point form, recording sources accurately during information gathering, writing direct quotations correctly and bookmarking Internet sites]

3.2 Follow a plan of inquiry
3.2.1 Select, record and organize information

a. reflect on and describe strategies that may be used to select, record and organize information; select and monitor appropriate strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed

b. select information and other material appropriate to purpose from a variety of print and nonprint sources [for example, from museums, archives, government agencies, periodicals, microfiche, Internet, CD-ROMs, films, television and radio broadcasts, interviews, surveys, and print and online encyclopedias]

c. record information accurately and completely; and document and reference sources, as appropriate [for example, document direct quotations, others' ideas and arguments, maps, charts, statistics, pictures and diagrams from books, magazines, bibliographies, newspapers, audiovisual materials, electronic sources, interviews and films to avoid plagiarism]

d. organize information logically [such as by question, by category, by chronology or by cause and effect]

e. observe guidelines for Internet use [for example, keep passwords, telephone numbers and addresses confidential; visit appropriate sites; respect copyright; and observe rules for citing Internet sources, following correct procedures to avoid plagiarism]

3.2.2 Evaluate sources, and assess information

a. reflect on and describe strategies to evaluate information sources for credibility and bias and for quality; and select, monitor and modify strategies as needed to evaluate sources and detect bias

b. assess information sources for appropriateness to purpose, audience and presentation form

c. assess the accuracy, completeness, currency and relevance of information selected from sources; and assess the appropriateness of the information for purpose

d. identify and describe possible biases of sources, and describe the possible effects of such biases on the credibility of information [for example, examine the credibility of the author or organization, the proportion of verifiable facts to generalizations, or the sponsor/author/purpose/date of a Web site]

3.2.3 Form generalizations and conclusions

a. form generalizations by integrating new information with prior knowledge

b. draw conclusions that are appropriate to findings, reflect own understandings and are consistent with the identified topic, purpose and situation

c. distinguish between support and generalization, and provide support for generalizations and conclusions

3.2.4 Review inquiry or research process and findings

a. reflect on and assess the effectiveness of strategies used to guide inquiry or research [such as the effective use of time and the division of labour when involved in group research]

b. identify strategies to improve future inquiry or research, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies

c. review the appropriateness, accuracy and significance of findings, conclusions and generalizations drawn from gathered data and information; prepare a detailed record of references; determine how best to share the information; and determine next steps, if any

d. seek feedback from others and use own reflections to evaluate the entire inquiry or research process, strive for craftsmanship and accuracy, and take pride in efforts and accomplishments

General Outcome 4 (20-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to create oral, print, visual and multimedia texts, and enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.
4.1 Develop and present a variety of print and nonprint texts
4.1.1 Assess text creation context

a. reflect on the purposes for text creation [for example, to inform, explain, persuade, entertain or inspire] and on own motives for selecting strategies to engage an audience [for example, to communicate information, promote action or build relationships]; and consider potential consequences of choices regarding text creation [for example, follow-up action may be required to clarify information, a position may need to be defended and opposing viewpoints addressed, and tone and style must be appropriate for intended audience]

b. describe the purpose and target audience, and select from a repertoire of strategies to accomplish the purpose and engage the audience [for example, one purpose of a job application letter may be to persuade the employer to read the résumé; address the letter to the potential employer, using the correct name and title, and explain in the letter that you have the required skills and talents for the job]

c. address audience factors that affect text creation [for example, address comments made by peers about the lack of healthy food served in the school cafeteria while creating a photograph and paragraph to communicate own response to the issue]

d. analyze expectations and constraints of a communication situation, and select strategies to address expectations and constraints [for example, when making a presentation, request extra time in advance if time is a constraint]

4.1.2 Consider and address form, structure and medium

a. select a text form appropriate to the purpose for text creation and consistent with the content to be presented in the text [for example, select a photo essay for the purpose of creating a persuasive or informative text when the content to be presented is well suited to the creation of a visual text]

b. explore a variety of structures consistent with form, content and purpose when creating texts [for example, explore the use of background information, examples, anecdotes and other structures when creating personal essays]

c. select an effective medium appropriate to content and context, and explain its use [for example, select a medium such as print advertisements in magazines, and explain the use of this medium to sell merchandise; explore the content of the advertisements in terms of the messages and values communicated; and explain the context, including audience and purpose]

d. understand the concept of convention; and apply it to oral, print, visual and multimedia text forms when appropriate [for example, understand the common conventions of a modern play script; and include dialogue, stage directions, and directions for lighting and sound effects when creating a script, as appropriate]

4.1.3 Develop content

a. take ownership of text creation, by selecting or crafting a topic, concept or idea that is personally meaningful and engaging

b. recognize and assess personal variables [such as personal experience and prior knowledge] and contextual variables [such as availability of time and resources] that influence the selection of a topic, concept or idea; and address these variables to increase the likelihood of successful text creation

c. establish a focus for text creation, and communicate scope by framing an effective controlling idea or describing a strong unifying effect

d. develop supporting details, by using developmental aids appropriate to form and purpose [for example, use thought webs/mind maps to collect ideas and make connections when writing a personal response to literature, or use a think-aloud reading strategy to make notes from informational text when writing a summary]

e. develop content to support a controlling idea or to produce a unifying effect [for example, use a graphic organizer such as an inverted pyramid to analyze a television broadcast of a newsworthy event, to understand the structure of news stories and to identify a media theme to explore]

f. develop content appropriate to form and context [for example, provide grounds and evidence to construct an argument, and use chronological order in an autobiography to write a factual narrative account of a personal experience]

g. incorporate effective examples from personal experience, concepts and ideas from exploration, and findings from inquiry and research into created texts, when appropriate [for example, incorporate visual aids in a prepared speech and taped sound effects in a dramatization of a scene from a play]

4.1.4 Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent with context

a. meet production, publication and display requirements for print texts as appropriate to purpose, audience and situation [for example, consider layout, font and visuals, costs and timelines when publishing a brochure]

b. develop presentation materials; and select strategies and technologies appropriate to purpose, audience and situation [for example, use technologies such as presentation software, videos, CD-ROMs, DVDs, audiotaped interviews and handouts]

c. develop and deliver oral, visual and multimedia presentations, using voice production factors [such as volume, tone and stress], nonverbal factors [such as gestures, posture, distance and eye contact] and visual production factors [such as colour and contrast] appropriate to purpose, audience and situation

d. experiment with various strategies to create rapport between the presenter and the audience [for example, use personal anecdotes and examples, ask questions to involve the audience, and use engaging body language]

4.2 Improve thoughtfulness, effectiveness and correctness of communication
4.2.1 Enhance thought and understanding and support and detail

a. review the controlling idea or desired unifying effect of a text in progress for clarity and focus; and modify the controlling idea or desired unifying effect as appropriate to meet the requirements of purpose, audience and situation [for example, use a read-aloud strategy to read a draft in progress to a partner, and incorporate feedback from the partner in creating the next draft]

b. review the accuracy, specificity and precision of details, events, images, facts or other data intended to support a controlling idea or to develop a unifying effect; and add to details, events, images, facts or other data as needed to provide sufficient support or development [for example, use a revision strategy such as the Five R's to read, react, rework, reflect and refine work]

c. assess own critical/analytical responses for consistency, completeness and relevance of evidence; and strengthen reasoning as needed by adding to, modifying or deleting details to provide reliable and pertinent evidence and make effective arguments [for example, work with a small group to use a revision strategy like Workshop Advice, where each person in the group provides one suggestion for a sentence change]

