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French as a Second Language (9-Year Program) Grade 4 - 12 (2004)

© Alberta Education, Canada 
 Table of Contents   Program of Studies
Preface

The nine-year program of studies for French as a Second Language (FSL) is a legal document that specifies, from Grade 4 to Grade 12, what Alberta students are expected to acquire as attitudes, and linguistic, cultural and strategic knowledge as they develop and demonstrate their communicative skills.

This document contains an introduction, a rationale, philosophy statements, and general and specific outcomes.

A glossary of terms and an appendix are provided as supplementary information.

Introduction

In Alberta, French as a Second Language (FSL) refers to a course sequence in which the French language is taught as a subject. Research has demonstrated that a second language is best taught between 30 and 40 minutes a day over the course of the school year to enable students to develop communication skills, linguistic knowledge, cultural understanding, intercultural competence and language learning strategies.

Over the past four decades, the teaching and learning of second languages has seen many changes in approaches as research in language acquisition has evolved. In the 1960s and 1970s, second language programs stressed linguistic competence—the knowledge of grammatical rules governing the language. In the 1980s, second language programs placed more emphasis on communicative competence—the ability to communicate a message. In the 1990s, second language programs emphasized the importance of experiencing language in context and communicating authentic messages at varying levels of language competency.

At the beginning of the 21st century, the FSL course sequence represents the melding of previous approaches that have become the foundation for the current performanced-based curriculum. This type of curriculum delineates the way in which learners demonstrate their acquired communicative, linguistic, cultural, intercultural and strategic competence along a language competency continuum. Students use their life experiences, knowledge, skills and attitudes as a basis for developing their second language communicative abilities for real-life purposes; that is, students comprehend oral and written French, and they express and negotiate meaning, orally and in written form, in French. Since language is embedded in culture, students will also acquire cultural knowledge about various Francophone peoples in order to gain a better understanding of these cultures and their own.

This program of studies has incorporated current knowledge about second language acquisition, curriculum design, performance-based assessment, and teaching and learning experiences in the field. It differs from the 1992 program of studies in that the learner outcomes define more clearly what students are to demonstrate in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes at each grade level.

This program of studies aims to promote in students:

  • a desire to learn French for personal benefit,
  • a desire to develop communicative skills in French,
  • a willingness to experiment with a second language,
  • a willingness to participate in a variety of learning experiences in French,
  • an acceptance and appreciation of French language learning as one of the many subject area experiences in which they engage,
  • a recognition that learning French supports and reinforces knowledge and skills acquired in other subject areas,
  • the acquisition of learning strategies that are also applicable to English language arts and other subject areas,
  • the acquisition of language learning strategies that can be transferred to the acquisition of other languages,
  • an awareness that the French language is used outside the classroom as a medium for learning and communication, and
  • respect for cultural and linguistic diversity.
Rationale
Student Benefits

French as a Second Language (FSL) courses provide Alberta students, and Canadian society in general, with definite benefits. By learning French, students gain both personally and academically. Society, in turn, profits from the contribution of citizens who are both bilingual and bicultural.

Being able to understand and use French is an important aspect of being a Canadian and a global citizen. By learning French, students are able to develop the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to communicate in a variety of real-life contexts.

French, one of Canada’s two official languages, is spoken by more than 250 million people in 33 countries around the world. It is an official language of the European Union, the United Nations and the International Olympic Committee. The ability to understand, speak, read and write French allows students to communicate with French-speaking people around the world, to understand and appreciate the history and evolution of their cultures, to benefit from travel and to develop a competitive advantage in the work force. Further, the learning of French naturally implies the learning of culture and, therefore, allows students to recognize, understand and respect cultural diversity in our society and in others.

The learning of a second language involves risk-taking and tolerating the unknown. As a result, second language learners tend to be more flexible and adaptable to new situations which is an asset in an ever-changing world.

Developing thinking skills and learning strategies is an important part of lifelong learning. By adding a second language to their repertoire of skills and knowledge, students enhance their first language development and their academic skills in general, and develop an understanding of the nature and role of language and culture in their lives. The acquisition of language learning strategies enables them to monitor, direct and transfer their language learning to new situations. Research has shown that students studying a second language perform better in other subject areas, such as mathematics and English language arts.

Societal Benefits

Albertans who are linguistically and culturally competent in French can work toward the promotion of cultural understanding and respect for diversity by breaking down cultural barriers and fostering good will and mutual respect. With increasing access to global markets and an expanding tourism industry, employees need to understand and relate to customers and business people from a variety of linguistic and cultural backgrounds, thus enhancing our province’s influence and competitiveness here and abroad. A population that is linguistically and culturally competent in French cannot help but provide a multitude of services in the public and private sector, including volunteer services.

