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English Language Arts K - Grade 9 (2000)

© Alberta Education, Canada 
 Table of Contents   Program of Studies
Rationale & Philosophy 
 
Outcomes 
 
Introduction

Clear student learning outcomes and high learning standards in the program of studies are designed to prepare students for present and future language requirements. Changes in society and technology have affected, and will continue to affect, the ways in which people use language to think, to communicate and to learn. Students must be prepared to meet new literacy demands in Canada and the international community. The ability to use language effectively enhances student opportunities to experience personal satisfaction and to become responsible, contributing citizens and lifelong learners.

The Importance of Language
The Nature of Language

Language is the basis of all communication and the primary instrument of thought. Composed of interrelated and rule-governed symbol systems, language is a social and uniquely human means of exploring and communicating meaning. As well as being a defining feature of culture, language is an unmistakable mark of personal identity and is essential for forming interpersonal relationships, extending experiences, reflecting on thought and action, and contributing to society.

Language Acquisition and Development

Language learning is an active process that begins at birth and continues throughout life. Children learn language as they use it to communicate their thoughts, feelings and experiences; establish relationships with family members and friends; and strive to make sense and order of their world. They may come to school speaking more than one language or learn another language in school. It is important to respect and build upon a child's first language. Experience in one language will benefit the learning of other languages.

In their early years, children develop language informally. Long before they understand explicit language rules and conventions, children reproduce the language they hear, and use language to construct and to convey new meaning in unique ways. Later, language learning occurs in specific contexts for specific purposes, such as learning about a specific subject, participating in the community, and pursuing work and leisure activities.

Language development is continuous and recursive throughout a student's life. Students enhance their language abilities by using what they know in new and more complex contexts and with increasing sophistication. They reflect on and use prior knowledge to extend and enhance their language and understanding. By learning and incorporating new language structures into their repertoire and using them in a variety of contexts, students develop language fluency and proficiency. Positive learning experiences enable students to leave school with a desire to continue to extend their knowledge, skills and interests.

Language Learning: A Shared Responsibility

Responsibility for language learning is shared by students, parents, teachers and the community. Students require ongoing opportunities to use language in its many forms. Opportunities to learn language occur first at home and are extended as children move into the larger community. Schools provide environments where students develop language knowledge, skills and strategies to achieve academic, personal and social goals.

Language development is the responsibility of all teachers. For example, subject area teachers teach the specialized language and forms of each subject. English language arts teachers; however, have a special role because of their focus on language, its forms and functions. They help students develop and apply strategies for comprehending, composing and responding in a variety of situations.

Thinking and Learning through Language

Thinking, learning and language are interrelated. From Kindergarten to Grade 12, students use language to make sense of and bring order to their world. They use language to examine new experiences and knowledge in relation to their prior knowledge, experiences and beliefs. They make connections, anticipate possibilities, reflect upon ideas and determine courses of action.

Language enables students to play an active role in various communities of learners within and beyond the classroom. As students speak, write and represent, they also listen to, read about and view the ideas and experiences of others. Critical and creative thinking and learning through language occur when students reflect, speculate, create, analyze and synthesize.

In addition, language facilitates student development of metacognitive awareness; that is, it enables them to reflect on and control their own thinking and learning processes. Language helps students develop an awareness of the skills and strategies they need to complete learning tasks successfully and to communicate about themselves as learners.

English Language Arts

The aim of English language arts is to enable each student to understand and appreciate language, and to use it confidently and competently in a variety of situations for communication, personal satisfaction and learning.

Students become confident and competent users of all six language arts through many opportunities to listen and speak, read and write, and view and represent in a variety of combinations and relevant contexts. All the language arts are interrelated and interdependent; facility in one strengthens and supports the others. In the outcomes of the program of studies, the six language arts are integrated.

Listening and Speaking

Oral language is the foundation of literacy. Through listening and speaking, people communicate thoughts, feelings, experiences, information and opinions, and learn to understand themselves and others. Oral language carries a community's stories, values, beliefs and traditions.

Listening and speaking enable students to explore ideas and concepts, as well as to understand and organize their experiences and knowledge. They use oral language to learn, solve problems and reach goals. To become discerning, lifelong learners, students at all grades need to develop fluency and confidence in their oral language abilities. They benefit from many opportunities to listen and speak both informally and formally for a variety of purposes.

Reading and Writing

Reading and writing are powerful means of communicating and learning. They enable students to extend their knowledge and use of language, increase their understanding of themselves and others, and experience enjoyment and personal satisfaction.

Reading provides students with a means of accessing the ideas, views and experiences of others. By using effective reading skills and strategies, students construct meaning and develop thoughtful and critical interpretations of a variety of texts. Writing enables students to explore, shape and clarify their thoughts, and to communicate them to others. By using effective writing strategies, they discover and refine ideas and compose and revise with increasing confidence and skill.

Viewing and Representing

Viewing and representing are integral parts of contemporary life. These skills allow students to understand the ways in which images and language may be used to convey ideas, values and beliefs.

Viewing is an active process of attending to and comprehending such visual media as television, advertising images, films, diagrams, symbols, photographs, videos, drama, drawings, sculpture and paintings. Viewing enables students to acquire information and to appreciate the ideas and experiences of others. Many of the comprehension processes involved in reading, such as previewing, predicting and making inferences, may also be used in viewing.

Representing enables students to communicate information and ideas through a variety of media, such as video presentations, posters, diagrams, charts, symbols, visual art, drama, mime and models.

Texts

In today's technological society, people access information and find enjoyment in print, as well as other language forms. For example, oral communication and visual media are becoming increasingly important. Often these forms are used in combination with one another and in conjunction with print. Therefore, texts refer not only to print but also to oral and visual forms that can be discussed, studied and analyzed. In addition, texts are affected and influenced by how they are transmitted, whether by computer, television, radio or book. Students need knowledge, skills and strategies in all six language arts to compose, comprehend and respond to such texts. Oral texts include storytelling, dialogues, speeches and conversations. Visual texts include pictures, diagrams, tableaux, mime and nonverbal communication. Combinations of oral, print or visual texts include videos, films, cartoons, drama and drum dancing.

Organization of the Program of Studies

Five general student outcomes serve as the foundation for the program of studies. General outcomes are broad statements identifying the knowledge, skills and attitudes that students are expected to demonstrate with increasing competence and confidence from Kindergarten to Grade 12. The general outcomes are interrelated and interdependent; each is to be achieved through a variety of listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and representing experiences.

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to:

  • explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences
  • comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts
  • manage ideas and information
  • enhance the clarity and artistry of communication
  • respect, support and collaborate with others.

Each general learning outcome includes specific outcomes that students are to achieve by the end of each grade. Specific outcomes are categorized under headings within each of the five general outcomes. The specific outcomes state the knowledge, skills and attitudes that students are expected to demonstrate by the end of each grade. They are relevant for all students in a variety of learning environments and are cumulative across the grades. Students are expected to demonstrate the specific outcomes for their current grade while building on and maintaining their ability to demonstrate the specific outcomes for previous grades.

It is intended that students engage in purposeful language activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

Outcomes for English Language Arts

The aim of English language arts is to enable each student to understand and appreciate language, and to use it confidently and competently in a variety of situations for communication, personal satisfaction and learning.

General Outcome 1

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

  • 1.1 Discover and explore
  • 1.2 Clarify and extend

General Outcome 2

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

  • 2.1 Use strategies and cues
  • 2.2 Respond to texts
  • 2.3 Understand forms, elements and techniques
  • 2.4 Create original text

General Outcome 3

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

  • 3.1 Plan and focus
  • 3.2 Select and process
  • 3.3 Organize, record and evaluate
  • 3.4 Share and review

General Outcome 4

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

  • 4.1 Enhance and improve
  • 4.2 Attend to conventions
  • 4.3 Present and share

General Outcome 5

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

  • 5.1 Respect others and strengthen community
  • 5.2 Work within a group
General Outcome 1 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

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It is intended that students engage in purposeful language arts activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

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Exploratory language enables students to organize and give meaning to experiences. Students use exploratory language to share thoughts, ideas and experiences, and to express and acknowledge emotions. Exploratory language enables students to discover and understand what they think and who they are. It also helps them reflect on themselves as language learners and language users. In addition, it helps them establish and maintain relationships.

Exploratory language is often oral. Through talk and conversation, students make observations, ask questions, hypothesize, make predictions and form opinions. Exploratory talk is often spontaneous. Sometimes students discover what they think at the point of utterance. Exploratory writing also helps students clarify their thinking. When students can see their ideas, thoughts, feelings and experiences in writing, they can reconsider, revise and elaborate on them in thoughtful ways. Representing is also used to explore ideas and interrelationships in diagrams, thought webs, charts and other visual media. Exploratory listening, reading and viewing enable students to gather and verify information, identify areas for further inquiry or research, and develop support for opinions.

As students progress through the grades, they develop the ability to use exploratory language to achieve the other English language arts learning outcomes. For example, exploratory talk and writing enhance student comprehension by focusing their prior knowledge and experiences before reading, listening and viewing, and subsequently help them understand and manage information. Students use exploratory language when analyzing, evaluating and responding to texts, and when deciding how to use language more effectively. They use conversation to collaborate on projects and to develop a classroom community.

General Outcome 2 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

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It is intended that students engage in purposeful language arts activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

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Students use a variety of strategies and cueing systems as they interact with oral, print and other media texts. They preview, ask questions and set purposes. Students attend to the ideas being presented, make and confirm predictions and inferences, and monitor their understanding. As they interact with texts, students respond by reflecting, creating, analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating. Successful learners adapt these strategies as they construct meaning from a variety of oral, print and other media texts.

Making meaning of oral, print and other media texts is fundamental to English language arts. Through these texts, students experience a variety of situations, people and cultures, and learn about themselves. Oral, print and other media texts allow for multiple interpretations. Students can respond personally to texts, by relating them to their prior knowledge, to their feelings and experiences, and to other texts. Through personal response, students explore and form values and beliefs. They respond critically to texts, by making interpretations and evaluating ideas, forms and techniques.

Students enhance their comprehension of and response to oral, print and other media texts through learning experiences in all the general outcomes. Exploratory talk and writing, for example, strengthen student understanding and evaluation of texts. Their appreciation of literary texts provides students with a range of topics and encourages them to experiment with a variety of forms in their own communication. Responding to oral, print and other media texts provides students with new insights.

General Outcome 3 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

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It is intended that students engage in purposeful language arts activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

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The ability to manage information is important in school, in the workplace, on the land, and for personal growth and satisfaction. Students learn to access and communicate information through language arts. Viewing and representing take on new importance in managing ideas and information; through these language arts, students learn to enhance the clarity and effectiveness of communication. Students learn to interpret and analyze texts, considering such factors as author, purpose, audience and source. They learn to define the need for information, ask questions, and gather and evaluate information.

Students enhance their ability to manage ideas and information in collaboration with others. For example, they benefit from opportunities to engage in exploratory language to focus their research and determine the kind and amount of information needed to accomplish their various purposes, both artistic and functional. Students communicate ideas and information more effectively when they select forms and conventions appropriate to specific purposes, content and audiences. The use of technology enhances student opportunities to access, create and communicate ideas and information. Skill in managing ideas and exchanging information helps students encourage, support and work with others.

General Outcome 4 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

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It is intended that students engage in purposeful language arts activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

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Learning effective strategies for using language with precision, clarity and artistry is interrelated with learning in the other general outcomes. Students use exploratory language to discover and focus their communication (General Outcome 1). Oral, print and other media texts provide vicarious experiences and new perspectives that students use for speaking, writing and representing (General Outcome 2). Students locate, gather and organize data to communicate ideas and information (General Outcome 3). Creating and communicating with language enhance collaboration and build community (General Outcome 5).

As students use English language arts in a variety of contexts with instruction, encouragement and support, they revise and edit to clarify meaning, achieve purposes and affect audiences. In doing so, they apply the conventions of grammar, language usage, spelling, punctuation and capitalization. They develop an understanding of how language works and use the specialized vocabulary of English language arts. As well, they develop confidence and skill in sharing and responding to thoughts, ideas and experiences through informal and formal presentations.

In school and in daily life, students are required to communicate ideas and information using well-organized, clear and precise language. They use artistic language to create, to express who they are and what they feel, and to share their experiences with others in a variety of oral, print and other media texts.