4.2.2 Enhance organization

a. assess the beginning of a text in progress, and revise it as needed to establish purpose and engage audience [for example, the thesis statement of an essay, the initial monologue of a script, or the statement of purpose of a proposal]

b. review the organizational components of a text in progress [such as paragraphs, scenes or steps in a process], and revise them as needed to strengthen their effectiveness as units of thought or experience

c. review the closing of a text in progress, and revise it as needed to strengthen its relationship to purpose [for example, to review the closing of a written text, learn two or three common structural patterns for writing conclusions, and practise writing two or three conclusions for a text in progress; then choose the most effective conclusion]

d. assess relationships among controlling idea, supporting ideas and supporting details; and strengthen relationships as needed to enhance the unity of texts [for example, to analyze these relationships write an outline for another student's completed essay and review the outline for own completed essay created by the other student]

e. assess transitions and transitional devices, and revise them as needed to strengthen coherence [for example, assess the use of repetition and balance in an essay, or fade-outs and dissolves in a video production, to create smooth transitions between elements in a text]

4.2.3 Consider and address matters of choice

a. develop a list of effective vocabulary words and stylistic choices [for example, develop a list of effective verbs, by listing all the verbs used in own text and replacing frequently used verbs with new verbs as appropriate]

b. develop the use of appropriate words and expressions [for example, use words with straightforward denotations to strengthen clarity in informative and persuasive texts, and use words with connotative meanings to evoke images in poetry and narrative texts]

c. use a variety of sentence patterns and structures appropriately [for example, use straightforward sentence structures to strengthen clarity of informative and persuasive texts, and use short sentences to indicate action in narrative texts]

d. describe the effects of own use of stylistic techniques and rhetorical devices [for example, underline effective words and phrases in written text, and describe the effects created, such as clarity and emphasis; and describe the use of sound in multimedia text in terms of the effects created, such as humour and realism]

e. recognize personal voice as a text creator, and practise various methods to develop craft [for example, to recognize voice in own writing and to develop craft, note personal preferences related to the types and number of sentences used that follow various patterns; read a section of writing from a favourite author, and note the author's use of the same and different patterns; and rewrite some sentences in own work to achieve variety, noting the effect]

4.2.4 Edit text for matters of correctness 

a. use handbooks and other tools, including electronic tools, as resources to assist with text creation [for example, dictionaries, thesauri, spell checkers and handbooks]

b. know and be able to apply capitalization and punctuation conventions correctly, including end punctuation, commas, semicolons, colons, apostrophes, quotation marks, hyphens, dashes, ellipses, parentheses, underlining and italics [for example, keep a personal editing checklist as a style guide for writing]

c. know and be able to apply spelling conventions independently or with the use of a handbook or other tools, such as a list of spelling strategies or rules

d. know and be able to identify parts of speech in own and others' texts, including prepositions, definite and indefinite articles, and coordinating and subordinating conjunctions; and review and revise texts in progress to ensure correct use of parts of speech, including correctness of pronoun reference and pronoun-antecedent agreement

e. know and be able to identify parts of the sentence in own and others' texts, including subject, verb, direct object and indirect object

f. detect and correct common sentence faults - run-on sentence and unintended sentence fragment

g. develop the use of common sentence structures - simple, compound, complex and compound-complex

h. pay particular attention to punctuation, spelling, grammar, usage and sentence construction when using unfamiliar vocabulary, complex syntax and sophisticated rhetorical devices

i. assess strengths and areas of need [for example, develop a checklist of skills mastered and skills to be developed, and set goals for language growth]

j. explain why certain communication situations demand particular attention to correctness of punctuation, spelling, grammar, usage and sentence construction

General Outcome 5 (20-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others. 
5.1 Respect others and strengthen community
5.1.1 Use language and image to show respect and consideration

a. monitor own use of verbal and nonverbal communication in order to convey respect and consideration, as appropriate [for example, use euphemism and body language appropriately and sensitively]

b. explain how language and images are used in literature and other texts to convey respectful and considerate, or disrespectful and inconsiderate, perspectives and attitudes [for example, parody or journalistic bias in print, visual and multimedia texts]

c. analyze and describe positive or negative portrayals of characters in literature and persons in life, and be sensitive to the feelings of others

d. analyze behavioural expectations of a communication situation, explain how verbal and nonverbal communication contributes to the inclusion or exclusion of individuals involved in a communication situation, and use verbal and nonverbal communication that is inclusive of other individuals [for example, use empathetic listening skills when working in groups, and be aware of body language]

e. accept, offer and appreciate the value of constructive criticism [for example, use writing to respond to constructive criticism, and accept and provide feedback in a constructive and considerate manner]

f. analyze the parameters of public tolerance regarding the use of language and images in a specific text, and use appropriate language and images in communication situations

5.1.2 Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective 

a. appreciate diversity of thought and expression, select and monitor appropriate strategies for appreciating diversity, and modify selected strategies as needed

b. explain how selected works of literature and other print and nonprint texts convey, shape and, at times, challenge individual and group values and behaviours

c. analyze the relationship between a text creator's ideas and opinions and his or her underlying assumptions [such as those deriving from ideology or social status]

5.1.3 Recognize accomplishments and events 

a. use language and image to honour own and others' accomplishments [for example, celebrate together when classmates have accomplished a particular task or produced, published or presented a particular text; or celebrate the completion of a portfolio with family and friends by holding a "portfolio launch"]

b. describe various means by which language and image are used appropriately to honour people and to celebrate events, and explain how these means of using language and image help to build community [for example, heritage day; wall of honour or photography exhibit; and naming ceremonies, religious ceremonies and prayers of First Nations and Aboriginal peoples]

5.2 Work within a group
5.2.1 Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes

a. set appropriate personal goals for participation in a group; respect, be open to, and be supportive of the thoughts, opinions and contributions of others in a group; and share personal knowledge, expertise and perspectives with others, as appropriate

b. reflect on and describe strategies used to negotiate, coordinate and cooperate with others; select appropriate strategies for negotiating, coordinating and cooperating with others; monitor selected strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed to accomplish group goals

c. ensure that a team's purpose and objectives are clear

5.2.2 Understand and evaluate group processes 

a. develop and use criteria to monitor and assess group processes [such as division of labour and time management]

b. understand the various potential roles and responsibilities of group members [such as researcher and presenter; director and participant; and chairperson, recorder and timekeeper; or roles of Aboriginal Elders in teaching about the medicine wheel and about respect, humility, kindness, sharing, honesty, faith and perseverance], and appreciate the contribution that these roles make to group processes

c. identify and use various means to facilitate completion of group projects [for example, establish clear purposes and procedures for solving problems, monitor progress, and make modifications to meet stated objectives]

d. understand and appreciate the function of teamwork tools, assess how to work effectively and collaboratively as a team to accomplish a task, understand the role of conflict in a group to reach solutions, and manage and resolve conflict when appropriate

e. identify and analyze the communications needs of, and assess the working relationships among, individuals and groups involved in a variety of communications careers [such as advertising, public relations and e. broadcast journalism]

ELA 30-1 
General Outcome 1 (30-1) 

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences. 
1.1 Discover possibilities
1.1.1 Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions

a. draw from a repertoire of effective strategies to form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions [for example, record initial thoughts, feelings and observations about a novel in a dialogue journal]

b. modify tentative interpretations and tentative positions by weighing and assessing the validity of own and others' ideas, observations and opinions; and identify areas for further inquiry or research