Philosophy
Components

This French as a Second Language program of studies reflects current knowledge about second language learning, learner-centred teaching and cross-curricular integration. It is based on the premise that students acquire language knowledge, skills and attitudes over a period of time and that over time their ability to communicate grows. This program of studies is also based on the concept of a multidimensional approach to learning which reflects learner outcomes that are centred around four components: 1) language experiences, and the ability to comprehend and express ideas and negotiate meaning (experience–communication); 2) the linguistic elements of the French language—the sounds, written symbols, vocabulary, word order, grammatical rules and discourse features (language); 3) the ideas, behaviours, manifestations, cultural artifacts and symbols shared by Francophone peoples in addition to the development of intercultural skills and knowledge (culture); and, 4) strategies that are cognitive, socio-affective and metacognitive in nature (language learning strategies). Although each component is presented separately in this document, the four components and the four language skills (listening and reading comprehension, and oral and written production) are interwoven in the teaching and learning process. All components and all skills are of equal importance.

Fields of Experience

The program of studies is designed in such a way that the fields of experience provide the framework for language acquisition; that is, they provide the contexts for developing communicative abilities as well as linguistic, cultural, intercultural and strategic knowledge. The fields of experience represent globally the different dimensions of an individual’s relationship with the environment: the physical dimension, the social dimension, the civic dimension, the intellectual dimension and the leisure dimension. The physical dimension, related to the survival of individuals and to their physical wellbeing, consists of fields of experience such as food, sports and exercise, health and safety. The social dimension includes fields of experience related to family, school, friends, holidays and celebrations, social life and work. The civic dimension is centred around life in society as it pertains to an individual’s rights and responsibilities in areas such as consumerism and conservation. The intellectual dimension encompasses the fields of experience associated with the arts, sciences and the media. The leisure dimension focuses on experiences related to vacations, clubs and associations, outdoor life and travel. The fields of experience are organized by grade level. As such, the fields presented at one grade level are reintegrated, expanded and solidified at subsequent grade levels.

Given that the fields of experience are quite broad in nature, they have been divided into a number of subfields. This breakdown allows for a broader exploration of the field of experience and for an opportunity to enhance the knowledge and skills developed in other subfields. Therefore, within each field of experience a number of subfields have been prescribed in order to provide students with an opportunity to develop and apply their communicative and strategic skills, and their language and cultural knowledge.

In addition, many of the prescribed fields of experience and their subfields relate to other subject areas such as English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, career and life management (CALM), career and technology studies (CTS) and health. This program of studies, therefore, is designed to enhance the learning of similar concepts taught in other subject areas or to reinforce the knowledge and skills previously acquired at any grade level.

Communication

Within the framework of the fields of experience and the subfields, students learn to communicate through the processes of comprehension, production and negotiation. Comprehension involves deriving meaning or significance from an oral or written text. Production is expressing meaning by creating oral or written texts driven by a context and a communicative intent, and designed to suit a particular audience. Negotiation involves an interactive process whereby participants interpret the meaning of the message and create new messages in reaction to this interpretation. Integral to these three processes are the communicative functions (e.g., requesting information, providing information) and the real-life communicative tasks to be carried out. The task indicates which language skill is being used (i.e., Listening Comprehension, Reading Comprehension, Oral Production, Written Production) and for what communicative function.

Each grade plays an important role in the development of the students’ ability to understand and express themselves in French; that is, each grade is the building block for the next and subsequent grades. To facilitate this development, students need to be exposed to a variety of text types of varying degrees of difficulty which in turn will serve as models for their own productions. This means that students will need to listen to different types of authentic and adapted audio texts, such as radio announcements or television broadcasts, and read authentic and adapted written texts, such as posters, classified advertisements, newspaper articles or storybooks, in order to develop their comprehension skills. The information gleaned from these sources is then used to develop oral and written production skills. Therefore, based on the premise that comprehension precedes and exceeds production, different skills are emphasized at different points in the learning process.

Language

In order to carry out authentic comprehension and production tasks, students will acquire a repertoire of linguistic tools (elements) that they will use to understand others’ messages and convey their own. These linguistic elements, which include sounds (pronunciation, intonation), symbols (orthography), vocabulary, grammatical rules, word order and discourse features, are prescribed for each grade and are in keeping with the fields of experience and the subfields.

The language component is divided into two sub-components: Knowledge of Language Concepts (the savoir) and Application of Vocabulary and Language Concepts (the savoir-faire). This division is based on the premise that having knowledge of vocabulary and grammatical rules differs from the application of this knowledge. Linguistic knowledge is the foundation for the development of communication skills. Upon attaining an understanding of these linguistic elements (knowledge), students continue to learn about them and their use as they carry out a variety of communicative tasks (application). To ensure that students retain this knowledge and acquire an acceptable level of linguistic competence, they will need sufficient time to rework and reuse these elements. The reworking and reuse occurs within a field of experience, within a subfield and within subsequent fields and subfields of a designated grade level and continues at higher grade levels.