General Outcome 5 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

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It is intended that students engage in purposeful language arts activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

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Language is necessary for working together. Students learn collaboration skills by discussing in groups, by building on the ideas of others, and by planning and working together to meet common goals and strengthen community. In every classroom, students develop a sense of community. They learn to use language to offer assistance and to participate in and enrich their classroom community. In this way, students share perspectives and ideas, develop understanding and respect diversity.

Students learn that language is important for celebrating events of personal, social, community and national significance. In their language learning and use, they develop their knowledge of language forms and functions. As well, they come to know how language preserves and enriches culture. To celebrate their own use of language, students display their work, share with others, and delight both in their own and others' use of the language arts. Throughout Kindergarten to Grade 9, students use language to celebrate significant community and national events. Students need opportunities to reflect on, appraise and celebrate their achievements and growth.

Kindergarten
General Outcome 1 (K)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and Explore

Express ideas and develop understanding

  • share personal experiences prompted by oral, print and other media texts
  • talk about ideas, experiences and familiar events

Experiment with language and forms

  • talk and represent to explore, express and share stories, ideas and experiences

Express preferences

  • talk about favourite oral, print and other media texts

Set goals

  • talk about own reading and writing experiences
1.2 Clarify and Extend

Consider the ideas of others

  • listen to experiences and feelings shared by others

Combine ideas

  • connect related ideas and information

Extend understanding

  • express interest in new ideas and experiences
General Outcome 2 (K)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues

Use prior knowledge

  • connect oral language with print and pictures
  • understand that stories, information and personal experiences can be recorded in pictures and print and can be listened to, read or viewed
  • expect print and pictures to have meaning and to be related to each other in print and other media texts
  • understand that print and books are organized in predictable ways

Use comprehension strategies

  • begin to use language prediction skills when stories are read aloud
  • ask questions and make comments during listening and reading activities
  • recall events and characters in familiar stories read aloud by others
  • read own first name, environmental print and symbols, words that have personal significance and some words in texts

Use textual cues

  • attend to print cues when stories are read aloud
  • begin to identify some individual words in texts that have been read aloud

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • begin to make connections among sounds, letters, words, pictures and meaning
  • identify and generate rhyming words in oral language
  • hear and identify sounds in words
  • associate sounds with consonants that appear at the beginning of personally significant words

Use references

  • recite the letters of the alphabet in order
  • copy scribed words and print texts to assist with writing
2.2 Respond to Texts

Experience various texts

  • participate in shared listening, reading and viewing experiences, using oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as picture books, fairy tales, rhymes, stories, photographs, illustrations and video programs
  • listen and view attentively
  • identify favourite stories and books

Construct meaning from texts

  • relate aspects of oral, print and other media texts to personal feelings and experiences
  • talk about and represent the actions of characters portrayed in oral, print and other media texts
  • talk about experiences similar or related to those in oral, print and other media texts

Appreciate the artistry of texts

  • experiment with sounds, words, word patterns, rhymes and rhythms
2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques

Understand forms and genres

  • experience a variety of oral, print and other media texts

Understand techniques and elements

  • develop a sense of story through reading, listening and viewing experiences
  • identify the main characters in a variety of oral, print and other media texts

Experiment with language

  • appreciate the sounds and rhythms of language in shared language experiences, such as nursery rhymes and personal songs
2.4 Create Original Text

Generate ideas

  • contribute ideas and answer questions related to experiences and familiar oral, print and other media texts

Elaborate on the expression of ideas

  • listen to and recite short poems, songs and rhymes; and engage in word play and action songs

Structure texts

  • draw, record or tell about ideas and experiences
  • talk about and explain the meaning of own pictures and print
General Outcome 3 (K)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and Focus

Focus attention

  • attend to oral, print and other media texts on topics of interest
  • make statements about topics under discussion

Determine information needs

  • ask questions to satisfy personal curiosity

Plan to gather information

  • suggest ways to gather ideas and information
3.2 Select and Process

Use a variety of sources

  • seek information from a variety of sources, such as people at school, at home, in the community, picture books, photographs and videos

Access information

  • use illustrations, photographs, video programs, objects and auditory cues, to access information

Evaluate sources

  • ask questions to make sense of information
3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate

Organize information

  • categorize objects and pictures according to visual similarities and differences

Record information

  • represent and talk about ideas and information; dictate to a scribe

Evaluate information

  • share new learnings with others
3.4 Share and Review

Share ideas and information

  • share ideas and information about topics of interest

Review research process

  • share information-gathering experiences
General Outcome 4 (K)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and Improve

Appraise own and others' work

  • make statements related to the content of own and others' pictures, stories or talk

Revise and edit

  • retell ideas to clarify meaning in response to questions or comments

Enhance legibility

  • form recognizable letters by holding a pen or pencil in an appropriate and comfortable manner
  • explore the keyboard, using letters, numbers and the space bar

Expand knowledge of language

  • explore and experiment with new words and terms associated with topics of interest
  • experiment with rhymes and rhythms of language to learn new words

Enhance artistry

  • experiment with sounds, colours, print and pictures to express ideas and feelings
4.2 Attend to Conventions

Attend to grammar and usage

  • develop a sense of sentence

Attend to spelling

  • hear and identify dominant sounds in spoken words
  • demonstrate curiosity about visual features of letters and words with personal significance
  • connect letters with sounds in words
  • print own name, and copy environmental print and words with personal significance

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

  • recognize capital letters and periods in print texts
  • capitalize first letter of own name
4.3 Present and Share

Present information

  • share ideas and information about own drawings and topics of personal interest

Enhance presentation

  • use drawings to illustrate ideas and information, and talk about them

Use effective oral and visual communication

  • speak in a clear voice to share ideas and information

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

  • follow one- or two-step instructions
  • make comments that relate to the topic being discussed
General Outcome 5 (K)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect Others and Strengthen Community

Appreciate diversity

  • explore personal experiences and family traditions related to oral, print and other media texts

Relate texts to culture

  • explore oral, print and other media texts from various communities

Celebrate accomplishments and events

  • share stories, using rhymes, rhythms, symbols, pictures and drama to celebrate individual and class accomplishments

Use language to show respect

  • use appropriate words, phrases and statements with adults and peers when speaking and listening, sharing and taking turns
5.2 Work within a Group

Cooperate with others

  • participate in class and group activities
  • find ways to be helpful to others

Work in groups

  • ask and answer questions to determine what the class knows about a topic
  • listen to the ideas of others

Evaluate group process

  • respond to questions about personal contributions to group process
Grade 1 
General Outcome 1 (Gr. 1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and Explore

Express ideas and develop understanding

  • share personal experiences that are clearly related to oral, print and other media texts
  • talk with others about something recently learned
  • make observations about activities, experiences with oral, print and other media texts

Experiment with language and forms

  • experiment with different ways of exploring and developing stories, ideas and experiences

Express preferences

  • express preferences for a variety of oral, print and other media texts

Set goals

  • choose to read and write for and with others
1.2 Clarify and Extend

Consider the ideas of others

  • listen and respond appropriately to experiences and feelings shared by others

Combine ideas

  • group ideas and information into categories determined by an adult

Extend understanding

  • ask questions to get additional ideas and information on topics of interest
General Outcome 2 (Gr. 1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues

Use prior knowledge

  • use knowledge of how oral language is used in a variety of contexts to construct and confirm meaning
  • use previous experience and knowledge of oral language to make connections to the meaning of oral, print and other media texts
  • use knowledge of context, pictures, letters, words, sentences, predictable patterns and rhymes in a variety of oral, print and other media texts to construct and confirm meaning
  • use knowledge of print, pictures, book covers and title pages to construct and confirm meaning

Use comprehension strategies

  • use language prediction skills to identify unknown words within the context of a sentence
  • use a variety of strategies, such as making predictions, rereading and reading on
  • talk about print or other media texts previously read or viewed
  • identify the main idea or topic of simple narrative and expository texts
  • identify by sight some familiar words from favourite print texts
  • identify high frequency words by sight
  • read aloud with some fluency and accuracy, after rehearsal
  • self-correct when reading does not make sense, using cues such as pictures, context, phonics, grammatical awareness and background knowledge

Use textual cues

  • preview book cover, pictures and location of text to assist with constructing and confirming meaning
  • use word boundaries, capital letters, periods, question marks and exclamation marks to assist with constructing and confirming meaning during oral and silent reading

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • segment and blend sounds in words spoken or heard
  • use phonic knowledge and skills to read unfamiliar words in context
  • use analogy to generate and read phonically regular word families
  • associate sounds with letters and some letter clusters

Use references

  • use a displayed alphabet as an aid when writing
  • use personal word books, print texts and environmental print to assist with writing
  • name and match the upper and lower case forms of letters
2.2 Respond to Texts

Experience various texts

  • participate in shared listening, reading and viewing experiences, using oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as poems, storytelling by elders, pattern books, audiotapes, stories and cartoons
  • illustrate and enact stories, rhymes and songs
  • remember and retell familiar stories and rhymes

Construct meaning from texts

  • relate aspects of stories and characters to personal feelings and experiences
  • retell interesting or important aspects of oral, print and other media texts
  • tell or represent the beginning, middle and end of stories
  • tell, represent or write about experiences similar or related to those in oral, print and other media texts
  • tell what was liked or disliked about oral, print and other media texts

Appreciate the artistry of texts

  • identify how words can imitate sounds and create special effects
  • experiment with repetition, rhyme and rhythm to create effects in own oral, print and other media texts
2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques

Understand forms and genres

  • distinguish differences in the ways various oral, print and other media texts are organized
  • identify various forms of media texts

Understand techniques and elements

  • know that stories have beginnings, middles and endings
  • tell what characters do or what happens to them in a variety of ral, print and other media texts

Experiment with language

  • demonstrate interest in repetition, rhyme and rhythm in shared language experiences, such as action songs and word play
2.4 Create Original Text

Generate ideas

  • generate and contribute ideas for individual or group oral, print and other media texts

Elaborate on the expression of ideas

  • change, extend or complete rhymes, rhythms and sounds in pattern stories, poems, nursery rhymes and other oral, print and other media texts

Structure texts

  • write, represent and tell brief narratives about own ideas and experiences
  • recall and retell or represent favourite stories
General Outcome 3 (Gr. 1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and Focus

Focus attention

  • explore and share own ideas on topics of discussion and study
  • connect information from oral, print and other media texts to topics of study

Determine information needs

  • ask and answer questions to satisfy information needs on a specific topic

Plan to gather information

  • follow spoken directions for gathering ideas and information
3.2 Select and Process

Use a variety of sources

  • find information on a topic, using a variety of sources, such as picture books, concept books, people and field trips

Access information

  • use text features, such as illustrations, titles and opening shots in video programs, to access information
  • use questions to find specific information in oral, print and other media texts
  • understand that library materials are organized systematically

Evaluate sources

  • match information to research needs
3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate

Organize information

  • identify or categorize information according to sequence, or similarities and differences
  • list related ideas and information on a topic, and make statements to accompany pictures

Record information

  • represent and explain key facts and ideas in own words

Evaluate information

  • recognize and use gathered information to communicate new learning
3.4 Share and Review

Share ideas and information

  • share ideas and information from oral, print and other media texts with familiar audiences
  • answer questions directly related to texts

Review research process

  • talk about information gathering experiences by describing what was interesting, valuable or helpful
General Outcome 4 (Gr. 1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and Improve

Appraise own and others' work

  • ask or respond to questions or comments related to the content of own or others' pictures, stories or talk

Revise and edit

  • rephrase by adding or deleting words, ideas or information to make better sense
  • check for obvious spelling errors and missing words

Enhance legibility

  • print letters legibly from left to right, using lines on a page as a guide
  • use appropriate spacing between letters in words and between words in sentences
  • explore and use the keyboard to produce text

Expand knowledge of language

  • identify and use an increasing number of words and phrases related to personal interests and topics of study
  • experiment with letters, sounds, words and word patterns to learn new words

Enhance artistry

  • use words and pictures to add sensory detail in oral, print and other media texts
4.2 Attend to Conventions

Attend to grammar and usage

  • speak in complete statements, as appropriate
  • write simple statements, demonstrating awareness of capital letters and periods