1.1.2 Experiment with language, image and structure

a. explain how experiments with language, image and structure improve personal craft and increase effectiveness as a text creator [for example, use a writer's journal or idea folder on a computer to collect ideas, newspaper articles and first writing attempts; rework this information into stories, poems or articles; and share with teachers and peers to receive feedback]

b. experiment with a variety of strategies, activities and resources to explore ideas, observations, opinions, experiences and emotions [for example, stream-of-consciousness writing, free verse poetry, exploratory talk and improvisation]

1.2 Extend awareness
1.2.1 Consider new perspectives

a. select appropriate strategies to extend awareness and understanding of new perspectives, monitor their effectiveness, and modify them as needed [for example, record new understandings in a learning log; develop new group perspectives using a fish bowl organization]

b. recognize and assess the strengths and limitations of various perspectives on a theme, issue or topic, and identify aspects for further consideration when exploring and responding to texts

c. analyze and evaluate how various topics and themes, text forms, text types and text creators influence own and others' understandings, attitudes and aspirations

1.2.2 Express preferences, and expand interests

a. reflect on personal text preferences, identify influences that have contributed to the formation of these preferences, and select strategies that may be used to expand interests in texts and text creators [for example, complete and share reading inventories, and examine the role marketing plays in shaping popular culture]

b. cultivate appreciation for a variety of genres, texts, text creators and texts in translation from other countries [for example, providing specific examples, choose a universal theme; create a list of works of literature, movies, songs, videos and art; and discuss why some works are timeless]

1.2.3 Set personal goals for language growth

a. appraise own strengths and weaknesses as a language user and language learner; select appropriate strategies to increase strengths and address weaknesses; monitor the effectiveness of selected strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed to optimize growth [for example, assess growth in writing by using a writing portfolio and portfolio reflections]

b. set goals and draw from a repertoire of effective strategies for language growth in relation to aspirations for the future [such as post-secondary learning and potential careers]

c. identify and access learning sources and opportunities; assess, weigh and manage risk; and demonstrate a willingness to continuously learn and grow

General Outcome 2 (30-1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend literature and other texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, and respond personally, critically and creatively. 
2.1 Construct meaning from text and context
2.1.1 Discern and analyze context

a. explain the text creator's purpose, including implicit purpose when applicable; describe whether or not the purpose was achieved [for example, describe an author's use of juxtaposition to develop a contradictory impression of a character]; and assess the suitability of a text to the target audience

b. analyze elements or causes present in the communication situation surrounding a text that contribute to the creation of the text [for example, whether a text creator is communicating as an individual or as a member of a particular group]

c. explain how understanding the interplay between text and context can influence an audience to appreciate a text from multiple perspectives [for example, an audience can appreciate how historical and societal forces present in the context in which a text is set can affect the style, diction and point of view chosen by the text creator]

d. identify the impact that personal context - experience, prior knowledge - has on constructing meaning from a text

2.1.2 Understand and interpret content

a. use a variety of strategies to comprehend literature and other texts [for example, reading passages out loud, forming questions, making predictions, using context to determine the connotative meanings of words, using graphic organizers and making annotations], and develop strategies for close reading of literature in order to understand contextual elements [for example, understanding subtext]

b. analyze the relationships among controlling ideas, supporting ideas and supporting details in a variety of texts

c. assess the contributions of setting, plot, character and atmosphere to the development of theme when studying a narrative

d. analyze the personality traits, roles, relationships, motivations, attitudes and values of characters developed/persons presented in literature and other texts; and explain how the use of archetypes can contribute to the development of other textual elements, such as theme

e. relate a text creator's tone and register to the moral and ethical stance explicitly or implicitly communicated by a text

f. assess the contributions of figurative language, symbol, imagery and allusion to the meaning and significance of texts; and appreciate the text creator's craft

g. assess the contributions that visual and aural elements make to the meaning of texts

h. assess the relationship between the content of a presentation and the performance of the presenter, and explain how the quality of the performance affects the credibility and audience acceptance of the content and message

2.1.3 Engage prior knowledge 

a. reflect on and describe strategies used to engage prior knowledge as a means of assisting comprehension of new texts; and select, monitor and modify strategies as needed

b. assess prior knowledge of contexts, content and text forms; and explain how it contributes to new understandings

c. identify variations and departures from the conventional use of rhetorical devices, textual elements and structures in texts; and describe the purpose and effect of such variations and departures

d. classify the genre/form of new texts according to attributes of genres/forms previously studied

2.1.4 Use reference strategies and reference technologies 

a. use a variety of appropriate reference strategies and reference technologies to aid understanding [for example, formulating and refining questions, exploring works cited in other references, taking notes, and using library catalogues and Internet search engines]

b. create and use own reference materials to aid understanding [for example, a personalized dictionary/glossary and a personalized World Wide Web/URL address list]

2.2 Understand and appreciate textual forms, elements and techniques
2.2.1 Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content

a. analyze a variety of text forms, explain the relationships of form to purpose and content, and assess the effects of these relationships on audience

b. assess the potential influence of various audience factors on a text creator's choice of form and medium

c. apply knowledge of organizational patterns and structural features to understand purpose and content, and assess the effectiveness of a text's organizational structure

d. assess the medium of a presentation in terms of its appropriateness to purpose and content and its effect on audience [for example, the use of unamplified voice, printed handouts and computer generated slides]

2.2.2 Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects

a. assess the contributions of rhetorical devices and stylistic techniques to the clarity and coherence of print and nonprint texts, and assess the various means by which devices and techniques are used to emphasize aspects or portions of a text

b. assess the contributions of textual elements and stylistic techniques to the creation of atmosphere, tone and voice

c. analyze the use of irony and satire to create effects in print and nonprint texts [for example, dramatic irony to create suspense, verbal irony to create humour, and satire to evoke response]

d. assess the use of musical devices, figures of speech and sensory details to create effects in a variety of print and nonprint texts

e. explain the contribution of motif and symbol to controlling idea and theme

f. analyze the various elements of effective presentation, and assess the effects created [for example, colour to create symbolism or mood, and gestures to enhance clarity]

g. assess the use of persuasive techniques and their effects on audience [for example, assess the use of commercial endorsements and negative advertisement campaigns, which may convince or offend]

2.3 Respond to a variety of print and nonprint texts
2.3.1 Connect self, text, culture and milieu

a. identify and consider personal, moral, ethical and cultural perspectives when studying literature and other texts; and reflect on and monitor how perspectives change as a result of interpretation and discussion

b. form positions on issues that arise from text study; and assess the ideas, information, arguments, emotions, experiences, values and beliefs expressed in works of literature and other texts in light of issues that are personally meaningful and culturally significant

c. assess the choices and motives of characters and people portrayed in texts in light of the choices and motives of self and others

d. respond personally and critically to the ways in which cultural and societal influences are reflected in a variety of Canadian and international texts

2.3.2 Evaluate the verisimilitude, appropriateness and significance of print and nonprint texts 

a. identify criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of texts, monitor the effectiveness of the criteria, and modify the criteria as needed [for example, use criteria to assess the adequacy, relevance and effectiveness of content and to assess the text creator's voice and style]

b. assess the appropriateness of own and others' understandings and interpretations of works of literature and other texts, by referring to the works and texts for supporting or contradictory evidence

c. analyze and assess settings and plots in terms of created reality and plausibility [for example, determine the authenticity of the setting of a work of historical fiction]

d. analyze and assess character and characterization in terms of consistency of behaviour, motivation and plausibility, and in terms of contribution to theme [for example, determine the meanings suggested by a change in a character's behaviour or values]

e. analyze and assess images in print and nonprint texts in terms of created reality and appropriateness to purpose and audience

f. assess the significance of a text's theme or controlling idea, and the adequacy, relevance and effectiveness of its supporting details, examples or illustrations, and content in general