It is important to note that in grades 4 through 12 students develop their vocabulary base in all linguistic areas—nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, etc. In order for students to develop a large vocabulary base, they must have extensive exposure to the French language at the listening and reading comprehension stages. This exposure provides students with access to words, phrases and grammatical structures that are meaningful to them. An ever-increasing repertoire of words and grammatical structures will allow students to become more competent users of the language.

Culture

Although identified as separate components in the program of studies, language and culture are intertwined. In order to develop cultural understanding and knowledge, students will explore various aspects of Francophone cultures at the local, provincial, national and international levels. This learning includes acquiring knowledge about the ideas, behaviours, cultural artifacts and symbols, lifestyles and language variants shared by Francophone peoples in different environments at various periods of their evolution and history. Students will also learn appropriate sociolinguistic conventions or rules (e.g., date, time, abbreviations) that govern oral and written communications in French. This cultural knowledge provides students with an opportunity to reflect upon other cultures with a view to understanding other people and, therefore, themselves.

Further, a central aspect of second language education is to promote the favourable development of the student’s whole personality and a sense of identity in response to the enriching experience of “otherness” in language and culture. In this vein, the culture component also develops intercultural skills in that students are made more aware of themselves by comparing and contrasting the information they are acquiring about other cultures. By doing so, students become more aware of the use of Canada’s two official languages in addition to recognizing that other languages may be spoken by students in the classroom or in their environment. The development of intercultural skills and knowledge helps students become less ethnocentric while at the same time confirming their own cultural identity and promoting global citizenship.

Language Learning Strategies

To enhance the learning of culture and language and their application to communicative situations, the language learning strategies component develops the knowledge and application of cognitive, socio-affective, metacognitive and memory strategies. For the purposes of this program of studies, the cognitive, socio-affective and metacognitive strategies have been categorized into comprehension and production strategies. The cognitive learning strategies refer to thinking skills and include such techniques as making associations between words, identifying key words and ideas, reasoning both deductively and inductively, and using nonverbal or linguistic clues to comprehend a message. Socio-affective learning strategies involve students’ personal characteristics as they relate to other learners and students’ attitudes toward learning. In the context of second language learning, these strategies involve collaborating with others, tolerating unknown words and expressions (tolerating ambiguity) and taking the risk to communicate. Metacognitive learning strategies relate to how students describe their own thinking and learning. Strategies of this nature include planning, monitoring and evaluating one’s learning. Memory learning strategies involve the manner in which students learn, retain and recall vocabulary, expressions and grammatical structures needed to understand or produce a message. Strategies related to memory include visualization, word-webbing and repetition. Together these groups of strategies facilitate the awareness of the learning process and their application to the learning of French.

It is important to note, however, that the use of language learning strategies is as individual as each student. Students should be encouraged to develop and apply any strategies that can be used to improve their understanding and use of French. This includes the use of strategies that are introduced at other grade levels or strategies that are not defined within this document but that teachers or students bring to the learning situation. The key to strategic competence is that students develop an ever-increasing repertoire of techniques to facilitate their learning and, specifically, the learning of a second language.

Implementation of Technology

The use of technology in the classroom is an integral part of the Information, Communication and Technology curriculum and as such, certain technology outcomes have been infused into this program of studies. Information and communication technologies are also an important part of enhancing language learning by demonstrating to students that French is used in real and authentic contexts outside the confines of the classroom. By using technologies in the French classroom, students are able to reinforce their technological knowledge and skills to create multimedia presentations, to use word processing programs and to do research on the Internet. Using technology allows students to tailor their communications to meet specific purposes and particular audiences.

Language Competency

The four program components—experience–communication, language, culture and language learning strategies—are integrated, but each has a different focus and role to play in the acquisition of French. Language learning is a gradual, developmental process whereby students are given the opportunity to develop and refine, in stages, the basic language elements needed to communicate effectively. To develop competency in the four language skills, students need to be actively involved in the acquisition of the language and its use in authentic communicative situations. As students acquire this multidimensional set of knowledge and skills, they will progress along the language continuum at different rates and degrees of development. This continuum is characterized by cyclical overlap, expansion and refinement of knowledge and use of the French language. The overarching goal of this program of studies, then, is to develop students who are sufficiently competent in French so that they can function in the language and culture outside the confines of the classroom.