Attend to spelling

  • use knowledge of consonant and short vowel sounds to spell phonically regular one syllable words in own writing
  • spell phonically irregular high frequency words in own writing
  • use phonic knowledge and skills and visual memory to attempt spelling of words needed for writing
  • know that words have conventionally accepted spellings

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

  • capitalize the first letter of names and the pronoun "I" in own writing
  • identify periods, exclamation marks and question marks when reading, and use them to assist comprehension
4.3 Present and Share

Present information

  • present ideas and information to a familiar audience, and respond to questions

Enhance presentation

  • add such details as labels, captions and pictures to oral, print and other media texts

Use effective oral and visual communication

  • speak in a clear voice, with appropriate volume, to an audience

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

  • ask questions to clarify information
  • be attentive and show interest during listening or viewing activities
General Outcome 5 (Gr. 1)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect Others and Strengthen Community

Appreciate diversity

  • share personal experiences and family traditions related to oral, print and other media texts

Relate texts to culture

  • talk about other times, places and people after exploring oral, print and other media texts from various communities

Celebrate accomplishments and events

  • share ideas and experiences through conversation, puppet plays, dramatic scenes and songs to celebrate individual and class accomplishments

Use language to show respect

  • use appropriate words, phrases and sentences to ask questions, to seek and give assistance, and to take turns
5.2 Work within a Group

Cooperate with others

  • work in partnerships and groups
  • help others and ask others for help

Work in groups

  • ask questions and contribute ideas related to class investigations on topics of interest
  • take turns sharing ideas and information

Evaluate group process

  • recognize personal contributions to group process
Grade 2 
General Outcome 1 (Gr. 2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and Explore

Express ideas and develop understanding

  • contribute relevant ideas and information from personal experiences to group language activities
  • talk about how new ideas and information have changed previous understanding
  • express or represent ideas and feelings resulting from activities or experiences with oral, print and other media texts

Experiment with language and forms

  • use a variety of forms of oral, print and other media texts to organize and give meaning to experiences, ideas and information

Express preferences

  • explain why particular oral, print or other media texts are personal favourites

Set goals

  • recognize and talk about developing abilities as readers, writers and illustrators
1.2 Clarify and Extend

Consider the ideas of others

  • connect own ideas and experiences with those shared by others

Combine ideas

  • record ideas and information in ways that make sense

Extend understanding

  • find more information about new ideas and topics
General Outcome 2 (Gr. 2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues

Use prior knowledge

  • use knowledge of how oral and written language is used in a variety of contexts to construct and confirm meaning
  • connect personal experiences and knowledge of words, sentences and story patterns from previous reading experiences to construct and confirm meaning
  • use knowledge of the organizational structures of print and stories, such as book covers, titles, pictures and typical beginnings, to construct and confirm meaning

Use comprehension strategies

  • use knowledge of oral language to predict words when reading stories and poems
  • apply a variety of strategies, such as asking questions, making predictions, recognizing relationships among story elements and drawing conclusions
  • identify the main idea or topic and supporting details of simple narrative and expository texts
  • identify by sight an increasing number of high frequency words and familiar words from favourite books
  • read aloud with fluency, accuracy and expression
  • figure out, predict and monitor the meaning of unfamiliar words to make sense of reading, using cues such as pictures, context, phonics, grammatical awareness and background knowledge

Use textual cues

  • preview book covers and titles; look for familiar words, phrases and story patterns to assist with constructing and confirming meaning
  • use predictable phrases and sentence patterns, and attend to capital letters, periods, question marks and exclamation marks to read accurately, fluently and with comprehension during oral and silent reading

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • apply phonic rules and generalizations to read unfamiliar words in context
  • apply knowledge of long and short vowel sounds to read unfamiliar words in context
  • use knowledge of word parts, contractions and compound words to read unfamiliar words in context
  • associate sounds with some vowel combinations, consonant blends and digraphs, and letter clusters to read unfamiliar words in context

Use references

  • put words in alphabetical order by first letter 
  • use pictionaries and personal word books to confirm the spellings or locate the meanings of unfamiliar words in oral, print and other media texts
2.2 Respond to Texts

Experience various texts

  • engage in a variety of shared and independent listening, reading and viewing experiences, using oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as legends, video programs, puppet plays, songs, riddles and informational texts
  • identify favourite kinds of oral, print and other media texts
  • model own oral, print and other media texts on familiar forms
  • respond to mood established in a variety of oral, print and other media texts

Construct meaning from texts

  • connect situations portrayed in oral, print and other media texts to personal and classroom experiences
  • retell the events portrayed in oral, print and other media texts in sequence
  • suggest alternative endings for oral, print and other media texts
  • discuss, represent or write about interesting or important aspects of oral, print and other media texts
  • express thoughts or feelings related to the events and characters in oral, print and other media texts

Appreciate the artistry of texts

  • identify and use words and sentences that have particular emotional effects
  • identify words in oral, print and other media texts that create clear pictures or impressions of sounds and sights
2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques

Understand forms and genres

  • recognize that ideas and information can be expressed in a variety of oral, print and other media texts
  • identify and explain the use of various communication technologies

Understand techniques and elements

  • identify main characters, places and events in a variety of oral, print and other media texts
  • identify how pictures, illustrations and special fonts relate to and enhance print and other media texts

Experiment with language

  • demonstrate interest in the sounds of words and word combinations in pattern books, poems, songs, and oral and visual presentations
2.4 Create Original Text

Generate ideas

  • use own and respond to others' ideas to create oral, print and other media texts

Elaborate on the expression of ideas

  • add descriptive words to elaborate on ideas and create particular effects in oral, print and other media texts

Structure texts

  • create narratives that have beginnings, middles and ends; settings; and main characters that perform actions
  • use traditional story beginnings, patterns and stock characters in own oral, print and other media texts
General Outcome 3 (Gr. 2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and Focus

Focus attention

  • relate personal knowledge to ideas and information in oral, print and other media texts
  • ask questions to determine the main idea of oral, print and other media texts

Determine information needs

  • ask questions to focus on particular aspects of topics for own investigations

Plan to gather information

  • recall and follow directions for accessing and gathering ideas and information
3.2 Select and Process

Use a variety of sources

  • find information on a topic, using a variety of sources, such as simple chapter books, multimedia resources, computers and elders in the community

Access information

  • use text features, such as table of contents, key words, captions and hot links, to access information
  • use given categories and specific questions to find information in oral, print and other media texts
  • use the library organizational system to locate information

Evaluate sources

  • recognize when information answers the questions asked
3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate

Organize information

  • categorize related ideas and information, using a variety of strategies, such as finding significant details and sequencing events in logical order
  • produce oral, print and other media texts with introductions, middles and conclusions

Record information

  • record key facts and ideas in own words; identify titles and authors of sources

Evaluate information

  • examine gathered information to decide what information to share or omit
3.4 Share and Review

Share ideas and information

  • share, with familiar audiences, ideas and information on topics
  • clarify information by responding to questions

Review research process

  • answer questions, such as "What did I do that worked well?" to reflect on research experiences
General Outcome 4 (Gr. 2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and Improve

Appraise own and others' work

  • identify features that make own or peers' oral, print or other media texts interesting or appealing

Revise and edit

  • revise words and sentences to improve sequence or add missing information
  • check for capital letters, punctuation at the end of sentences and errors in spelling

Enhance legibility

  • print legibly and efficiently, forming letters of consistent size and shape, and spacing words appropriately
  • use margins and spacing appropriately
  • explore and use the keyboard to compose and revise text

Expand knowledge of language

  • develop categories of words associated with experiences and topics of interest
  • use knowledge of word patterns, word combinations and parts of words to learn new words

Enhance artistry

  • choose words, language patterns, illustrations or sounds to create a variety of effects in oral, print and other media texts
4.2 Attend to Conventions

Attend to grammar and usage

  • write complete sentences, using capital letters and periods
  • use connecting words to join related ideas in a sentence
  • identify nouns and verbs, and use in own writing
  • identify adjectives and adverbs that add interest and detail to stories

Attend to spelling

  • use phonic knowledge and skills and visual memory to spell words of more than one syllable, high frequency irregular words and regular plurals in own writing
  • use phonic knowledge and skills and visual memory to attempt spelling of unfamiliar words in own writing
  • use the conventional spelling of common words necessary for the efficient communication of ideas in writing

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

  • use capital letters for proper nouns and at the beginning of sentences in own writing
  • use periods and question marks, appropriately, as end punctuation in own writing
  • use commas after greetings and closures in friendly letters and to separate words in a series in own writing
  • identify commas and apostrophes when reading, and use them to assist comprehension
4.3 Present and Share

Present information

  • present ideas and information by combining illustrations and written texts

Enhance presentation

  • clarify ideas and information presented in own oral, print and other media texts, by responding to questions and comments

Use effective oral and visual communication

  • speak in a clear voice, with appropriate volume, at an understandable pace and with expression

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

  • ask relevant questions to clarify understanding and to have information explained
  • show enjoyment and appreciation during listening and viewing activities
General Outcome 5 (Gr. 2)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect Others and Strengthen Community

Appreciate diversity

  • discuss the experiences and traditions of various communities portrayed in oral, print and other media texts
  • ask for and provide clarification and elaboration of stories and ideas

Relate texts to culture

  • discuss similarities and differences in settings, characters and events in oral, print and other media texts from various communities

Celebrate accomplishments and events

  • participate in shared language experiences to acknowledge and celebrate individual and class accomplishments

Use language to show respect

  • adjust own language use according to the context, purpose and audience
5.2 Work within a Group

Cooperate with others

  • work in a variety of partnerships and group structures
  • identify ways that class members can help each other

Work in groups

  • contribute relevant information and questions to extend group understanding of topics and tasks
  • stay on topic during class and group discussions

Evaluate group process

  • recognize own and others' contributions to group process
Grade 3 
General Outcome 1 (Gr. 3)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and Explore

Express ideas and develop understanding

  • connect prior knowledge and personal experiences with new ideas and information in oral, print and other media texts
  • explain understanding of new concepts in own words
  • explore ideas and feelings by asking questions, talking to others and referring to oral, print and other media texts

Experiment with language and forms

  • choose appropriate forms of oral, print and other media texts for communicating and sharing ideas with others

Express preferences

  • choose and share a variety of oral, print and other media texts in areas of particular interest

Set goals

  • discuss areas of personal accomplishment as readers, writers and illustrators
1.2 Clarify and Extend

Consider the ideas of others

  • ask for the ideas and observations of others to explore and clarify personal understanding

Combine ideas

  • experiment with arranging and recording ideas and information in a variety of ways

Extend understanding

  • ask questions to clarify information and ensure understanding
General Outcome 2 (Gr. 3)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues

Use prior knowledge

  • share ideas developed through interests, experiences and discussion that are related to new ideas and information
  • identify the different ways in which oral, print and other media texts, such as stories, textbooks, letters, pictionaries and junior dictionaries, are organized, and use them to construct and confirm meaning

Use comprehension strategies

  • use grammatical knowledge to predict words and sentence structures when reading narrative and expository materials
  • apply a variety of strategies, such as setting a purpose, confirming predictions, making inferences and drawing conclusions
  • identify the main idea or topic and supporting details in simple narrative and expository passages
  • extend sight vocabulary to include predictable phrases and words related to language use
  • read silently with increasing confidence and accuracy
  • monitor and confirm meaning by rereading when necessary, and by applying knowledge of pragmatic, semantic, syntactic and graphophonic cueing systems

Use textual cues

  • use headings, paragraphs, punctuation and quotation marks to assist with constructing and confirming meaning
  • attend to and use knowledge of capitalization, commas in a series, question marks, exclamation marks and quotation marks to read accurately, fluently and with comprehension during oral and silent reading

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • apply phonic rules and generalizations competently and confidently to read unfamiliar words in context
  • apply word analysis strategies to segment words into parts or syllables, when reading unfamiliar words in context
  • associate sounds with an increasing number of vowel combinations, consonant blends and digraphs, and letter clusters to read unfamiliar words in context

Use references

  • put words in alphabetical order by first and second letter 
  • use pictionaries, junior dictionaries and spell-check functions to confirm the spellings or locate the meanings of unfamiliar words in oral, print and other media texts
2.2 Respond to Texts