2.3.3 Appreciate the effectiveness and artistry of print and nonprint texts

a. use terminology appropriate to the forms studied for discussing and appreciating the effectiveness and artistry of a variety of text forms

b. appreciate the craft of the text creator and the shape and substance of literature and other texts

General Outcome 3 (30-1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information. 
3.1 Determine inquiry or research requirements
3.1.1 Focus on purpose and presentation form

a. modify selected strategies as needed to refine the depth and breadth of inquiry or research and to identify the purpose, audience and form of presentation

b. describe the purpose of inquiry or research and the scope of the inquiry or research topic; identify the target audience; and identify the potential form for the presentation of inquiry or research findings, when applicable [such as a narrative, report, diary entry or biography]

c. refine the purpose of inquiry or research by limiting or expanding the topic as appropriate

3.1.2 Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources

a. reflect on and describe strategies for developing an inquiry or research plan that will foster understanding, select and monitor appropriate strategies, and modify strategies as needed to plan inquiry or research effectively [for example, use a research journal to keep and record reflections on the research process, clarify thinking, revisit initial perceptions and ask questions that lead to new research]

b. select from a repertoire of effective strategies to develop appropriate inquiry or research plans that will address the topic and satisfy contextual and presentation requirements [for example, questions within questions, inquiry charts, preliminary interviews, and consultations with the teacher and/or librarian]

c. assess the breadth and depth of prior knowledge, and refine questions to further satisfy information needs and to guide the collection of new information

d. identify and predict the usefulness of information sources intended to fill gaps between prior knowledge and required information [for example, whether or not a survey or interview will be useful]

e. develop and draw from a repertoire of effective strategies and technologies for gathering, generating and recording information

3.2 Follow a plan of inquiry
3.2.1 Select, record and organize information

a. reflect on and describe strategies that may be used to select, record and organize information; select and monitor appropriate strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed

b. select information and other material appropriate to purpose from a variety of print and nonprint sources [for example, from museums, archives, government agencies, periodicals, microfiche, Internet, CD-ROMs, films, television and radio broadcasts, interviews, surveys, and print and online encyclopedias]

c. record information accurately and completely; and document and reference sources, as appropriate [for example, document direct quotations, others' ideas and arguments, maps, charts, statistics, pictures and diagrams from books, magazines, bibliographies, newspapers, audiovisual materials, electronic sources, interviews and films to avoid plagiarism]

d. organize information logically [such as by question, by category, by chronology or by cause and effect]

e. observe guidelines for Internet use [for example, keep passwords, telephone numbers and addresses confidential; visit appropriate sites; respect copyright; and observe rules for citing Internet sources, following correct procedures to avoid plagiarism]

3.2.2 Evaluate sources, and assess information

a. reflect on and describe strategies to evaluate information sources for credibility and bias and for quality; and select, monitor and modify strategies as needed to evaluate sources and detect bias

b. assess information sources for appropriateness to purpose, audience and presentation form

c. assess the accuracy, completeness, currency and relevance of information selected from sources; and assess the appropriateness of the information for purpose

d. identify and describe possible biases and vested interests of sources; and explain how underlying assumptions, biases, and positive or negative spin affect the credibility of sources

3.2.3 Form generalizations and conclusions

a. form generalizations and synthesize new ideas by integrating new information with prior knowledge

b. draw conclusions that are appropriate to findings, reflect own understandings and are consistent with the identified topic, purpose and situation

c. support generalizations and conclusions sufficiently with relevant and consistent detail

3.2.4 Review inquiry or research process and findings

a. reflect on and assess the effectiveness of strategies used to guide inquiry or research [such as the effective use of time and the division of labour when involved in group research]

b. identify strategies to improve future inquiry or research, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies

c. review the appropriateness, accuracy and significance of findings, conclusions and generalizations drawn from gathered data and information; prepare a detailed record of references; determine how best to share the information; and determine next steps, if any

d. seek feedback from others and use own reflections to evaluate the entire inquiry or research process, strive for craftsmanship and accuracy, and take pride in efforts and accomplishments

General Outcome 4 (30-1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to create oral, print, visual and multimedia texts, and enhance the clarity and artistry of communication. 
4.1 Develop and present a variety of print and nonprint texts
4.1.1 Assess text creation context 

a. reflect on the purposes for text creation [for example, to inform, explain, persuade, entertain or inspire] and on own motives for selecting strategies to engage an audience [for example, to communicate information, promote action or build relationships]; and consider potential consequences of choices regarding text creation [for example, follow-up action may be required to clarify information, a position may need to be defended and opposing viewpoints addressed, and tone and style must be appropriate for intended audience]

b. assess the results of text creation in terms of the intended purpose and whether or not the target audience was engaged [for example, assess the effectiveness of a job application letter in terms of whether or not the potential employer read the résumé]

c. analyze audience factors that affect text creation, and explain how consideration of audience factors has affected choices made while creating a text

d. assess whether or not the strategies used to deal with the expectations and constraints of a communication situation were effective [for example, distribute a formal evaluation form to the audience at the end of a meeting, to assess whether or not the strategy of providing time in small-group discussions resolved the issue of lack of time for all audience members to ask questions and express opinions]

4.1.2 Consider and address form, structure and medium

a. select a text form appropriate to the purpose for text creation and consistent with the content to be presented in the text [for example, select a photo essay to demonstrate a personal or critical/analytical response to poetry or other literature when the content to be presented is well suited to the creation of a visual text]

b. use a variety of complex structures consistent with form, content and purpose when creating texts; and explain reasons for choices [for example, use frames in a storyboard, including dialogue as appropriate to review organization, and explain why these complex structures are an effective way to create a video text]

c. select an effective medium appropriate to content and context; and explain the interplay of medium, context and content [for example, select a medium like television, and assess the interplay of medium, context and content by examining the role that investigative reporters play in reporting world events in a timely and interesting manner]

d. understand the concept of convention; and apply it to oral, print, visual and multimedia text forms when appropriate [for example, understand the common conventions of a modern play script; and include dialogue, stage directions, and directions for lighting and sound effects when creating a script, as appropriate]

e. depart from the conventions of oral, print, visual and multimedia texts, as appropriate to purpose, audience and situation [for example, employ the conventions of fiction when creating factual narrative to fulfill purpose and create audience effects]; and assess the impact on text creation

4.1.3 Develop content 

a. take ownership of text creation, by selecting or crafting a topic, concept or idea that is personally meaningful and engaging

b. recognize and assess personal variables [such as personal experience and prior knowledge] and contextual variables [such as availability of time and resources] that influence the selection of a topic, concept or idea; and address these variables to increase the likelihood of successful text creation

c. establish a focus for text creation, and communicate scope by framing an effective controlling idea or describing a strong unifying effect

d. develop supporting details, by using developmental aids appropriate to form and purpose [for example, use charts to collect and assemble details in creating character comparisons when developing a comparison and contrast essay, or use a think-aloud reading strategy to make notes from informational text when writing a summary]

e. develop appropriate, relevant and sufficient content to support a controlling idea or unifying effect [for example, relate supporting details, examples and illustrations to a controlling idea when creating a critical/analytical response to literature]

f. develop content consistent with form and appropriate to context [for example, link questions and answers when reporting the results of an interview]

g. incorporate effective examples from personal experience, concepts and ideas from exploration, and findings from inquiry and research into created texts, when appropriate [for example, incorporate visual aids in a prepared speech and taped sound effects in a dramatization of a scene from a play]