Assessment

Assessment is essential to the teaching and learning process. As students continue to develop their communication skills and their cultural, linguistic and strategic knowledge, they require feedback on their progress on a regular basis. The prescribed general and specific outcomes that follow indicate what students are to demonstrate at each grade level. These grade-level outcomes provide the sole basis for assessment. While students may benefit from the explicit learning of linguistic elements that are prescribed at a higher grade level, this exceeded knowledge should not be assessed until the year in which it is prescribed. Assessment practices should reflect a variety of evaluative methods, both formal and informal, and should be in keeping with the philosophy of the program of studies.

Definition of Outcomes

Learner outcomes define the knowledge, skills and attitudes that students must attain. These outcomes emphasize the ability to understand, express and negotiate meaning through spoken and written texts—abilities that are closely related to the actual use of French throughout life. The organization of the learner outcomes is cyclical so that students can continue to refine skills and knowledge in an increasingly varied manner throughout the program.

The general outcomes describe the overarching goals of the program. There are four general outcomes. Each outcome relates to one of the following components: Communication, Language, Culture, and Language Learning Strategies. The specific outcomes define the requisite linguistic, cultural, intercultural and strategic knowledge, and communicative skills for each grade. For example, the specific outcomes for the language component indicate the grade at which certain linguistic elements are introduced. The general sequence is to introduce specific linguistic elements in one grade, develop them in the next grade and refine them in subsequent grades. Further refinement of the linguistic elements will involve lifelong learning. The entire teaching–learning process must ensure the development, refinement and continual use of the four language skills and of concrete and abstract knowledge as students progress toward the completion of the program in senior high school.

Many of the specific outcomes are supported by examples. The examples do not form part of the required program but provide a context for learning.

Specific fields of experience and subfields are prescribed at each grade. These fields of experience are sequenced from the concrete to the abstract and build on and integrate the fields from previous grades. Instruction must address all of the prescribed fields and subfields of experience by the end of each grade. Teachers may select additional fields of experience or subfields to enhance their program on the basis of student interests and needs and instructional time. The sequence of the fields of experience is found on the specific outcomes pages of this document. The sequence allows teachers to plan for the integration and grouping of the required outcomes related to communication, language, culture and language learning strategies in a cyclical fashion.

Note that the field of experience Holidays and Celebrations is an exception to the prescribed sequence in that a particular holiday or celebration is to be introduced based on the calendar year. Although this field of experience is prescribed in grades 4 through 9, it is recommended that the subfields related to this field be expanded and extended in grades 10, 11 and 12. For an example of a suggested breakdown of this field of experience, see the Appendix.

General Outcomes: Overview

Communication - Students will use their knowledge of French to understand and/or to express a message effectively in various situations for a variety of purposes.

Language - Students will use, with accuracy, knowledge of linguistic elements of the French language to fulfill their communicative intents.

Culture - Students will use their knowledge of different Francophone cultures and their own culture to be able to interact appropriately within these cultures.

Language Learning Strategies - Students will use their knowledge of strategies to enhance learning and to communicate in French.

Grade 4  
Experience (Gr. 4)

Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available.

My Classroom  

  • classroom interactions
  • people in the classroom
  • school and classroom supplies
  • classroom furniture
  • arithmetic operations
  • shapes

Who Am I?

  • my age/my birthday
  • my physical traits
  • my personality traits
  • my likes and dislikes

My Immediate Family

  • my immediate family members
  • their age/birthday
  • their physical traits
  • their personality traits
  • their likes and dislikes
  • family pets

Calendar and Weather (To be integrated based on the calendar year)

  • days of the week
  • months of the year
  • seasons
  • statutory holidays in Canada
  • weather expressions
  • seasonal weather

Alberta Winter Celebrations (To be integrated based on the calendar year)  

  • location and date
  • symbols and activities

Four Holidays and Celebrations (To be integrated based on the calendar year)  

  • greetings, symbols and colours associated with the four holidays and celebrations
Communication (Gr. 4)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of French to understand and/or to express a message effectively in various situations for a variety of purposes.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Listening Comprehension

  • demonstrate understanding of key words and ideas contained in simple, concrete oral texts by responding with physical actions; by answering in English; by using graphic representations, yes/no statements, simple identification at the word level or global expressions 

Reading Comprehension

  • demonstrate understanding of key words and ideas in simple, concrete adapted or authentic written texts by responding with physical actions or by underlining, highlighting, matching, drawing or using English 

Oral Production

  • express simple oral messages by using gestures, one word utterances, memorized global expressions or simple, concrete sentences based on available models 

Written Production

  • express simple written messages by copying, labelling, substituting words or using simple concrete sentences based on available models. 
Language (Gr. 4)

General Outcome: Students will use, with accuracy, knowledge of linguistic elements of the French language to fulfill their communicative intents. 