Experience various texts

  • choose a variety of oral, print and other media texts for shared and independent listening, reading and viewing experiences, using texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as nonfiction, chapter books, illustrated storybooks, drum dances, fables, CDROM programs and plays
  • tell or write about favourite parts of oral, print and other media texts
  • identify types of literature, such as humour, poetry, adventure and fairy tales, and describe favourites
  • connect own experiences with the experiences of individuals portrayed in oral, print and other media texts, using textual references

Construct meaning from texts

  • connect portrayals of characters or situations in oral, print and other media texts to personal and classroom experiences
  • summarize the main idea of individual oral, print and other media texts
  • discuss, represent or write about ideas in oral, print and other media texts, and relate them to own ideas and experiences and to other texts
  • make inferences about a character's actions or feelings
  • express preferences for one character over another

Appreciate the artistry of texts

  • express feelings related to words, visuals and sound in oral, print and other media texts
  • identify how authors use comparisons, and explain how they create mental images
2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques

Understand forms and genres

  • identify distinguishing features of a variety of oral, print and other media texts
  • discuss ways that visual images convey meaning in print and other media texts

Understand techniques and elements

  • include events, setting and characters when summarizing or retelling oral, print or other media texts
  • describe the main characters in terms of who they are, their actions in the story and their relations with other characters
  • identify ways that messages are enhanced in oral, print and other media texts by the use of specific techniques

Experiment with language

  • recognize examples of repeated humour, sound and poetic effects that contribute to audience enjoyment
2.4 Create Original Text

Generate ideas

  • experiment with ways of generating and organizing ideas prior to creating oral, print and other media texts

Elaborate on the expression of ideas

  • use sentence variety to link ideas and create impressions on familiar audiences

Structure texts

  • experiment with a variety of story beginnings to choose ones that best introduce particular stories
  • add sufficient detail to oral, print and other media texts to tell about setting and character, and to sustain plot
General Outcome 3 (Gr. 3)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and Focus

Focus attention

  • use self-questioning to identify information needed to supplement personal knowledge on a topic
  • identify facts and opinions, main ideas and details in oral, print and other media texts

Determine information needs

  • ask topic-appropriate questions to identify information needs

Plan to gather information

  • contribute ideas for developing a class plan to access and gather ideas and information
3.2 Select and Process

Use a variety of sources

  • find information to answer research questions, using a variety of sources, such as children's magazines, CDROMs, plays, folk tales, songs, stories and the environment

Access information

  • use text features, such as titles, pictures, headings, labels, diagrams and dictionary guide words, to access information
  • locate answers to questions and extract appropriate and significant information from oral, print and other media texts
  • use card or electronic catalogues to locate information

Evaluate sources

  • review information to determine its usefulness in answering research questions
3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate

Organize information

  • organize ideas and information, using a variety of strategies, such as clustering, categorizing and sequencing
  • draft ideas and information into short paragraphs, with topic and supporting sentences

Record information

  • record facts and ideas using a variety of strategies; list titles and authors of sources
  • list significant ideas and information from oral, print and other media texts

Evaluate information

  • determine if gathered information is sufficient to answer research questions
3.4 Share and Review

Share ideas and information

  • organize and share ideas and information on topics to engage familiar audiences
  • use titles, headings and visuals to add interest and highlight important points of presentation

Review research process

  • assess the research process, using pre-established criteria
General Outcome 4 (Gr. 3)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and Improve

Appraise own and others' work

  • share own oral, print and other media texts with others to identify strengths and ideas for improvement

Revise and edit

  • combine and rearrange existing information to accommodate new ideas and information
  • edit for complete and incomplete sentences

Enhance legibility

  • print legibly, and begin to learn proper alignment, shape and slant of cursive writing
  • space words and sentences consistently on a line and page
  • use keyboarding skills to compose, revise and print text
  • understand and use vocabulary associated with keyboarding and word processing

Expand knowledge of language

  • explain relationships among words and concepts associated with topics of study
  • experiment with words and word meanings to produce a variety of effects

Enhance artistry

  • choose words, language patterns, illustrations or sounds to add detail and create desired effects in oral, print and other media texts
4.2 Attend to Conventions

Attend to grammar and usage

  • identify a variety of sentence types, and use in own writing
  • identify correct subject-verb agreement, and use in own writing
  • use adjectives and adverbs to add interest and detail to own writing
  • distinguish between complete and incomplete sentences

Attend to spelling

  • use phonic knowledge and skills and visual memory, systematically, to spell phonically regular, three-syllable words in own writing
  • identify generalizations that assist with the spelling of unfamiliar words, including irregular plurals in own writing
  • identify frequently misspelled words, and develop strategies for learning to spell them correctly in own writing

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

  • use capital letters appropriately in titles of books and stories
  • use exclamation marks, appropriately, as end punctuation in own writing
  • use apostrophes to form common contractions and to show possession in own writing
  • identify commas, end punctuation, apostrophes and quotation marks when reading, and use them to assist comprehension
4.3 Present and Share

Present information

  • present ideas and information on a topic, using a pre-established plan

Enhance presentation

  • use print and nonprint aids to illustrate ideas and information in oral, print and other media texts

Use effective oral and visual communication

  • speak or present oral readings with fluency, rhythm, pace, and with appropriate intonation to emphasize key ideas

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

  • rephrase, restate and explain the meaning of oral and visual presentations
  • identify and set purposes for listening and viewing
General Outcome 5 (Gr. 3)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect Others and Strengthen Community

Appreciate diversity

  • describe similarities between experiences and traditions encountered in daily life and those portrayed in oral, print and other media texts
  • retell, paraphrase or explain ideas in oral, print and other media texts

Relate texts to culture

  • identify and discuss similar ideas or topics within stories from oral, print and other media texts from various communities

Celebrate accomplishments and events

  • use appropriate language to acknowledge and celebrate individual and class accomplishments

Use language to show respect

  • demonstrate respect for the ideas, abilities and language use of others
5.2 Work within a Group

Cooperate with others

  • work cooperatively with others in small groups on structured tasks
  • identify others who can provide assistance, and seek their help in specific situations

Work in groups

  • contribute ideas and information on topics to develop a common knowledge base in the group
  • ask others for their ideas, and express interest in their contributions

Evaluate group process

  • assess the effectiveness of group process, using pre-established criteria
Grade 4 
General Outcome 1 (Gr. 4)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and Explore

Express ideas and develop understanding

  • compare new ideas, information and experiences to prior knowledge and experiences
  • ask questions, paraphrase and discuss to explore ideas and understand new concepts
  • share personal responses to explore and develop understanding of oral, print and other media texts

Experiment with language and forms  

  • discuss and compare the ways similar topics are developed in different forms of oral, print and other media texts

Express preferences

  • select preferred forms from a variety of oral, print and other media texts

Set goals

  • identify areas of personal accomplishment and areas for enhancement in language learning and use
1.2 Clarify and Extend

Consider the ideas of others

  • identify other perspectives by exploring a variety of ideas, opinions, responses and oral, print and other media texts

Combine ideas

  • use talk, notes, personal writing and representing to record and reflect on ideas, information and experiences

Extend understanding

  • explore ways to find additional ideas and information to extend understanding
General Outcome 2 (Gr. 4)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues

Use prior knowledge

  • use ideas and concepts, developed through personal interests, experiences and discussion, to understand new ideas and information
  • explain how the organizational structure of oral, print and other media texts can assist in constructing and confirming meaning

Use comprehension strategies

  • preview sections of print texts to identify the general nature of the information and to set appropriate purpose and reading rate
  • comprehend new ideas and information by responding personally and discussing ideas with others
  • extend sight vocabulary to include words frequently used in other subject areas
  • monitor understanding by confirming or revising inferences and predictions based on information in text

Use textual cues

  • use text features, such as headings, subheadings and margin organizers, to enhance understanding of ideas and information
  • distinguish differences in the structural elements of texts, such as letters and storybooks, to access and comprehend ideas and information

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • identify and know the meaning of some frequently used prefixes and suffixes
  • apply knowledge of root words, compound words, syllabication, contractions and complex word families to read unfamiliar words in context
  • integrate knowledge of phonics and sight vocabulary with knowledge of language and context clues to read unfamiliar words in context

Use references

  • use alphabetical order by first and second letter to locate information in reference materials
  • use junior dictionaries, spell-check functions and electronic dictionaries to confirm the spellings or locate the meanings of unfamiliar words in oral, print and other media texts
2.2 Respond to Texts

Experience various texts

  • experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as personal narratives, plays, novels, video programs, adventure stories, folk tales, informational texts, mysteries, poetry and CDROM programs
  • identify and discuss favourite authors, topics and kinds of oral, print and other media texts
  • discuss a variety of oral, print or other media texts by the same author, illustrator, storyteller or filmmaker
  • retell events of stories in another form or medium
  • make general evaluative statements about oral, print and other media texts

Construct meaning from texts

  • connect the thoughts and actions of characters portrayed in oral, print and other media texts to personal and classroom experiences
  • identify the main events in oral, print and other media texts; explain their causes, and describe how they influence subsequent events
  • compare similar oral, print and other media texts and express preferences, using evidence from personal experiences and the texts
  • develop own opinions based on ideas encountered in oral, print and other media texts

Appreciate the artistry of texts

  • explain how onomatopoeia and alliteration are used to create mental images
  • explain how language and visuals work together to communicate meaning and enhance effect 
2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques

Understand forms and genres

  • describe and compare the main characteristics of a variety of oral, print and other media texts
  • identify various ways that information can be recorded and presented visually

Understand techniques and elements  

  • identify and explain connections among events, setting and main characters in oral, print and other media texts
  • identify the speaker or narrator of oral, print or other media texts
  • identify how specific techniques are used to affect viewer perceptions in media texts

Experiment with language  

  • recognize how words and word combinations, such as word play, repetition and rhyme, influence or convey meaning 
2.4 Create Original Text

Generate ideas

  • use a variety of strategies for generating and organizing ideas and experiences in oral, print and other media texts

Elaborate on the expression of ideas

  • select and use visuals that enhance meaning of oral, print and other media texts

Structure texts

  • produce oral, print and other media texts that follow a logical sequence, and demonstrate clear relationships between character and plot
  • produce narratives that describe experiences and reflect personal responses
General Outcome 3 (Gr. 4)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and Focus

Focus attention

  • use organizational patterns of expository texts to understand ideas and information
  • focus topics appropriately for particular audiences

Determine information needs

  • ask relevant questions, and respond to questions related to particular topics

Plan to gather information

  • develop and follow a class plan for accessing and gathering ideas and information
3.2 Select and Process

Use a variety of sources

  • locate information to answer research questions, using a variety of sources, such as maps, atlases, charts, dictionaries, school libraries, video programs, elders in the community and field trips

Access information

  • use a variety of tools, such as indices, legends, charts, glossaries, typographical features and dictionary guide words, to access information
  • identify information sources that inform, persuade or entertain, and use such sources appropriately

Evaluate sources

  • recall important points, and make and revise predictions regarding upcoming information
3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate

Organize information  

  • organize ideas and information, using appropriate categories, chronological order, cause and effect, or posing and answering questions
  • record ideas and information that are on topic
  • organize oral, print and other media texts into sections that relate to and develop the topic

Record information

  • make notes of key words, phrases and images by subtopics; cite titles and authors of sources alphabetically
  • paraphrase information from oral, print and other media sources

Evaluate information

  • examine gathered information to identify if more information is required; review new understanding
3.4 Share and Review

Share ideas and information

  • communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as short reports, talks and posters
  • select visuals, print and/or other media to add interest and to engage the audience

Review research process

  • identify strengths and areas for improvement in research process
General Outcome 4 (Gr. 4)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and Improve

Appraise own and others' work

  • identify the general impression and main idea communicated by own and peers' oral, print and other media texts
  • use pre-established criteria to provide support and feedback to peers on their oral, print and other media texts

Revise and edit

  • revise to ensure an understandable progression of ideas and information
  • identify and reduce fragments and run-on sentences
  • edit for subject-verb agreement

Enhance legibility

  • write legibly, using a style that demonstrates awareness of alignment, shape and slant
  • use special features of software when composing, formatting and revising texts

Expand knowledge of language

  • use an increasing variety of words to express and extend understanding of concepts related to personal interests and topics of study
  • recognize English words and expressions that come from other cultures or languages

Enhance artistry

  • experiment with combining detail, voice-over, music and dialogue with sequence of events
4.2 Attend to Conventions