4.1.4 Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent with context 

a. meet particular production, publication and display requirements for print texts [for example, adhere to a particular manuscript style when creating a research paper]; and explain requirements in light of purpose, audience and situation

b. adapt presentation strategies to suit changes in purpose, audience and situation [for example, use close physical proximity, eye contact and other body language strategies effectively to regain audience attention following an interruption]

c. develop and deliver oral, visual and multimedia presentations, using voice production factors [such as volume, tone and stress], nonverbal factors [such as gestures, posture, distance and eye contact] and visual production factors [such as colour and contrast] appropriate to purpose, audience and situation

d. create rapport with an audience, by selecting from a repertoire of effective strategies [for example, use humour to open a presentation and set a positive tone with the audience]

4.2 Improve thoughtfulness, effectiveness and correctness of communication
4.2.1 Enhance thought and understanding and support and detail 

a. assess the effectiveness of the controlling idea or desired unifying effect of a text in progress, and refine the controlling idea or desired unifying effect as appropriate to meet the intended purpose

b. review the accuracy, specificity, precision, vividness and relevance of details, events, images, facts or other data intended to support a controlling idea or to develop a unifying effect; and add to, modify or delete details, events, images, facts or other data as needed to provide complete and effective support or development

c. assess reasoning for logic and evidence for consistency, completeness and relevance; and strengthen reasoning as needed by adding to, modifying or deleting details to provide significant evidence and make effective and convincing arguments [for example, work with a small group to use a revision strategy like Workshop Advice, where each person in the group provides one suggestion for a sentence change]

d. assess the plausibility and appropriateness of literary interpretations and the precision, completeness and relevance of evidence when reviewing and revising critical/analytical responses to literature

4.2.2 Enhance organization

a. make revisions as needed to ensure that the beginning of a text in progress establishes purpose and engages audience [for example, the rhetorical question or anecdote used to begin a speech, or the establishing shot of a video]

b. assess the organizational components of a text in progress, and revise them as needed to strengthen their effectiveness as units of thought or experience or to strengthen their contribution to other intended effects [such as emphasis or transition]

c. assess the closing of a text in progress; and revise it as needed to ensure that it is related to purpose, that it establishes a sense of developed understanding and that it will have an appropriate effect on audience

d. apply the concepts of unity and coherence to ensure the effective organization of oral, print, visual and multimedia texts

4.2.3 Consider and address matters of choice

a. reflect on personal vocabulary and repertoire of stylistic choices and on their effectiveness; and expand vocabulary and repertoire of stylistic choices

b. assess the appropriateness and effectiveness of diction, and revise word choice as needed to create intended effects

c. assess syntax for appropriateness and effectiveness, and revise sentence structures as needed to create intended effects

d. explain how stylistic techniques and rhetorical devices are used to create intended effects

e. develop a repertoire of stylistic choices that contribute to personal voice

4.2.4 Edit text for matters of correctness

a. use handbooks and other tools, including electronic tools, as resources to assist with text creation [for example, dictionaries, thesauri, spell checkers and handbooks]

b. know and be able to apply capitalization and punctuation conventions correctly, including end punctuation, commas, semicolons, colons, apostrophes, quotation marks, hyphens, dashes, ellipses, parentheses, underlining and italics

c. know and be able to apply spelling conventions consistently and independently

d. understand the importance of grammatical agreement; and assess and revise texts in progress to ensure correctness of grammatical agreement, including correct pronoun reference and pronoun-antecedent agreement, and correct use of modifiers and other parts of speech

e. assess and revise texts in progress to ensure correct subject-verb agreement, correct pronoun case and appropriate consistency of verb tense

f. use unconventional punctuation, spelling and sentence structure for effect, when appropriate [for example, use nonstandard spelling to indicate dialect, and use sentence fragments for emphasis, when appropriate]

g. assess and revise texts in progress to ensure the correct use of clauses and phrases, including verbal phrases (participle, gerund and infinitive), and to ensure the correct use of structural features [such as appositives and parallel structure]

h. pay particular attention to punctuation, spelling, grammar, usage and sentence construction when using unfamiliar vocabulary, complex syntax and sophisticated rhetorical devices

i. assess strengths and areas of need [for example, develop a checklist of skills mastered and skills to be developed, and set goals for language growth]

General Outcome 5 (30-1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others. 
5.1 Respect others and strengthen community
5.1.1 Use language and image to show respect and consideration

a. monitor own use of verbal and nonverbal communication in order to convey respect and consideration, as appropriate [for example, use euphemism and body language appropriately and sensitively]

b. explain how language and images are used in literature and other texts to convey respectful and considerate, or disrespectful and inconsiderate, perspectives and attitudes [for example, parody or journalistic bias in print, visual and multimedia texts]

c. analyze and describe positive or negative portrayals of characters in literature and persons in life, and be sensitive to the feelings of others

d. analyze behavioural expectations of a communication situation, explain how verbal and nonverbal communication contributes to the inclusion or exclusion of individuals involved in a communication situation, and use verbal and nonverbal communication that is inclusive of other individuals [for example, use empathetic listening skills when working in groups, and be aware of body language]

e. accept, offer and appreciate the value of constructive criticism [for example, use writing to respond to constructive criticism, and accept and provide feedback in a constructive and considerate manner]

f. explain, when applicable, how a specific text demonstrates that the parameters of public tolerance regarding the use of language and image have changed over time

5.1.2 Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective 

a. appreciate diversity of thought and expression, select and monitor appropriate strategies for appreciating diversity, and modify selected strategies as needed

b. explain how selected works of literature and other print and nonprint texts convey, shape and, at times, challenge individual and group values and behaviours

c. explain how a text creator's underlying assumptions influence his or her ideas, opinions and selection of supporting details

5.1.3 Recognize accomplishments and events 

a. use language and image to honour own and others' accomplishments [for example, celebrate together when classmates have accomplished a particular task or produced, published or presented a particular text; or celebrate the completion of a portfolio with family and friends by holding a "portfolio launch"]

b. describe various means by which language and image are used appropriately to honour people and to celebrate events, and explain how these means of using language and image help to build community [for example, heritage day; wall of honour or photography exhibit; and naming ceremonies, religious ceremonies and prayers of First Nations and Aboriginal peoples]

5.2 Work within a group
5.2.1 Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes

a. set appropriate personal goals for participation in a group; respect, be open to, and be supportive of the thoughts, opinions and contributions of others in a group; and share personal knowledge, expertise and perspectives with others, as appropriate

b. reflect on and describe strategies used to negotiate, coordinate and cooperate with others; select appropriate strategies for negotiating, coordinating and cooperating with others; monitor selected strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed to accomplish group goals

c. ensure that a team's purpose and objectives are clear

5.2.2 Understand and evaluate group processes 

a. develop and use criteria to monitor and assess group processes [such as division of labour and time management]

b. analyze and explain the interplay among the roles adopted by group members; and lead or support, when appropriate, motivating a group for high performance

c. use and appreciate various means to facilitate completion of group projects

d. understand and appreciate the function of teamwork tools, assess how to work effectively and collaboratively as a team to accomplish a task, understand the role of conflict in a group to reach solutions, and manage and resolve conflict when appropriate

e. identify, analyze and assess the collaborative processes used by individuals whose careers involve the development and production of literary texts [such as the collaborative relationships of author, illustrator, editor and publisher and of playwright, actor, producer and director]

ELA 30-2 
General Outcome 1 (30-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences. 
1.1 Discover possibilities
1.1.1 Form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions

a. draw from a repertoire of effective strategies to form tentative understandings, interpretations and positions [for example, record initial thoughts, feelings and observations about a novel in a dialogue journal]

b. modify tentative interpretations and tentative positions by weighing and assessing the validity of own and others' ideas, observations and opinions; and identify areas for further inquiry or research