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Knowledge of Language Concepts

  • associate each letter of the alphabet with its corresponding sound 
  • state, orally in their own words, that a noun is a word that names a person, place or thing (concrete or abstract)
  • state, orally in their own words, that nouns can be singular or plural
  • state, orally in their own words, that nouns in French are either masculine or feminine
  • state, orally in their own words, that there are two groups of articles—definite and indefinite
  • state, orally in their own words, that an adjective is a word that describes a person, place or thing
  • state that there are three different words to indicate ownership for “my” (mon, ma, mes) and “your” (ton, ta, tes)
  • state, orally in their own words, that prepositions of place are words that indicate the position of a person, place or thing in relation to another person, place or thing
  • state, orally in their own words, that a verb is a word that names an action or a state of being (e.g., sauter, être)
  • state that voici and voilà are used to point out a person or a thing
  • distinguish a statement from a question
  • state how to form a question from a statement using intonation
  • state how to form a question from the structure Est-ce que…

Knowledge of Vocabulary

  • demonstrate an understanding of vocabulary associated with:
    • - introductions 
    • - greetings 
    • - leave-taking 
    • - politeness 
    • - state of being 
    • - approval or praise
    • - classroom routines 
    • - important people in the classroom
    • - elementary student school supplies 
    • - elementary classroom supplies and furniture 
    • - numbers 0–69 
    • - symbols for the four arithmetic operations (+, –, x, ÷)
    • - measurement
    • - selected 2- and 3-dimensional shapes
    • - age 
    • - parts of the body 
    • - physical and personality traits 
    • - likes and dislikes
    • - family members 
    • - family pets 
    • - days of the week
    • - months of the year
    • - dates
    • - seasons
    • - statutory holidays
    • - weather
    • - temperature
    • - an Alberta winter celebration
    • - holiday greetings and wishes
    • - common holiday symbols
    • - basic colours 
    • - questions 
    • - place or position 

Application of Vocabulary and Language Concepts

  • use the following linguistic elements, mainly orally and sometimes in written form, in modelled situations, to communicate a simple message:
    • - names of the letters of the French alphabet 
    • - vocabulary for making introductions (e.g., Je te/vous présente…/C’est mon ami John./Comment t’appelles-tu? Je m’appelle…/Mon nom est…) 
    • - greetings (e.g., Bonjour, madame./Salut, Peter.) 
    • - leave-taking expressions (e.g., Au revoir, monsieur./À demain.) 
    • - expressions of politeness (e.g., Merci, John./S’il vous plaît./Excusez-moi.)
    • - selected questions and expressions related to state of being (e.g., Comment ça va? Ça va (très) bien./Pas mal.) 
    • - vocabulary associated with approval and praise (e.g., C’est correct./Bien!/ Bravo!)
    • - vocabulary associated with classroom routines and interactions (e.g., Est-ce que je peux aller aux toilettes?/Répétez, s’il vous plaît.) 
    • - vocabulary related to important people in students’ school life (e.g., ami(e), professeur, camarade de classe, directeur/directrice)
    • - vocabulary for elementary school supplies, classroom supplies and classroom furniture (e.g., deux stylos bleus, une brosse et de la craie/C’est un pupitre.) 
    • - the names of the numbers 0–69 
    • - words related to the symbols needed for arithmetic operations (plus [+], moins [–], multiplié par [x], divisé par [÷], font [=])
    • - written number words 0–31
    • - the names for the units of measurement mm and cm
    • - vocabulary for selected shapes (e.g., un triangle, un rectangle, un cône)
    • - the expression for age (e.g., J’ai neuf ans.)
    • - vocabulary for parts of the body (e.g., la main, la tête)
    • - vocabulary related to physical and personality traits (e.g., petit, grand, fort, joli, intelligent, honnête, sympa, yeux bruns)
    • - vocabulary associated with likes and dislikes (e.g., J’aime le soccer./Mon père déteste le vert./Ma couleur préférée est le bleu.)
    • - vocabulary for family members (e.g., mon père, ma soeur)
    • - the names of common family pets (e.g., un poisson rouge, une chienne)
    • - the names of the days of the week
    • - the names of the months of the year
    • - the date
    • - the ordinal number premier
    • - the names of the seasons
    • - the names of Canadian statutory holidays (e.g., la fête du Canada/l’Action de grâces)
    • - common weather expressions (e.g., Il pleut./Il fait (du) soleil.)
    • - expressions of temperature (e.g., La température est de 22 °C./Il fait –10 °C.)
    • - vocabulary associated with an Alberta winter celebration (e.g., cabane à sucre)
    • - the names of traditional holidays (e.g., la Saint-Valentin)
    • - the colours associated with these holidays (e.g., la Saint-Valentin – le rouge et le blanc)
    • - symbols associated with these holidays (e.g., une fleur/une rose, cupidon)
    • - vocabulary related to specific holiday greetings and wishes (e.g., Bonne fête des mères!)
    • - vocabulary for basic colours (e.g., le rouge, l’orange, le bleu) 
    • - indefinite articles (un, une, des) 
    • - definite articles (le, la, les) 
    • - prepositions of place (e.g., dans, sur, devant, derrière)
    • - the possessive adjectives mon, ma, mes, ton, ta, tes (e.g., C’est ma règle./ C’est ton ami?)
    • - the prepositions voici and voilà
    • - singular forms of the verb avoir (e.g., J’ai un stylo./Tu as un crayon?)
    • - singular and third person plural forms of the verb être (e.g., Le livre est bleu./Je suis un élève./Mme Brown est professeure./Mes camarades de classe sont…)
    • - singular forms of the verb mesurer (e.g., La gomme mesure 60 mm.)
    • - singular forms of the verb aimer
    • - singular forms of the verb adorer
    • - singular forms of the verb détester
    • - the expression il y a (e.g., Il y a un tableau dans la salle de classe.)
    • - routine questions (e.g., Qu’est-ce que c’est?/Quel temps fait-il?/Quel jour est-ce?/Qui est-ce?)
    • - questions formed with intonation and Est-ce que…
    • - correct pronunciation of known words. 
Culture (Gr. 4)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of different Francophone cultures and their own culture to be able to interact appropriately within these cultures.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