Attend to grammar and usage

  • identify simple and compound sentence structures, and use in own writing
  • identify correct noun-pronoun agreement, and use in own writing
  • identify past, present and future action

Attend to spelling

  • use phonic knowledge and skills and visual memory, systematically, to spell multisyllable words in own writing
  • identify and apply common spelling generalizations in own writing
  • apply strategies for identifying and learning to spell problem words in own writing

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

  • use capitalization to designate organizations and to indicate the beginning of quotations in own writing
  • use commas after introductory words in sentences and when citing addresses in own writing
  • identify quotation marks in passages of dialogue, and use them to assist comprehension
4.3 Present and Share

Present information

  • present to peers ideas and information on a topic of interest, in a well-organized form

Enhance presentation

  • add interest to presentations through the use of props, such as pictures, overheads and artifacts

Use effective oral and visual communication

  • adjust volume, tone of voice and gestures appropriately, to suit a variety of social and classroom activities

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

  • connect own ideas, opinions and experiences to those communicated in oral and visual presentations
  • give constructive feedback, ask relevant questions, and express related opinions in response to oral and visual presentations
General Outcome 5 (Gr. 4)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect Others and Strengthen Community

Appreciate diversity

  • describe similarities and differences between personal experiences and the experiences of people or characters from various cultures portrayed in oral, print and other media texts
  • appreciate that responses to some oral, print or other media texts may be different

Relate texts to culture

  • identify and discuss main characters, plots, settings and illustrations in oral, print and other media texts from diverse cultures and communities

Celebrate accomplishments and events

  • use appropriate language to acknowledge special events and to honour accomplishments in and beyond the classroom

Use language to show respect

  • identify and discuss differences in language use in a variety of school and community contexts
5.2 Work within a Group

Cooperate with others

  • take responsibility for collaborating with others to achieve group goals
  • ask for and provide information and assistance, as appropriate, for completing individual and group tasks

Work in groups

  • share personal knowledge of a topic to develop purposes for research or investigations and possible categories of questions
  • use brainstorming, summarizing and reporting to organize and carry out group projects

Evaluate group process

  • assess group process, using established criteria, and determine areas for improvement
Grade 5 
General Outcome 1 (Gr. 5)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and Explore

Express ideas and develop understanding

  • use appropriate prior knowledge and experiences to make sense of new ideas and information
  • read, write, represent and talk to explore personal understandings of new ideas and information
  • use own experiences as a basis for exploring and expressing opinions and understanding

Experiment with language and forms  

  • select from provided forms of oral, print and other media texts those that best organize ideas and information and develop understanding of topics

Express preferences

  • select and explain preferences for particular forms of oral, print and other media texts

Set goals

  • reflect on areas of personal accomplishment, and set personal goals to improve language learning and use
1.2 Clarify and Extend

Consider the ideas of others

  • seek the viewpoints of others to build on personal responses and understanding

Combine ideas

  • use talk, notes, personal writing and representing to explore relationships among own ideas and experiences, those of others and those encountered in oral, print and other media texts

Extend understanding

  • search for further ideas and information from others and from oral, print and other media texts to extend understanding
General Outcome 2 (Gr. 5)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues

Use prior knowledge

  • describe ways that personal experiences and prior knowledge contribute to understanding new ideas and information
  • use knowledge of organizational structures, such as tables of contents, indices, topic sentences and headings, to locate information and to construct and confirm meaning

Use comprehension strategies

  • preview sections of print texts, and apply reading rate and strategies appropriate for the purpose, content and format of the texts
  • comprehend new ideas and information by responding personally, taking notes and discussing ideas with others
  • use the meanings of familiar words to predict the meanings of unfamiliar words in context
  • monitor understanding by comparing personal knowledge and experiences with information on the same topic from a variety of sources

Use textual cues

  • use text features, such as maps, diagrams, special fonts and graphics, that highlight important concepts to enhance understanding of ideas and information
  • identify and use the structural elements of texts, such as letters, brochures, glossaries and encyclopedias, to access and comprehend ideas and information

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • identify and know by sight the meaning of high frequency prefixes and suffixes to read unfamiliar, multisyllable words in context
  • integrate knowledge of phonics, sight vocabulary and structural analysis with knowledge of language and context clues to read unfamiliar words in context

Use references

  • find words in dictionaries and glossaries to confirm the spellings or locate the meanings, by using knowledge of phonics and structural analysis, alphabetical order and guide words
2.2 Respond to Texts

Experience various texts

  • experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as historical fiction, myths, biographies, poetry, news reports and guest speakers
  • express points of view about oral, print and other media texts
  • make connections between fictional texts and historical events
  • describe and discuss new places, times, characters and events encountered in oral, print and other media texts
  • write or represent the meaning of texts in different forms

Construct meaning from texts

  • compare characters and situations portrayed in oral, print and other media texts to those encountered in the classroom and community
  • describe characters' qualities based on what they say and do and how they are described in oral, print and other media texts
  • describe and discuss the influence of setting on the characters and events
  • support own interpretations of oral, print and other media texts, using evidence from personal experiences and the texts
  • retell or represent stories from the points of view of different characters

Appreciate the artistry of texts

  • explain how simile and hyperbole are used to create mood and mental images
  • alter sentences and word choices to enhance meaning and to create mood and special effects
2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques

Understand forms and genres

  • identify and discuss similarities and differences among a variety of forms of oral, print and other media texts
  • identify the main characteristics of familiar media and media texts

Understand techniques and elements  

  • identify the main problem or conflict in oral, print and other media texts, and explain how it is resolved
  • identify and discuss the main character's point of view and motivation
  • identify examples of apt word choice and imagery that create particular effects
  • identify sections or elements in print or other media texts, such as shots in films or sections in magazines

Experiment with language  

  • experiment with words and sentence patterns to create word pictures; identify how imagery and figurative language, such as simile and exaggeration, convey meaning
2.4 Create Original Text

Generate ideas

  • use texts from listening, reading and viewing experiences as models for producing own oral, print and other media texts

Elaborate on the expression of ideas

  • experiment with modeled forms of oral, print and other media texts to suit particular audiences and purposes

Structure texts

  • use structures encountered in texts to organize and present ideas in own oral, print and other media texts
  • use own experience as a starting point and source of information for fictional oral, print and other media texts
General Outcome 3 (Gr. 5)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and Focus

Focus attention

  • summarize important ideas in oral, print and other media texts and express opinions about them
  • combine personal knowledge of topics with understanding of audience needs to focus topics for investigation

Determine information needs

  • identify categories of information related to particular topics, and ask questions related to each category

Plan to gather information

  • develop and follow own plan for gathering and recording ideas and information
3.2 Select and Process

Use a variety of sources

  • locate information to answer research questions, using a variety of sources, such as newspapers, encyclopedias, CDROMs, a series by the same writer, scripts, diaries, autobiographies, interviews and oral traditions

Access information  

  • use a variety of tools, such as chapter headings, glossaries and encyclopedia guide words, to access information
  • skim, scan and listen for key words and phrases

Evaluate sources

  • determine the usefulness and relevance of information for research purpose and focus, using pre-established criteria
3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate

Organize information  

  • use clear organizational structures, such as chronological order, and cause and effect, to link ideas and information and to assist audience understanding
  • organize ideas and information to emphasize key points for the audience
  • add, delete or combine ideas to communicate more effectively

Record information

  • record information in own words; cite titles and authors alphabetically, and provide publication dates of sources
  • combine ideas and information from several sources
  • record ideas and information in relevant categories, according to a research plan

Evaluate information

  • connect gathered information to prior knowledge to reach new conclusions
3.4 Share and Review

Share ideas and information

  • communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as illustrated reports, charts, graphic displays and travelogues
  • select visuals, print and/or other media to inform and engage the audience

Review research process

  • assess personal research skills, using pre-established criteria
General Outcome 4 (Gr. 5)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and Improve

Appraise own and others' work

  • develop criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of oral, print and other media texts
  • use developed criteria to provide feedback to others and to revise own work

Revise and edit

  • revise to add and organize details that support and clarify intended meaning
  • edit for appropriate use of statements, questions and exclamations

Enhance legibility

  • write legibly, using a style that is consistent in alignment, shape and slant
  • apply word processing skills, and use publishing programs to organize information

Expand knowledge of language

  • extend word choice through knowledge of synonyms, antonyms and homonyms and the use of a thesaurus
  • distinguish different meanings for the same word, depending on the context in which it is used

Enhance artistry

  • experiment with words, phrases, sentences and multimedia effects to enhance meaning and emphasis 
4.2 Attend to Conventions

Attend to grammar and usage

  • use words and phrases to modify and clarify ideas in own writing
  • use connecting words to link ideas in sentences and paragraphs
  • identify irregular verbs, and use in own writing
  • identify past, present and future verb tenses, and use in sentences

Attend to spelling

  • use phonic knowledge and skills, visual memory, the meaning and function of words in context, and spelling generalizations to spell with accuracy in own writing
  • study and use the correct spelling of commonly misspelled words in own writing
  • know and consistently apply spelling conventions when editing and proofreading own writing

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

  • use capital letters, appropriately, in titles, headings and subheadings in own writing
  • use quotation marks and separate paragraphs to indicate passages of dialogue in own writing
  • recognize various uses of apostrophes, and use them appropriately in own writing
4.3 Present and Share

Present information

  • organize ideas and information in presentations to maintain a clear focus and engage the audience

Enhance presentation

  • use effective openings and closings that attract and sustain reader or audience interest

Use effective oral and visual communication

  • adjust volume, tone of voice and gestures to engage the audience; arrange presentation space to focus audience attention

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

  • identify and interpret the purpose of verbal and nonverbal messages and the perspectives of the presenter 
  • show respect for the presenter's opinions by listening politely and providing thoughtful feedback
General Outcome 5 (Gr. 5)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect Others and Strengthen Community

Appreciate diversity

  • discuss personal understanding of the lives of people or characters in various communities, cultural traditions, places and times portrayed in oral, print and other media texts
  • compare own and others' responses to ideas and experiences related to oral, print and other media texts

Relate texts to culture

  • identify and discuss how qualities, such as courage, ambition and loyalty, are portrayed in oral, print and other media texts from diverse cultures and communities

Celebrate accomplishments and events

  • select and use language appropriate in tone and form to recognize and honour people and events

Use language to show respect

  • determine and use language appropriate to the context of specific situations
5.2 Work within a Group

Cooperate with others

  • accept and take responsibility for fulfilling own role as a group member
  • discuss and decide whether to work individually or collaboratively to achieve specific goals

Work in groups

  • formulate questions to guide research or investigations, with attention to specific audiences and purposes
  • contribute ideas to help solve problems, and listen and respond constructively

Evaluate group process

  • show appreciation for the contributions of others, and offer constructive feedback to group members
Grade 6 
General Outcome 1 (Gr. 6)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and Explore

Express ideas and develop understanding

  • use prior experiences with oral, print and other media texts to choose new texts that meet learning needs and interests
  • read, write, represent and talk to explore and explain connections between prior knowledge and new information in oral, print and other media texts
  • engage in exploratory communication to share personal responses and develop own interpretations

Experiment with language and forms

  • experiment with a variety of forms of oral, print and other media texts to discover those best suited for exploring, organizing and sharing ideas, information and experiences

Express preferences

  • assess a variety of oral, print and other media texts, and discuss preferences for particular forms

Set goals

  • assess personal language use, and revise personal goals to enhance language learning and use
1.2 Clarify and Extend

Consider the ideas of others

  • select from the ideas and observations of others to expand personal understanding

Combine ideas  

  • use talk, notes, personal writing and representing, together with texts and the ideas of others, to clarify and shape understanding

Extend understanding

  • evaluate the usefulness of new ideas, techniques and texts in terms of present understanding
General Outcome 2 (Gr. 6)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues

Use prior knowledge

  • combine personal experiences and the knowledge and skills gained through previous experiences with oral, print and other media texts to understand new ideas and information
  • apply knowledge of organizational structures of oral, print and other media texts to assist with constructing and confirming meaning

Use comprehension strategies

  • identify, and explain in own words, the interrelationship of the main ideas and supporting details
  • preview the content and structure of subject area texts, and use this information to set a purpose, rate and strategy for reading
  • use definitions provided in context to identify the meanings of unfamiliar words
  • monitor understanding by evaluating new ideas and information in relation to known ideas and information