1.1.2 Experiment with language, image and structure

a. explain how experiments with language, image and structure improve personal craft and increase effectiveness as a text creator [for example, use a writer's journal or idea folder on a computer to collect ideas, newspaper articles and first writing attempts; rework this information into stories, poems or articles; and share with teachers and peers to receive feedback]

b. experiment with a variety of strategies, activities and resources to explore ideas, observations, opinions, experiences and emotions [for example, stream-of-consciousness writing, free verse poetry, exploratory talk and improvisation]

1.2 Extend awareness
1.2.1 Consider new perspectives

a. select appropriate strategies to extend awareness and understanding of new perspectives, monitor their effectiveness, and modify them as needed [for example, record new understandings in a learning log; develop new group perspectives using a fish bowl organization]

b. recognize and assess the strengths and limitations of various perspectives on a theme, issue or topic, and identify aspects for further consideration when exploring and responding to texts

c. analyze and evaluate how various topics and themes, text forms, text types and text creators influence own and others' understandings, attitudes and aspirations

1.2.2 Express preferences, and expand interests

a. reflect on personal text preferences, identify influences that have contributed to the formation of these preferences, and select strategies that may be used to expand interests in texts and text creators [for example, complete and share reading inventories, and examine the role marketing plays in shaping popular culture]

b.cultivate appreciation for a variety of genres, texts, text creators and texts in translation from other countries [for example, providing specific examples, choose a universal theme; create a list of works of literature, movies, songs, videos and art; and discuss why some works are timeless]

1.2.3 Set personal goals for language growth

a. appraise own strengths and weaknesses as a language user and language learner; select appropriate strategies to increase strengths and address weaknesses; monitor the effectiveness of selected strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed to optimize growth [for example, assess growth in writing by using a writing portfolio and portfolio reflections]

b. set goals and draw from a repertoire of effective strategies for language growth in relation to aspirations for the future [such as post-secondary learning and potential careers]

c. identify and access learning sources and opportunities; assess, weigh and manage risk; and demonstrate a willingness to continuously learn and grow

General Outcome 2 (30-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend literature and other texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, and respond personally, critically and creatively. 
2.1 Construct meaning from text and context
2.1.1 Discern and analyze context

a. explain the text creator's purpose, and assess the suitability of the text to the target audience in terms of the text creator's purpose [for example, assess the suitability of a feature film targeted to a young adult audience in terms of appropriateness of content]

b. analyze elements present in the communication situation surrounding a text that contribute to the creation of the text [for example, whether a text creator is communicating as an individual or as a member of a particular group]

c. explain the relationship between text and context in terms of how elements in an environment can affect the way in which a text is created

d. identify the impact that personal context - experience, prior knowledge - has on constructing meaning from a text

2.1.2 Understand and interpret content 

a. use a variety of strategies to comprehend literature and other texts [for example, reading passages out loud, forming questions, making predictions, using context to determine the connotative meanings of words, using graphic organizers, making annotations, inferring, rereading, seeking assistance, using context clues, summarizing and visualizing], develop a daily practice of reading [for example, paired reading, reading log, nightly reading, taped reading], and develop strategies for close reading

b. describe the relationships between a text's controlling idea and its supporting ideas and supporting details

c. explain how plot, character and setting contribute to the development of theme, when studying a narrative

d. explain the personality traits, roles, relationships, motivations, attitudes and values of characters developed/persons presented in works of literature and other texts

e. relate a text creator's tone to the moral and ethical stance communicated by a text, when appropriate

f. identify figurative language, symbol, imagery and allusions in a text; interpret these devices in terms of the meaning of a text; assess the contributions made to the meaning of texts by using these devices; and appreciate the text creator's craft

g. recognize visual and aural elements in texts, and explain how these elements add meaning to texts

h. assess the relationship between the content of a presentation and the performance of the presenter, and explain how the quality of the performance affects the credibility and audience acceptance of the content and message

2.1.3 Engage prior knowledge

a. reflect on and describe strategies used to engage prior knowledge as a means of assisting comprehension of new texts; and select, monitor and modify strategies as needed

b. explain how prior knowledge of contexts, content and text forms contributes to new understandings

c. explain how prior understanding of textual elements, like theme, in previously studied texts can assist in understanding new texts

2.1.4 Use reference strategies and reference technologies

a. use a variety of appropriate reference strategies and reference technologies to aid understanding [for example, formulating and refining questions, exploring works cited in other references, taking notes, and using library catalogues and Internet search engines]

b. create and use own reference materials to aid understanding [for example, a personalized dictionary/glossary and a personalized World Wide Web/URL address list]

2.2 Understand and appreciate textual forms, elements and techniques
2.2.1 Relate form, structure and medium to purpose, audience and content

a. describe how some forms are more appropriate than others to achieve a particular purpose with an intended audience

b. explain how various audience factors may have influenced a text creator's choice of form and medium

c. apply knowledge of organizational patterns and structural features to understand purpose and content, and assess the effectiveness of a text's organizational structure

d. assess whether or not the medium chosen for a presentation is appropriate for the intended purpose, content and audience [for example, the use of unamplified voice, printed handouts and computer generated slides]

2.2.2 Relate elements, devices and techniques to created effects

a. demonstrate that the use of rhetorical devices and stylistic techniques in print and nonprint texts can create clarity, coherence and emphasis [for example, parallel structure, precise language]

b. describe how textual elements that are effective in the creation of atmosphere are also effective in terms of tone and voice [for example, setting, music, lighting, diction, syntax and image]

c. explain how irony is used in print and nonprint texts to create audience effects [for example, dramatic irony to create suspense and verbal irony to create humour]

d. explain how figures of speech, sensory details and musical devices are used to create effects in a variety of print and nonprint texts

e. explain the contribution of symbol to theme

f. analyze the various elements of effective presentations, and assess the effects created

g. assess the effects of persuasive techniques on audience [for example, assess advertisement campaigns like those found in teen magazines that may encourage unhealthy body images in teens]

2.3 Respond to a variety of print and nonprint texts
2.3.1 Connect self, text, culture and milieu

a. identify and consider personal moral and ethical perspectives, as well as cultural perspectives, when studying literature and other texts; and reflect on and monitor how perspectives change as a result of interpretation and discussion

b. form positions on issues that arise from text study; and relate the ideas, information, arguments, emotions, experiences, values and beliefs expressed in works of literature and other texts to issues that are personally meaningful and culturally significant

c. explain how the choices and motives of characters and people presented in texts may provide insight into the choices and motives of self and others

d. respond personally and critically to cultural and societal influences presented in Canadian and international texts

2.3.2 Evaluate the verisimilitude, appropriateness and significance of print and nonprint texts

a. identify criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of texts, monitor the effectiveness of the criteria, and modify the criteria as needed [for example, use criteria to assess the adequacy, relevance and effectiveness of content nd to assess the text creator's voice and style]

b. assess the appropriateness of own and others' understandings and interpretations of works of literature and other texts, by referring to the works and texts for supporting or contradictory evidence

c. analyze and assess settings and plots in terms of created reality and plausibility [for example, determine the authenticity of the setting of a work of historical fiction]

d. analyze and assess character and characterization in terms of consistency of behaviour, motivation and plausibility, and in terms of contribution to theme [for example, determine the meanings suggested by a change in a character's behaviour or values]

e. analyze and assess images in print and nonprint texts in terms of created reality and appropriateness to purpose and audience

f. assess the significance of a text's theme or controlling idea, and the effectiveness of the content in terms of adequate and relevant supporting details, examples or illustrations