  • identify reasons for learning a second language and more specifically, French
  • recognize that learning another language and developing knowledge about other cultures is a lifelong learning process
  • recognize elements of Francophone cultures in the classroom 
  • recognize that there are often equivalents in French for common English first names (e.g., Pierre = Peter; Marie = Mary) 
  • recognize that the song “Happy Birthday” varies from culture to culture (e.g., Bonne fête in Canada/Joyeux anniversaire in France/Gens du pays in Québec)
  • identify French songs, nursery rhymes or counting rhymes (e.g., Savez-vous planter les choux?)
  • be able to identify, in English,
    • - examples of French used in the immediate environment (e.g., bilingual information on labels, bilingual dictionaries)
    • - the fact that calendars in France typically display Monday as the first day of the week
  • state that tu and vous are used to address people in specific social situations (e.g., Comment t’appelles-tu? vs Comment vous appelez-vous?)
  • recognize that word processing programs are available in French
  • demonstrate awareness of the following cultural characteristics of the French language:
    • - greetings
    • - leave-taking expressions
    • - addressing people
    • - the date
    • - the abbreviation for premier (1er)
    • - days of the week and months of the year
    • - metric measurements
    • - age
    • - measurement of temperature in degrees Celsius.
Language Learning Strategies (Gr. 4)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of strategies to enhance learning and to communicate in French.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Comprehension Strategies
  • develop and use comprehension strategies to facilitate the understanding of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - guess the meaning of an unknown word or expression 
  • - use visual clues (e.g., pictures, gestures, illustrations) and auditory clues (e.g., street noises, intonation, sighs) 
  • - associate a gesture, a symbol or an illustration with a message 
  • - identify cognates (e.g., forest–forêt; carnival–carnaval) 
  • - identify word families (e.g., étudiant, étude, étudier)
  • - activate prior knowledge and experiences 
  • - predict what information a text may contain
  • - activate first language listening and reading skills 
  • - represent meaning by using mental images, illustrations or graphic representations 
  • - use repetition (e.g., listen again to a text or reread a text that is causing difficulty) 

socio-affective

  • - participate willingly in French language learning experiences
  • - take the risk to listen to or read a new text in French
  • - ask questions, in the first language, to clarify or verify that a message has been understood
  • - tolerate ambiguity—accept that it is not necessary to understand every word in order to glean meaning 
  • - collaborate with others to build confidence and exchange information

metacognitive

  • - focus attention on the activity to be carried out 
  • - activate prediction skills based on previous knowledge and experience 
  • - verify predictions
  • - focus attention on the required information 
  • - focus attention on what is known and ignore what is unknown
Production Strategies
  • develop and use production strategies to produce a simple oral or written message

cognitive

  • - repeat a word, an expression, a pattern, a presentation, etc., silently or aloud
  • - use models to create a similar text
  • - use reference materials (e.g., vocabulary and expressions posted in the classroom)
  • - activate prior knowledge and experiences
  • - prepare a draft of the message
  • - find a different way of conveying a message (e.g., gestures, drawing, pointing to an example, using a different word or expression to approximate meaning)