Use textual cues  

  • use text features, such as charts, graphs and dictionaries, to enhance understanding of ideas and information
  • identify and use the structural elements of texts, such as magazines, newspapers, newscasts and news features, to access and comprehend ideas and information

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • use the meanings of prefixes and suffixes to predict the meanings of unfamiliar words in context
  • integrate and apply knowledge of phonics, sight vocabulary, language and context clues, and structural analysis to read unfamiliar words in texts of increasing length and complexity

Use references

  • choose the most appropriate reference to confirm the spellings or locate the meanings of unfamiliar words in oral, print and other media texts
2.2 Respond to Texts

Experience various texts

  • experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as autobiographies, travelogues, comics, short films, myths, legends and dramatic performances
  • explain own point of view about oral, print and other media texts
  • make connections between own life and characters and ideas in oral, print and other media texts
  • discuss common topics or themes in a variety of oral, print and other media texts

Construct meaning from texts

  • observe and discuss aspects of human nature revealed in oral, print and other media texts, and relate them to those encountered in the community
  • summarize oral, print or other media texts, indicating the connections among events, characters and settings
  • identify or infer reasons for a character's actions or feelings
  • make judgements and inferences related to events, characters, setting and main ideas of oral, print and other media texts
  • comment on the credibility of characters and events in oral, print and other media texts, using evidence from personal experiences and the text

Appreciate the artistry of texts

  • explain how metaphor, personification and synecdoche are used to create mood and mental images
  • experiment with sentence patterns, imagery and exaggeration to create mood and mental images
  • discuss how detail is used to enhance character, setting, action and mood in oral, print and other media texts
2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques

Understand forms and genres

  • identify key characteristics of a variety of forms or genres of oral, print and other media texts
  • discuss the differences between print and other media versions of the same text

Understand techniques and elements

  • discuss the connections among plot, setting and characters in oral, print and other media texts
  • identify first and third person narration, and discuss preferences with reference to familiar texts
  • explore techniques, such as visual imagery, sound, flashback and voice inflection, in oral, print and other media texts
  • identify strategies that presenters use in media texts to influence audiences

Experiment with language

  • alter words, forms and sentence patterns to create new versions of texts for a variety of purposes; explain how imagery and figurative language, such as personification and alliteration, clarify and enhance meaning
2.4 Create Original Text

Generate ideas

  • choose life themes encountered in reading, listening and viewing activities, and in own experiences, for creating oral, print and other media texts

Elaborate on the expression of ideas

  • use literary devices, such as imagery and figurative language, to create particular effects

Structure texts

  • determine purpose and audience needs to choose forms, and organize ideas and details in oral, print and other media texts
  • express the same ideas in different forms and genres; compare and explain the effectiveness of each for audience and purpose
General Outcome 3 (Gr. 6)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and Focus

Focus attention

  • distinguish among facts, supported inferences and opinions
  • use note-taking or representing to assist with understanding ideas and information, and focusing topics for investigation

Determine information needs

  • decide on and select the information needed to support a point of view

Plan to gather information

  • develop and follow own plan for accessing and gathering ideas and information, considering guidelines for time and length of investigation and presentation
3.2 Select and Process

Use a variety of sources

  • locate information to answer research questions, using a variety of sources, such as printed texts, bulletin boards, biographies, art, music, community resource people, CDROMs and the Internet

Access information  

  • use a variety of tools, such as bibliographies, thesauri, electronic searches and technology, to access information
  • skim, scan and read closely to gather information

Evaluate sources

  • evaluate the congruency between gathered information and research purpose and focus, using pre-established criteria
3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate

Organize information

  • organize ideas and information using a variety of strategies and techniques, such as comparing and contrasting, and classifying and sorting according to subtopics and sequence
  • organize and develop ideas and information into oral, print or other media texts with introductions that interest audiences and state the topic, sections that develop the topic and conclusions

Record information

  • make notes on a topic, combining information from more than one source; use reference sources appropriately
  • use outlines, thought webs and summaries to show the relationships among ideas and information and to clarify meaning
  • quote information from oral, print and other media sources

Evaluate information

  • evaluate the appropriateness of information for a particular audience and purpose
  • recognize gaps in gathered information, and suggest additional information needed for a particular audience and purpose
3.4 Share and Review

Share ideas and information

  • communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as multiparagraph reports, question and answer formats and graphs
  • select appropriate visuals, print and/or other media to inform and engage the audience

Review research process

  • establish goals for enhancing research skills
General Outcome 4 (Gr. 6)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and Improve

Appraise own and others' work

  • work collaboratively to revise and enhance oral, print and other media texts
  • ask for and evaluate the usefulness of feedback and assistance from peers

Revise and edit

  • revise to provide focus, expand relevant ideas and eliminate unnecessary information
  • edit for appropriate verb tense and for correct pronoun references
  • use paragraph structures in expository and narrative texts

Enhance legibility

  • write legibly and at a pace appropriate to context and purpose
  • experiment with a variety of software design elements, such as spacing, graphics, titles and headings, and font sizes and styles, to enhance the presentation of texts

Expand knowledge of language

  • show the relationships among key words associated with topics of study, using a variety of strategies such as thought webs, outlines and lists
  • choose words that capture a particular aspect of meaning and that are appropriate for context, audience and purpose

Enhance artistry

  • experiment with several options, such as sentence structures, figurative language and multimedia effects, to choose the most appropriate way of communicating ideas or information
4.2 Attend to Conventions

Attend to grammar and usage

  • identify the use of coordinate and subordinate conjunctions to express ideas
  • use complex sentence structures and a variety of sentence types in own writing
  • identify comparative and superlative forms of adjectives, and use in own writing
  • identify past, present and future verb tenses, and use throughout a piece of writing

Attend to spelling

  • use a variety of resources and strategies to determine and learn the correct spelling of common exceptions to conventional spelling patterns
  • explain the importance of correct spellings for effective communication
  • edit for and correct commonly misspelled words in own writing, using spelling generalizations and the meaning and function of words in context

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

  • use colons before lists, to separate hours and minutes, and after formal salutations in own writing
  • identify parentheses and colons when reading, and use them to assist comprehension
  • identify ellipses that show words are omitted or sentences are incomplete when reading, and use them to assist comprehension
4.3 Present and Share

Present information

  • use various styles and forms of presentations, depending on content, audience and purpose

Enhance presentation

  • emphasize key ideas and information to enhance audience understanding and enjoyment

Use effective oral and visual communication

  • demonstrate control of voice, pacing, gestures and facial expressions; arrange props and presentation space to enhance communication

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

  • identify the tone, mood and emotion conveyed in oral and visual presentations
  • respond to the emotional aspects of presentations by providing nonverbal encouragement and appreciative comments
General Outcome 5 (Gr. 6)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect Others and Strengthen Community

Appreciate diversity

  • compare personal challenges and situations encountered in daily life with those experienced by people or characters in other times, places and cultures portrayed in oral, print and other media texts
  • share and discuss ideas and experiences that contribute to different responses to oral, print and other media texts

Relate texts to culture

  • identify ways in which oral, print and other media texts from diverse cultures and communities explore similar ideas

Celebrate accomplishments and events

  • use appropriate language to participate in public events, occasions or traditions

Use language to show respect

  • demonstrate respect by choosing appropriate language and tone in oral, print and other media texts
5.2 Work within a Group

Cooperate with others

  • assume a variety of roles, and share responsibilities as a group member
  • identify and participate in situations and projects in which group work enhances learning and results

Work in groups

  • contribute to group knowledge of topics to identify and focus information needs, sources and purposes for research or investigations
  • address specific problems in a group by specifying goals, devising alternative solutions and choosing the best alternative

Evaluate group process

  • assess own contributions to group process, and set personal goals for working effectively with others
Grade 7 
General Outcome 1 (Gr. 7)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and Explore

Express ideas and develop understanding

  • extend understanding of ideas and information by finding and exploring oral, print and other media texts on related topics and themes
  • express personal understandings of ideas and information based on prior knowledge, experiences with others and a variety of oral, print and other media texts
  • reflect on own observations and experiences to understand and develop oral, print and other media texts

Experiment with language and forms  

  • discuss and respond to ways that content and forms of oral, print and other media texts interact to influence understanding

Express preferences

  • explore and assess oral, print and other media texts recommended by others

Set goals

  • use appropriate terminology to discuss developing abilities in personal language learning and use
1.2 Clarify and Extend

Consider the ideas of others

  • listen and respond constructively to alternative ideas or opinions

Combine ideas  

  • use talk, writing and representing to examine, clarify and assess understanding of ideas, information and experiences

Extend understanding

  • talk with others to elaborate ideas, and ask specific questions to seek helpful feedback
General Outcome 2 (Gr. 7)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues

Use prior knowledge

  • select and focus relevant ideas from personal experiences and prior knowledge to understand new ideas and information
  • use expectations and preferences developed during previous reading experiences to select and read new texts with purpose

Use comprehension strategies

  • identify, connect, and summarize in own words, the main ideas from two or more sources on the same topic
  • use concept mapping and mental rehearsal to remember main ideas and relevant details
  • adjust reading rate and strategies to account for changes in structural features of texts and complexity of content

Use textual cues  

  • identify and use visual and textual cues, such as numbers, bullets and words; for example, first/then/next, before/after, on the one hand/on the other hand and if/then, that signal organizational patterns in print and other media texts, to enhance understanding of ideas and information
  • identify and use, effectively and efficiently, structural features of textbooks, such as tables of contents and indices, to access ideas and nformation and to read with purpose

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • apply, flexibly, knowledge of phonics, sight vocabulary, structural analysis, language and context clues, depending on the purpose and rate of reading

Use references

  • skim and scan reference materials to confirm the spellings or locate the meanings of unfamiliar words
2.2 Respond to Texts

Experience various texts

  • experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as journals, nature programs, short stories, poetry, letters, CDROM programs, mysteries, historical fiction, drawings and prints
  • justify own point of view about oral, print and other media texts, using evidence from texts
  • organize interpretations of oral, print and other media texts around two or three key ideas
  • express interpretations of oral, print and other media texts in another form or genre
  • predict and discuss the consequences of events or characters' actions, based on information in oral, print and other media texts

Construct meaning from texts  

  • compare the choices and behaviours of characters portrayed in oral, print and other media texts with those of self and others
  • analyze how plot develops; the connection between plot and subplot; and the interrelationship of plot, setting and characters
  • identify and explain conflict, and discuss how it develops and may be resolved
  • develop, clarify and defend own interpretation, based on evidence from the text with support from own experiences

Appreciate the artistry of texts

  • discuss how techniques, such as colour, shape, composition, suspense, foreshadowing and flashback, are used to communicate meaning and enhance effects in oral, print and other media texts
  • identify and explain the usefulness, effectiveness and limitations of various forms of oral, print and other media texts
  • reflect on, revise and elaborate on initial impressions of oral, print and other media texts, through subsequent reading, listening and viewing activities
2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques

Understand forms and genres

  • identify various forms and genres of oral, print and other media texts, and describe key characteristics of each
  • identify the characteristics of different types of media texts

Understand techniques and elements

  • discuss connections among plot and subplot, main and supporting characters, main idea and theme in a variety of oral, print and other media texts
  • identify the narrator's perspective, and explain how it affects the overall meaning of a text
  • identify and explain how narrative hooks, foreshadowing, flashback, suspense and surprise endings contribute to the effectiveness of plot development
  • explain how sound and image work together to create effects in media texts

Experiment with language

  • explore surprising and playful uses of language and visuals in popular culture, such as cartoons, animated films and limericks; explain ways in which imagery and figurative language, such as simile, convey meaning
2.4 Create Original Text

Generate ideas

  • choose appropriate strategies for generating ideas and focusing topics for oral, print and other media texts

Elaborate on the expression of ideas  

  • use suspense, exaggeration, foreshadowing, dialogue and description to show rising action and develop conflict

Structure texts

  • create oral, print and other media texts that are unified by point of view, carefully developed plot and endings consistent with previous events
  • create a variety of oral, print and other media texts to explore ideas related to particular topics or themes
General Outcome 3 (Gr. 7)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and Focus

Focus attention

  • consider audience, purpose, point of view and form when focusing topics for investigation
  • use note-taking, outlining or representing to summarize important ideas and information in oral, print and other media texts