2.3.3 Appreciate the effectiveness and artistry of print and nonprint texts

a. recognize that texts can be effective and artistic, and use terminology appropriate to the forms studied for discussing and appreciating the effectiveness and artistry of a variety of texts

b. appreciate the craft of the text creator and the shape and substance of works of literature and other texts

General Outcome 3 (30-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information. 
3.1 Determine inquiry or research requirements
3.1.1 Focus on purpose and presentation form

a. modify selected strategies as needed to refine the depth and breadth of inquiry or research and to identify the purpose, audience and form of presentation

b. describe the purpose of inquiry or research and the scope of the inquiry or research topic; identify the target audience; and identify the potential form for the presentation of inquiry or research findings, when applicable [such as a narrative, report, diary entry or biography]

c. refine the purpose of inquiry or research by limiting or expanding the topic as appropriate

3.1.2 Plan inquiry or research, and identify information needs and sources

a. reflect on and describe strategies for developing an inquiry or research plan that will foster understanding, select and monitor appropriate strategies, and modify strategies as needed to plan inquiry or research effectively [for example, use a research journal to keep and record reflections on the research process, clarify thinking, revisit initial perceptions and ask questions that lead to new research]

b. select from a repertoire of effective strategies to develop appropriate inquiry or research plans that will address the topic and satisfy contextual and presentation requirements [for example, questions within questions, inquiry charts, preliminary interviews, and consultations with the teacher and/or librarian]

c. assess the breadth and depth of prior knowledge, and refine questions to further satisfy information needs and to guide the collection of new information

d. identify and predict the usefulness of information sources intended to fill gaps between prior knowledge and required information [for example, whether or not a survey or interview will be useful]

e. develop and draw from a repertoire of effective strategies and technologies for gathering, generating and recording information

3.2 Follow a plan of inquiry
3.2.1 Select, record and organize information

a. reflect on and describe strategies that may be used to select, record and organize information; select and monitor appropriate strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed

b. select information and other material appropriate to purpose from a variety of print and nonprint sources [for example, from museums, archives, government agencies, periodicals, microfiche, Internet, CD-ROMs, films, television and radio broadcasts, interviews, surveys, and print and online encyclopedias]

c. record information accurately and completely; and document and reference sources, as appropriate [for example, document direct quotations, others' ideas and arguments, maps, charts, statistics, pictures and diagrams from books, magazines, bibliographies, newspapers, audiovisual materials, electronic sources, interviews and films to avoid plagiarism]

d. organize information logically [such as by question, by category, by chronology or by cause and effect]

e. observe guidelines for Internet use [for example, keep passwords, telephone numbers and addresses confidential; visit appropriate sites; respect copyright; and observe rules for citing Internet sources, following correct procedures to avoid plagiarism]

3.2.2 Evaluate sources, and assess information

a. reflect on and describe strategies to evaluate information sources for credibility and bias and for quality; and select, monitor and modify strategies as needed to evaluate sources and detect bias

b. assess information sources for appropriateness to purpose, audience and presentation form

c. assess the accuracy, completeness, currency and relevance of information selected from sources; and assess the appropriateness of the information for purpose

d. identify and describe possible biases and vested interests of sources; and explain how underlying assumptions, biases, and positive or negative spin affect the credibility of sources

3.2.3 Form generalizations and conclusions

a. form generalizations and synthesize new ideas by integrating new information with prior knowledge

b. draw conclusions that are appropriate to findings, reflect own understandings and are consistent with the identified topic, purpose and situation

c. support generalizations and conclusions sufficiently with relevant and consistent detail

3.2.4 Review inquiry or research process and findings

a. reflect on and assess the effectiveness of strategies used to guide inquiry or research [such as the effective use of time and the division of labour when involved in group research]

b. identify strategies to improve future inquiry or research, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies

c. review the appropriateness, accuracy and significance of findings, conclusions and generalizations drawn from gathered data and information; prepare a detailed record of references; determine how best to share the information; and determine next steps, if any

d. seek feedback from others and use own reflections to evaluate the entire inquiry or research process, strive for craftsmanship and accuracy, and take pride in efforts and accomplishments

General Outcome 4 (30-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to create oral, print, visual and multimedia texts, and enhance the clarity and artistry of communication. 
4.1 Develop and present a variety of print and nonprint texts
4.1.1 Assess text creation context

a. reflect on the purposes for text creation [for example, to inform, explain, persuade, entertain or inspire] and on own motives for selecting strategies to engage an audience [for example, to communicate information, promote action or build relationships]; and consider potential consequences of choices regarding text creation [for example, follow-up action may be required to clarify information, a position may need to be defended and opposing viewpoints addressed, and tone and style must be appropriate for intended audience]

b. describe the purpose and target audience, and select from a repertoire of strategies to accomplish the purpose and engage the audience [for example, one purpose of a job application letter may be to persuade the employer to read the résumé; address the letter to the potential employer, using the correct name and title, and explain in the letter that you have the required skills and talents for the job]

c. analyze audience factors that affect text creation, and explain how consideration of audience factors has affected choices made while creating a text

d. explain how strategies were used to address the expectations and constraints of a communication situation [for example, explain how strategies like limiting note taking to include only key words and meeting with a classmate to share notes and fill in ideas together after a lecture may address the expectations and constraints of a learning situation requiring strong listening and note-taking skills]

4.1.2 Consider and address form, structure and medium

a. select a text form appropriate to the purpose for text creation and consistent with the content to be presented in the text [for example, select a photo essay for the purpose of creating a persuasive or informative text when the content to be presented is well suited to the creation of a visual text]

b. use a variety of complex structures consistent with form, content and purpose when creating texts [for example, use frames in a storyboard, including dialogue as appropriate, to review organization when creating a video]

c. select an effective medium appropriate to content and context, and explain its use [for example, select a medium such as print advertisements in magazines, and explain the use of this medium to sell merchandise; explore the content of the advertisements in terms of the messages and values communicated; and explain the context, including audience and purpose]

d. understand the concept of convention; and apply it to oral, print, visual and multimedia text forms when appropriate [for example, understand the common conventions of a modern play script; and include dialogue, stage directions, and directions for lighting and sound effects when creating a script, as appropriate]

4.1.3 Develop content

a. take ownership of text creation, by selecting or crafting a topic, concept or idea that is personally meaningful and engaging

b. recognize and assess personal variables [such as personal experience and prior knowledge] and contextual variables [such as availability of time and resources] that influence the selection of a topic, concept or idea; and address these variables to increase the likelihood of successful text creation

c. establish a focus for text creation, and communicate scope by framing an effective controlling idea or describing a strong unifying effect

d. develop supporting details, by using developmental aids appropriate to form and purpose [for example, use thought webs/mind maps to collect ideas and make connections when writing a personal response to literature, or use a think-aloud reading strategy to make notes from informational text when writing a summary]

e. develop appropriate and relevant content sufficient to support a controlling idea or unifying effect [for example, relate sufficient supporting details, examples and illustrations to a thesis statement or controlling idea when creating a critical/analytical response to a text]

f. develop content consistent with form and appropriate to context [for example, link questions and answers when reporting the results of an interview]

g. incorporate effective examples from personal experience, concepts and ideas from exploration, and findings from inquiry and research into created texts, when appropriate [for example, incorporate visual aids in a prepared speech and taped sound effects in a dramatization of a scene from a play]