socio-affective

  • - take the risk to say or write something in French
  • - ask questions to clarify understanding
  • - ask the speaker to repeat the message
  • - ask the speaker to explain what was said
  • - ask the speaker to speak more slowly
  • - encourage classmates using expressions of approval or praise (e.g., Bravo!)
  • - ask the speaker to spell out or draw the unknown word
  • - indicate to the speaker that the message was not understood
  • - use facial expressions or mime to get the message across
  • - seek assistance from the teacher or a peer to clarify instructions, word meaning, etc.
  • - collaborate with others to brainstorm, resolve problems, rehearse and communicate messages

metacognitive

  • - read instructions thoroughly before beginning a task
  • - ask for clarification of a task before beginning
  • - develop a plan, in English, to complete a class project (e.g., create a timeline for completing research or for the preparation of a piece of writing or artwork)
  • - use checklists, written in English, to verify the work
  • - reflect on and articulate, in English, what they have learned and can demonstrate in French
  • - articulate their understanding of the grade-specific Knowledge of Language Concepts
Memory Strategies
  • develop and use memory strategies to learn, retain or recall vocabulary or grammatical structures
  • - combine new learning of vocabulary with previously learned vocabulary 
  • - practise a word, an expression or a grammatical pattern 
  • - repeat a new word or expression, silently or aloud 
  • - repeat a new word silently and associate it with an image
  • - repeat a new word saying the letters or syllables that make up the word
  • - use physical actions in conjunction with new vocabulary
  • - create a rhyme or a song to help remember vocabulary, expressions or grammatical rules.
Grade 5  
Experience (Gr. 5)

Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available.

My Elementary School

  • classroom timetable
  • school personnel
  • areas inside and outside the school
  • healthy school snacks
  • arithmetic operations

Our Friends—The Animals

  • common farm animals
  • common wild animals
  • physical traits of animals
  • animal habitats

Clothes

  • seasonal clothes
  • clothing preferences
  • clothes for different occasions

My Home

  • types of dwellings
  • rooms in my home
  • structure of a room
  • my room

Le Festival du Voyageur (To be integrated based on the calendar year)

  • location and date
  • symbols and activities

Four Holidays and Celebrations (To be integrated based on the calendar year)  

  • greetings, symbols and colours associated with the four holidays and celebrations
Communication (Gr. 5)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of French to understand and/or to express a message effectively in various situations for a variety of purposes.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Listening Comprehension

  • demonstrate understanding of key words and ideas contained in simple, concrete oral texts by responding with physical actions; by answering in English; by using graphic representations, yes/no statements, simple identification at the word level or global expressions

Reading Comprehension

  • demonstrate understanding of key words and ideas in simple, concrete adapted or authentic written texts by responding with physical actions or by underlining, highlighting, matching, drawing or using English 

Oral Production

  • express simple oral messages by using gestures, one word utterances, memorized global expressions or simple, concrete sentences based on available models

Written Production

  • express simple written messages by copying, labelling, substituting words or using simple concrete sentences based on available models. 
Language (Gr. 5)

General Outcome: Students will use, with accuracy, knowledge of linguistic elements of the French language to fulfill their communicative intents. 

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Knowledge of Language Concepts

  • name the three indefinite articles (un, une, des) and the four definite articles (le, la, l’, les)
  • state, orally in their own words, that the article changes according to the gender and the number of the noun
  • state, orally in their own words, that the definite article l’ is used with nouns beginning with a vowel or silent h
  • state, orally in their own words, that the form of the adjective may change according to the gender and the number of the noun described
  • state, orally in their own words, that the addition of an “e” changes a masculine adjective to a feminine adjective in most cases
  • state, orally in their own words, that the addition of an “s” changes a singular adjective to a plural adjective in most cases
  • state, orally in their own words, that the possessive adjective changes according to the gender and the number of the noun
  • state, orally in their own words, that there are three words to indicate ownership for “his/her” (son, sa, ses)
  • state, orally in their own words, that the preposition de can be used to indicate possession (e.g., C’est le crayon de John.)
  • identify words that are used to formulate a question (e.g., qui, quand, comment)
  • state, orally in their own words, that personal subject pronouns replace a noun
  • name all of the personal subject pronouns
  • identify the singular (je, tu, il, elle, on) and the plural (nous, vous, ils, elles) personal subject pronouns
  • explain that the vous form of the verb is used when addressing an adult or two or more people
  • state that:
    • - a masculine name or noun is replaced by the pronoun il
    • - a feminine name or noun is replaced by the pronoun elle
    • - two or more masculine names or nouns are replaced by the pronoun ils
    • - two or more feminine names or nouns are replaced by the pronoun elles
    • - a masculine name or names, a masculine noun or nouns plus any combination of feminine names or nouns are replaced by the pronoun ils
  • state, orally in their own words, that the infinitive is a word that names an action verb (e.g., sauter) or a state of being verb (e.g., être)
  • state, orally in their own words, that every verb in French changes its form according to the personal subject pronoun used
  • distinguish a command from a statement
  • distinguish between affirmative and negative sentences
  • state, orally in their own words, how to formulate a question using the question words