Determine information needs

  • discuss the types and sources of information appropriate for topic, audience, form, purpose and point of view

Plan to gather information

  • plan and organize data collection based on instructions, explanations and pre-established parameters
3.2 Select and Process

Use a variety of sources

  • obtain information from a variety of sources, such as adults, peers, advertisements, magazines, lyrics, formal interviews, almanacs, broadcasts and videos, to explore research questions

Access information  

  • use a variety of tools and text features, such as headings, subheadings, topic sentences, summaries, staging and pacing, and highlighting, to access information
  • distinguish between fact and opinion, and follow the development of argument and opinion
  • scan to locate specific information quickly; summarize and record information useful for research purposes

Evaluate sources

  • use pre-established criteria to evaluate the usefulness of a variety of information sources in terms of their structure and purpose
3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate

Organize information

  • organize ideas and information by selecting or developing categories appropriate to a particular topic and purpose
  • produce oral, print and other media texts with well-developed and well-linked ideas and sections

Record information

  • make notes, using headings and subheadings or graphic organizers appropriate to a topic; reference sources
  • reflect on ideas and information to form own opinions with evidence to support them
  • compare, contrast and combine ideas and information from several sources

Evaluate information

  • assess if the amount and quality of gathered information is appropriate to purpose and audience; address information gaps
  • connect new information with prior knowledge to build new understanding
3.4 Share and Review

Share ideas and information

  • communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as reports, autobiographies, brochures and video presentations
  • use appropriate visual, print and/or other media effectively to inform and engage the audience

Review research process

  • identify strengths and areas for improvement in personal research skills
General Outcome 4 (Gr. 7)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and Improve

Appraise own and others' work

  • identify particular content features that enhance the effectiveness of published oral, print and other media texts
  • incorporate particular content features of effective texts into own oral, print and other media texts

Revise and edit

  • revise introductions, conclusions and the order of ideas and information to add coherence and clarify meaning
  • revise to eliminate unnecessary repetition of words and ideas
  • use paragraphs, appropriately, to organize narrative and expository texts

Enhance legibility

  • choose and use printing, cursive writing or word processing, depending on the task, audience and purpose
  • identify how the format of documents enhances the presentation of content

Expand knowledge of language

  • identify differences between standard English and slang, colloquialism or jargon, and explain how these differences affect meaning
  • identify and explain figurative and metaphorical use of language in context

Enhance artistry

  • experiment with figurative language, illustrations and video effects to create visual images, provide emphasis or express emotion
4.2 Attend to Conventions

Attend to grammar and usage

  • use a variety of subordinate clauses correctly and appropriately in own writing
  • use correct subject-verb agreement in sentences with compound subjects
  • distinguish between formal and informal conventions of oral and written language, and use each appropriately, depending on the context, audience and purpose
  • identify and use common subjective and objective forms of pronouns, appropriately and correctly in own writing

Attend to spelling

  • use reference materials to confirm spellings and to solve spelling problems when editing and proofreading
  • extend spelling vocabulary to include words frequently used in literature, but infrequently used in oral and other media texts
  • apply specific and effective strategies for learning and remembering the correct spelling of words in own writing

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

  • use periods and commas with quotation marks that indicate direct speech in own writing
  • use commas to separate phrases and clauses in own writing
  • use quotation marks to identify information taken from secondary sources in own writing
4.3 Present and Share

Present information

  • present ideas and opinions confidently, but without dominating the discussion, during small group activities and short, whole class sessions

Enhance presentation

  • clarify and support ideas or opinions with details, visuals or media techniques

Use effective oral and visual communication

  • identify and use explicit techniques to arouse and maintain interest and to convince the audience

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

  • listen and view attentively to organize and classify information and to carry out multistep instructions
  • ask questions or make comments that elicit additional information; probe different aspects of ideas, and clarify understanding
General Outcome 5 (Gr. 7)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect Others and Strengthen Community

Appreciate diversity

  • discuss how ideas, people, experiences and cultural traditions are portrayed in various oral, print and other media texts
  • explain how differing perspectives and unique reactions expand understanding

Relate texts to culture

  • identify and discuss recurring themes in oral, print and other media texts from diverse cultures and communities

Celebrate accomplishments and events

  • select and use appropriate form and tone for specific audiences to celebrate special events and accomplishments

Use language to show respect

  • demonstrate respect for diverse ideas, cultures and traditions portrayed in oral, print and other media texts
5.2 Work within a Group

Cooperate with others

  • contribute collaboratively in group situations, by asking questions and building on the ideas of others
  • take responsibility for assuming a variety of roles in a group, depending on changing contexts and needs

Work in groups

  • contribute ideas, knowledge and questions to establish an information base for research or investigations
  • assist in setting and achieving group goals by inviting others to speak, suggesting alternatives, assigning tasks, sharing resources, following up on others' ideas and listening to a variety of points of view

Evaluate group process

  • evaluate group process and personal contributions according to pre-established criteria to determine strengths and areas for improvement
Grade 8 
General Outcome 1 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and Explore

Express ideas and develop understanding

  • revise understanding and expression of ideas by connecting new and prior knowledge and experiences
  • review, reread, discuss and reflect on oral, print and other media texts to explore, confirm or revise understanding
  • seek out and consider diverse ideas, opinions and experiences to develop and extend own ideas, opinions and experiences

Experiment with language and forms  

  • discuss and respond to ways that forms of oral, print and other media texts enhance or constrain the development and communication of ideas, information and experiences

Express preferences

  • pursue personal interest in specific genres by particular writers, artists, storytellers and filmmakers

Set goals

  • examine and reflect on own growth in effective use of language to revise and extend personal goals
1.2 Clarify and Extend

Consider the ideas of others

  • acknowledge the value of the ideas and opinions of others in exploring and extending personal interpretations and perspectives

Combine ideas

  • exchange ideas and opinions to clarify understanding and to broaden personal perspectives

Extend understanding

  • reconsider and revise initial understandings and responses in light of new ideas, information and feedback from others
General Outcome 2 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues

Use prior knowledge

  • use strategies to supplement and extend prior knowledge and experiences when interpreting new ideas and information
  • use knowledge of authors, forms and genres, developed during previous reading, to direct and extend reading experiences

Use comprehension strategies

  • enhance understanding by paraphrasing main ideas and supporting details, and by rereading and discussing relevant passages
  • monitor understanding; skim, scan or read slowly and carefully, as appropriate, to enhance comprehension
  • take notes, make outlines and use such strategies as read, recite, review to comprehend and remember ideas and information

Use textual cues

  • identify and use visual and textual cues in reference materials, such as catalogues, databases, web sites, thesauri and writers' handbooks, to access information effectively and efficiently
  • identify and use structural features of a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as newspapers, magazines, instruction booklets, advertisements and schedules, encountered in everyday life to access ideas and information and to read with purpose

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • choose and use strategies for word identification, vocabulary development and spelling that either build on specific strengths or address areas for improvement

Use references

  • use a thesaurus to extend vocabulary and locate appropriate words that express particular aspects of meaning
2.2 Respond to Texts

Experience various texts

  • experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as magazine articles, diaries, drama, poetry, Internet passages, fantasy, nonfiction, advertisements and photographs
  • write and represent narratives from other points of view
  • expect that there is more than one interpretation for oral, print and other media texts, and discuss other points of view
  • explain connections between own interpretation and information in texts, and infer how texts will influence others
  • make connections between biographical information about authors, illustrators, storytellers and filmmakers and their texts

Construct meaning from texts  

  • interpret the choices and motives of characters portrayed in oral, print and other media texts, and examine how they relate to self and others
  • identify and describe characters' attributes and motivations, using evidence from the text and personal experiences
  • discuss various ways characters are developed and the reasons for and plausibility of character change
  • compare two similar oral, print or other media texts by considering the characters, plot, conflicts and main ideas

Appreciate the artistry of texts

  • discuss how techniques, such as word choice, balance, camera angles, line and framing, communicate meaning and enhance effects in oral, print and other media texts
  • identify ways that characters can be developed, and discuss how character, plot and setting are interconnected and mutually supportive
  • identify and discuss how word choice and order, figurative language, plot, setting and character work together to create mood and tone
2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques

Understand forms and genres

  • discuss how the choice of form or genre of oral, print and other media texts is appropriate to purpose and audience
  • compare the usefulness of different types of media texts

Understand techniques and elements

  • distinguish theme from topic or main idea in oral, print and other media texts
  • identify and explain characters' qualities and motivations, by considering their words and actions, their interactions with other characters and the author's or narrator's perspective
  • compare and contrast the different perspectives provided by first and third person narration
  • summarize the content of media texts, and discuss the choices made in planning and producing them

Experiment with language

  • identify creative uses of language and visuals in popular culture, such as commercials, rock videos and magazines; explain how imagery and figurative language, such as hyperbole, create tone and mood
2.4 Create Original Text

Generate ideas

  • create oral, print and other media texts related to issues encountered in texts and in own life

Elaborate on the expression of ideas  

  • retell oral, print and other media texts from different points of view

Structure texts

  • create oral, print and other media texts with both main and minor characters
  • choose forms or genres of oral, print or other media texts for the particular affects they will have on audiences and purposes
General Outcome 3 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and Focus

Focus attention

  • experiment with several ways to focus a topic, and select a form appropriate to audience and purpose
  • identify and trace the development of arguments, opinions or points of view in oral, print and other media texts

Determine information needs

  • select the most appropriate information sources for topic, audience, purpose and form

Plan to gather information

  • choose a plan to access, gather and record information, according to self-selected parameters
3.2 Select and Process

Use a variety of sources

  • obtain information from a variety of sources, such as artifacts, debates, forums, biographies, autobiographies, surveys, documentaries, films, CDROMs, charts and tables, when conducting research

Access information

  • expand and use a variety of tools and text features, such as subtitles, margin notes, key words, electronic searches, previews, reviews, visual effects and sound effects, to access information
  • record key ideas and information from oral, print and other media texts, avoiding overuse of direct quotations
  • adjust rate of reading or viewing to suit purpose and density of information in print or other media texts

Evaluate sources

  • develop and use criteria for evaluating the usefulness, currency and reliability of information for a particular research project
3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate

Organize information

  • organize ideas and information creatively, as well as logically, to develop a comparison or chronology, or to show a cause-effect relationship
  • organize ideas and information to establish an overall impression or point of view in oral, print and other media texts

Record information

  • make notes in point form, summarizing major ideas and supporting details; reference sources
  • discard information that is irrelevant for audience, purpose, form or point of view
  • use a consistent and approved format to give credit for quoted and paraphrased ideas and information

Evaluate information

  • evaluate the relevance and importance of gathered information; address information gaps
  • incorporate new information with prior knowledge and experiences to develop new understanding
3.4 Share and Review

Share ideas and information

  • communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as interviews, minilessons and documentaries
  • integrate appropriate visual, print and/or other media to inform and engage the audience

Review research process

  • assess the research process, and consider alternative ways of achieving research goals
General Outcome 4 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and Improve

Appraise own and others' work

  • share draft oral, print and other media texts in a way that will elicit useful feedback
  • evaluate how particular content features contribute to, or detract from, the overall effectiveness of own and others' oral, print and other media texts; make and suggest revisions

Revise and edit

  • revise by adding words and phrases that emphasize important ideas or create dominant impressions
  • revise to enhance sentence variety, word choice and appropriate tone
  • enhance the coherence and impact of documents, using electronic editing functions
  • use paragraph structures to demonstrate unity and coherence

Enhance legibility

  • vary handwriting style and pace, depending on the context, audience and purpose
  • choose an effective format for documents, depending on the content, audience and purpose

Expand knowledge of language

  • explore and explain ways that new words, phrases and manners of expression enter the language as a result of factors, such as popular culture, technology, other languages
  • infer the literal and figurative meaning of words in context, using idioms, analogies, metaphors and similes

Enhance artistry

  • experiment with figurative language, voice, sentence patterns, camera angle and music to create an impression or mood
4.2 Attend to Conventions

Attend to grammar and usage

  • use words and phrases to modify, clarify and enhance ideas and descriptions in own writing
  • use a variety of simple, compound and complex sentence structures to communicate effectively, and to make writing interesting
  • use correct pronoun-antecedent agreement in ownwriting
  • use verb tenses consistently throughout a piece of writing