4.1.4 Use production, publication and presentation strategies and technologies consistent with context

a. meet production, publication and display requirements for print texts as appropriate to purpose, audience and situation [for example, consider layout, font and visuals, costs and timelines when publishing a brochure]

b. develop presentation materials; and select strategies and technologies appropriate to purpose, audience and situation [for example, use technologies such as presentation software, videos, CD-ROMs, DVDs, audiotaped interviews and handouts]

c. develop and deliver oral, visual and multimedia presentations, using voice production factors [such as volume, tone and stress], nonverbal factors [such as gestures, posture, distance and eye contact] and visual production factors [such as colour and contrast] appropriate to purpose, audience and situation

d. develop a repertoire of appropriate strategies that can be used to create rapport with an audience [for example, use humour to open a presentation]

4.2 Improve thoughtfulness, effectiveness and correctness of communication
4.2.1 Enhance thought and understanding and support and detail

a. assess the appropriateness and significance of the controlling idea or desired unifying effect of a text in progress; and modify the controlling idea or desired unifying effect as appropriate to meet the requirements of purpose, audience and situation

b. review the accuracy, specificity, precision, vividness and relevance of details, events, images, facts or other data intended to support a controlling idea or to develop a unifying effect; and add to, modify or delete details, events, images, facts or other data as needed to provide complete and effective support or development

c. assess own critical/analytical responses for consistency, completeness and relevance of evidence; and strengthen reasoning as needed by adding to, modifying or deleting details to provide reliable and pertinent evidence and make effective arguments [for example, work with a small group to use a revision strategy like Workshop Advice, where each person in the group provides one suggestion for a sentence change]

4.2.2 Enhance organization

a. make revisions as needed to ensure that the beginning of a text in progress establishes purpose and engages audience [for example, the rhetorical question or anecdote used to begin a speech, or the establishing shot of a video]

b. assess the organizational components of a text in progress, and revise them as needed to strengthen their effectiveness as units of thought or experience or to strengthen their contribution to other intended effects [such as emphasis or transition]

c. assess the closing of a text in progress, and revise it as needed to strengthen its relationship to purpose and to strengthen its intended effect on audience

d. apply the concepts of unity and coherence to ensure the effective organization of oral, print, visual and multimedia texts

e. assess transitions and transitional devices, and revise them as needed to strengthen coherence [for example, assess the use of repetition and balance in an essay, or fade-outs and dissolves in a video production, to create smooth transitions between elements in a text]

4.2.3 Consider and address matters of choice

a. evaluate the use of vocabulary words and stylistic choices for effectiveness, and expand vocabulary and repertoire of stylistic choices as appropriate

b. assess the appropriateness and effectiveness of diction [such as appropriateness of tone], and revise word choice as needed to create intended effects

c. assess syntax for appropriateness and effectiveness, and revise sentence structures as needed to create intended effects

d. apply understanding of stylistic techniques and rhetorical devices when creating and revising print and nonprint texts [for example, use imagery to create pathos, empathy and humour]

e. develop a repertoire of stylistic choices that contribute to personal voice

4.2.4 Edit text for matters of correctness 

a. use handbooks and other tools, including electronic tools, as resources to assist with text creation [for example, dictionaries, thesauri, spell checkers and handbooks]

b. know and be able to apply capitalization and punctuation conventions correctly, including end punctuation, commas, semicolons, colons, apostrophes, quotation marks, hyphens, dashes, ellipses, parentheses, underlining and italics [for example, keep a personal editing checklist as a style guide for writing]

c. know and be able to apply spelling conventions independently or with the use of a handbook or other tools, such as a list of spelling strategies or rules

d. know and be able to identify parts of speech in own and others' texts, including prepositions, definite and indefinite articles, and coordinating and subordinating conjunctions; and review and revise texts in progress to ensure correct use of parts of speech, including correctness of pronoun reference and pronoun-antecedent agreement

e. review and revise texts in progress to ensure correct subject-verb agreement, correct pronoun case and appropriate consistency of verb tense

f. detect and correct common sentence faults - run-on sentence and unintended sentence fragment

g. review and revise texts in progress to ensure that parallel structure, prepositional phrases, and dependent and independent clauses are used correctly and appropriately

h. pay particular attention to punctuation, spelling, grammar, usage and sentence construction when using unfamiliar vocabulary, complex syntax and sophisticated rhetorical devices

i. assess strengths and areas of need [for example, develop a checklist of skills mastered and skills to be developed, and set goals for language growth]

j. explain why certain communication situations demand particular attention to correctness of punctuation, spelling, grammar, usage and sentence construction

General Outcome 5 (30-2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others. 
5.1 Respect others and strengthen community
5.1.1 Use language and image to show respect and consideration

a. monitor own use of verbal and nonverbal communication in order to convey respect and consideration, as appropriate [for example, use euphemism and body language appropriately and sensitively]

b. explain how language and images are used in literature and other texts to convey respectful and considerate, or disrespectful and inconsiderate, perspectives and attitudes [for example, parody or journalistic bias in print, visual and multimedia texts]

c. analyze and describe positive or negative portrayals of characters in literature and persons in life, and be sensitive to the feelings of others

d. analyze behavioural expectations of a communication situation, explain how verbal and nonverbal communication contributes to the inclusion or exclusion of individuals involved in a communication situation, and use verbal and nonverbal communication that is inclusive of other individuals [for example, use empathetic listening skills when working in groups, and be aware of body language]

e. accept, offer and appreciate the value of constructive criticism [for example, use writing to respond to constructive criticism, and accept and provide feedback in a constructive and considerate manner]

f. explain, when applicable, how a specific text demonstrates that the parameters of public tolerance regarding the use of language and image have changed over time

5.1.2 Appreciate diversity of expression, opinion and perspective 

a. appreciate diversity of thought and expression, select and monitor appropriate strategies for appreciating diversity, and modify selected strategies as needed

b. explain how selected works of literature and other print and nonprint texts convey, shape and, at times, challenge individual and group values and behaviours

c. explain how a text creator's underlying assumptions influence his or her ideas, opinions and selection of supporting details

5.1.3 Recognize accomplishments and events 

a. use language and image to honour own and others' accomplishments [for example, celebrate together when classmates have accomplished a particular task or produced, published or presented a particular text; or celebrate the completion of a portfolio with family and friends by holding a "portfolio launch"]

b. describe various means by which language and image are used appropriately to honour people and to celebrate events, and explain how these means of using language and image help to build community [for example, heritage day; wall of honour or photography exhibit; and naming ceremonies, religious ceremonies and prayers of First Nations and Aboriginal peoples]

5.2 Work within a group
5.2.1 Cooperate with others, and contribute to group processes

a. set appropriate personal goals for participation in a group; respect, be open to, and be supportive of the thoughts, opinions and contributions of others in a group; and share personal knowledge, expertise and perspectives with others, as appropriate

b. reflect on and describe strategies used to negotiate, coordinate and cooperate with others; select appropriate strategies for negotiating, coordinating and cooperating with others; monitor selected strategies; and modify selected strategies as needed to accomplish group goals

c. ensure that a team's purpose and objectives are clear

5.2.2 Understand and evaluate group processes 

a. develop and use criteria to monitor and assess group processes [such as division of labour and time management]

b. analyze and explain the interplay among the roles adopted by group members; and lead or support, when appropriate, motivating a group for high performance

c. use and appreciate various means to facilitate completion of group projects

d. understand and appreciate the function of teamwork tools, assess how to work effectively and collaboratively as a team to accomplish a task, understand the role of conflict in a group to reach solutions, and manage and resolve conflict when appropriate

e. identify, analyze and assess the collaborative processes used by individuals whose careers involve the development and production of literary texts [such as the collaborative relationships of author, illustrator, editor and publisher and of playwright, actor, producer and director]





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