Attend to spelling

  • develop a systematic and effective approach to studying and remembering the correct spelling of key words encountered in a variety of print and other media texts
  • use knowledge of spelling generalizations and how words are formed to spell technical terms and unfamiliar words in own writing
  • identify the use of spelling variants in print and other media texts, and discuss the effectiveness depending on audience and purpose

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

  • use hyphens to break words at the end of lines, and to make a new word from two related words in own writing
  • identify semicolons, dashes and hyphens when reading, and use them to assist comprehension
  • use parentheses appropriately in own writing
  • use appropriate capitalization and punctuation for referencing oral, print and other media texts
4.3 Present and Share

Present information

  • plan and facilitate small group and short, whole class presentations to share information

Enhance presentation

  • present information to achieve a particular purpose and to appeal to interest and background knowledge of reader or audience

Use effective oral and visual communication

  • plan and shape presentations to achieve particular purposes or effects, and use feedback from rehearsals to make modifications

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

  • anticipate the organizational pattern of presentations, and identify important ideas and supporting details
  • use appropriate verbal and nonverbal feedback to respond respectfully
General Outcome 5 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect Others and Strengthen Community

Appreciate diversity

  • compare own with others' understanding of people, cultural traditions and values portrayed in oral, print and other media texts
  • clarify and broaden perspectives and opinions, by examining the ideas of others

Relate texts to culture

  • compare ways in which oral, print and other media texts reflect specific elements of cultures or periods in history

Celebrate accomplishments and events

  • participate in organizing and celebrating special events, recognizing the appropriateness and significance of language arts

Use language to show respect

  • use inclusive language and actions that demonstrate respect for people of different races, cultures, genders, ages and abilities
5.2 Work within a Group

Cooperate with others

  • propose ideas or advocate points of view that recognize the ideas of others and advance the thinking of the group
  • use opportunities as a group member to contribute to group goals and extend own learning

Work in groups

  • contribute ideas, knowledge and strategies to identify group information needs and sources
  • organize and complete tasks cooperatively by defining roles and responsibilities, negotiating to find the basis for agreement, setting objectives and time frames, and reviewing progress

Evaluate group process

  • evaluate the quality of own contributions to group process, and offer constructive feedback to others; propose suggestions for improvement
Grade 9 
General Outcome 1 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and Explore

Express ideas and develop understanding

  • talk with others and experience a variety of oral, print and other media texts to explore, develop and justify own opinions and points of view
  • explore and explain how interactions with others and with oral, print and other media texts affect personal understandings 
  • extend understanding by taking different points of view when rereading and reflecting on oral, print and other media texts 

Experiment with language and forms

  • develop and extend understanding by expressing and responding to ideas on the same topic, in a variety of forms of oral, print and other media texts

Express preferences

  • explain preferences for texts and genres by particular writers, artists, storytellers and filmmakers

Set goals

  • reflect on own growth in language learning and use, by considering progress over time and the attainment of personal goals
1.2 Clarify and Extend

Consider the ideas of others

  • integrate own perspectives and interpretations with new understandings developed through discussing and through experiencing a variety of oral, print and other media texts 

Combine ideas

  • examine and re-examine ideas, information and experiences from different points of view to find patterns and see relationships

Extend understanding

  • assess whether new information extends understanding by considering diverse opinions and exploring ambiguities
General Outcome 2 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues

Use prior knowledge

  • discuss how interpretations of the same text might vary, according to the prior knowledge and experiences of various readers
  • use previous reading experiences, personal experiences and prior knowledge as a basis for reflecting on and interpreting ideas encountered in texts

Use comprehension strategies

  • identify explicit and implicit ideas and information in texts; listen and respond to various interpretations of the same text
  • select appropriate reading rate and strategies for comprehending texts less closely connected to prior knowledge and personal experiences
  • preview complex texts as to their intent, content and structure, and use this information to set a purpose and select strategies for reading

Use textual cues

  • use knowledge of visual and textual cues and structural features when skimming and scanning various print and other media texts to locate relevant information effectively and efficiently 
  • analyze and discuss how the structural features of informational materials, such as textbooks, bibliographies, databases, catalogues, web sites, commercials and newscasts, enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of communication

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • apply and explain effective procedures for identifying and comprehending words in context; adjust procedures according to the purpose for reading and the complexity of the texts

Use references

  • use reference materials, including a writer's handbook, to verify correct usage, address uncertainties and solve problems that arise
2.2 Respond to Texts

Experience various texts

  • experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as essays, broadcast advertisements, novels, poetry, documentaries, films, electronic magazines and realistic fiction
  • identify and discuss how timeless themes are developed in a variety of oral, print and other media texts
  • consider historical context when developing own points of view or interpretations of oral, print and other media texts
  • compare and contrast own life situation with themes of oral, print and other media texts
  • express the themes of oral, print or other media texts in different forms or genres
  • consider peers' interpretations of oral, print and other media texts, referring to the texts for supporting or contradicting evidence

Construct meaning from texts

  • analyze how the choices and motives of characters portrayed in oral, print and other media texts provide insight into those of self and others
  • identify and discuss theme and point of view in oral, print and other media texts
  • discuss and explain various interpretations of the same oral, print or other media text
  • relate the themes, emotions and experiences portrayed in oral, print and other media texts to issues of personal interest or significance

Appreciate the artistry of texts

  • discuss how techniques, such as irony, symbolism, perspective and proportion, communicate meaning and enhance effect in oral, print and other media texts 
  • discuss character development in terms of consistency of behaviour and plausibility of change
  • describe how theme, dominant impression and mood are developed and sustained through choices in language use and the interrelationship of plot, setting and character
  • identify features that define particular oral, print and other media texts; discuss differences in style and their effects on content and audience impression
2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques

Understand forms and genres

  • explain the relationships between purposes and characteristics of various forms and genres of oral, print and other media texts
  • evaluate the effectiveness of different types of media texts for presenting ideas and information

Understand techniques and elements

  • compare the development of character, plot and theme in two oral, print or other media texts
  • evaluate the effectiveness of oral, print and other media texts, considering the believability of plot and setting, the credibility of characters, and the development and resolution of conflict
  • compare a main character in one text to the main character in another text from a different era, genre or medium
  • identify ways that a change in narrator might affect the overall meaning of oral, print and other media texts 
  • summarize the content of media texts, and suggest alternative treatments

Experiment with language

  • analyze creative uses of language and visuals in popular culture, such as advertisements, electronic magazines and the Internet; recognize how imagery and figurative language, such as metaphor, create a dominant impression, mood and tone
2.4 Create Original Text

Generate ideas

  • generalize from own experience to create oral, print and other media texts on a theme

Elaborate on the expression of ideas

  • create oral, print and other media texts on common literary themes

Structure texts

  • create oral, print and other media texts that interrelate plot, setting and character, and reveal the significance of the action
  • create oral, print and other media texts that include main and minor characters, and show how the main character develops and changes as a result of the action and events
General Outcome 3 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and Focus

Focus attention

  • synthesize ideas and information from a variety of sources to develop own opinions, points of view and general impressions
  • assess adequacy, accuracy, detail and appropriateness of oral, print and other media texts to support or further develop arguments, opinions or points of view

Determine information needs

  • select types and sources of information to achieve an effective balance between researched information and own ideas

Plan to gather information

  • select information sources that will provide effective support, convincing argument or unique perspectives
3.2 Select and Process

Use a variety of sources

  • obtain information reflecting multiple perspectives from a variety of sources, such as expository essays, graphs, diagrams, online catalogues, periodical indices, film libraries, electronic databases and the Internet, when conducting research

Access information

  • expand and use a variety of tools and text features, such as organizational patterns of texts, page layouts, font styles and sizes, colour and voice-overs, to access information
  • distinguish between primary and secondary sources, and determine the usefulness of each for research purposes
  • follow up on cited references to locate additional information

Evaluate sources

  • evaluate sources for currency, reliability and possible bias of information for a particular research project
3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate

Organize information

  • organize ideas and information by developing and selecting appropriate categories and organizational structures
  • balance all sections of oral, print and other media texts and ensure sentences, paragraphs and key ideas are linked throughout
  • develop coherence by relating all key ideas to the overall purpose of the oral, print or other media text

Record information

  • use own words to summarize and record information in a variety of forms; paraphrase and/or quote relevant facts and opinions; reference sources 
  • select and record ideas and information that will support an opinion or point of view, appeal to the audience, and suit the tone and length of the chosen form of oral, print or other media text
  • choose specific vocabulary, and use conventions accurately and effectively to enhance credibility

Evaluate information

  • evaluate usefulness, relevance and completeness of gathered information; address information gaps
  • reflect on new understanding and its value to self and others
3.4 Share and Review

Share ideas and information

  • communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as media scripts, multimedia presentations, panel discussions and articles
  • integrate appropriate visual, print and/or other media to reinforce overall impression or point of view and engage the audience

Review research process

  • reflect on the research process, identifying areas of strength and ways to improve further research activities
General Outcome 4 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and Improve

Appraise own and others' work

  • share sample treatments of a topic with peers, and ask for feedback on the relative effectiveness of each 
  • work collaboratively to make appropriate revisions based on feedback provided by peers 

Revise and edit

  • revise to ensure effective introductions, consistent points of view, effective transitions between ideas and appropriate conclusions
  • revise to enhance effective transitions between ideas and maintain a consistent organizational pattern 
  • revise to combine narration, description and exposition effectively

Enhance legibility

  • develop personal handwriting styles appropriate for a variety of purposes 
  • identify and experiment with some principles of design that enhance the presentation of texts 

Expand knowledge of language

  • distinguish between the denotative and connotative meaning of words, and discuss effectiveness for achieving purpose and affecting audience 
  • explore the derivation and use of words, phrases and jargon, including variations in language, accent and dialect in Canadian communities and regions

Enhance artistry

  • experiment with the language and components of particular forms to communicate themes or represent the perspectives of a variety of people or characters
4.2 Attend to Conventions

Attend to grammar and usage

  • identify and use parallel structure in own writing 
  • identify and use coordination, subordination and apposition to enhance communication
  • use a variety of strategies to make effective transitions between sentences and paragraphs in own writing

Attend to spelling

  • demonstrate the deliberate, conscientious and independent application of a variety of editing and proofreading strategies to confirm spellings in own writing
  • identify situations in which careful attention to correct spelling is especially important
  • identify and use variant spellings for particular effects, depending on audience, purpose, content and context

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

  • use quotation marks to distinguish words being discussed in own writing
  • use dashes to show sentence breaks or interrupted speech, where appropriate in own writing
  • know that rules for punctuation can vary, and adjust punctuation use for effect in own writing
4.3 Present and Share

Present information

  • select, organize and present information to appeal to the interests and background knowledge of various readers or audiences

Enhance presentation

  • choose appropriate types of evidence and strategies to clarify ideas and information, and to convince various readers and audiences

Use effective oral and visual communication

  • integrate a variety of media and display techniques, as appropriate, to enhance the appeal, accuracy and persuasiveness of presentations 

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

  • follow the train of thought, and evaluate the credibility of the presenter and the evidence provided
  • provide feedback that encourages the presenter and audience to consider other ideas and additional information 
General Outcome 5 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect Others and Strengthen Community

Appreciate diversity

  • examine how personal experiences, cultural traditions and Canadian perspectives are presented in oral, print and other media texts
  • take responsibility for developing and sharing oral, print and other media texts and for responding respectfully to the texts of others 

Relate texts to culture

  • analyze how oral, print and other media texts reflect the traditions, beliefs and technologies of different cultures, communities or periods in history

Celebrate accomplishments and events

  • explore and experiment with various ways in which language arts are used across cultures, age groups and genders to honour and celebrate people and events

Use language to show respect

  • create or use oral, print and other media texts in ways that are respectful of people, opinions, communities and cultures
5.2 Work within a Group

Cooperate with others

  • contribute to group efforts to reach consensus or conclusions, by engaging in dialogue to understand the ideas and viewpoints of others
  • discuss and choose ways to coordinate the abilities and interests of individual group members to achieve group goals 

Work in groups

  • generate and access ideas in a group, and use a variety of methods to focus and clarify topics for research or investigations 
  • share responsibility for the completion of team projects by establishing clear purpose and procedures for solving problems, monitoring progress and making modifications to meet stated objectives 

Evaluate group process

  • establish and use criteria to evaluate group process and personal contributions; set goals and make plans for improvement 





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