Knowledge of Vocabulary

  • demonstrate an understanding of vocabulary associated with:
    • - the school day and time of day
    • - the classroom timetable
    • - expressions of time using the 12-hour clock 
    • - school personnel 
    • - areas inside and outside the school 
    • - healthy school snacks
    • - numbers to 1000
    • - written numbers 0–100
    • - categories of animals
    • - common farm animals
    • - common wild animals
    • - animal anatomy
    • - physical traits of animals
    • - animal habitats
    • - common clothing items and basic accessories
    • - main types of dwellings 
    • - the main rooms of the house 
    • - the interior structure of a room
    • - furnishings in a student’s room 
    • - le Festival du Voyageur
    • - holiday greetings and wishes
    • - common holiday symbols
    • - possession
    • - questions 

Application of Vocabulary and Language Concepts

  • use the following linguistic elements, mainly orally and sometimes in written form, in modelled situations, to communicate a simple message:
    • - vocabulary and language concepts presented in Grade 4 
    • - vocabulary for time of day (e.g., matin, après-midi, soir, pendant la récréation) 
    • - vocabulary for time using the 12-hour clock (e.g., Il est huit heures trente.)
    • - the names of elementary school subjects (e.g., les sciences, les mathématiques) 
    • - the position titles of school personnel (e.g., le directeur adjoint, la directrice adjointe, le concierge, l’aide enseignant) 
    • - the names of locations inside and outside the elementary school (e.g., le gymnase, le bureau, le terrain de jeux) 
    • - vocabulary related to healthy school snacks (e.g., une pomme, du céleri, du granola, du fromage, des noix)
    • - numbers to 1000
    • - written numbers 32–100
    • - vocabulary associated with categories of animals (e.g., les animaux de compagnie, les animaux de ferme, les animaux sauvages)
    • - the names of common farm animals (e.g., une vache, un cochon)
    • - the names of common wild animals (e.g., un tigre, un ours)
    • - vocabulary related to animal anatomy (e.g., le bec, la queue, les pattes)
    • - adjectives related to size and colours of animals (e.g., gros, petit, roux)
    • - the names of habitats of common wild animals (e.g., la forêt, la prairie, les montagnes, un marécage, la mer, le désert)
    • - the names of clothing items and basic accessories worn for different occasions (e.g., holidays, celebrations, weather conditions, sports)
    • - names of main types of dwellings (e.g., une maison, un appartement)
    • - names of the main rooms of the house (e.g., la salle de bains, une chambre à coucher)
    • - names of the main interior parts of a room (e.g., un mur, le plancher, une fenêtre)
    • - names of objects and furnishings in a student’s room (e.g., une affiche, un lit, un tapis)
    • - vocabulary associated with le Festival du Voyageur (e.g., la ceinture fléchée, le canotage)
    • - the names of traditional holidays
    • - colours associated with traditional holidays (e.g., Noël – le rouge et le vert)
    • - symbols associated with traditional holidays (e.g., Noël – le père Noël, un sapin)
    • - holiday greetings and wishes (e.g., Joyeux Noël/Bonne Année)
    • - the possessive adjectives son, sa, ses
    • - the preposition de + noun to indicate possession (e.g., C’est la chambre de Kristi.)
    • - prepositions and prepositional phrases of location (e.g., Le bureau est en face de ma salle de classe./Le salon est à côté de la cuisine.)
    • - questions such as Combien de…?/Qu’est-ce que…?/Où se trouve(nt)…?/ Comment…?/Qui…?/Où est/sont…?/Quelle heure est-il?)
    • - singular forms of the verbs aimer, porter, se trouver, parler, détester, travailler, faire, étudier, aller, habiter
    • - singular forms of the verb manger (e.g., Je mange une pomme.)
    • - singular forms of the verb boire (e.g., Je bois du lait.)
    • - all forms of the verbs avoir and être
    • - the negative structure ne… pas
    • - correct pronunciation of known words.
Culture (Gr. 5)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of different Francophone cultures and their own culture to be able to interact appropriately within these cultures.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

  • recognize elements of Francophone cultures in the school (e.g., French posters, a French section in the school library)
  • identify a variety of ways for enhancing contact, directly or indirectly, with people of Francophone origin (e.g., penpals, e-pals, radio, television)
  • seek out information about Francophones from authentic sources (e.g., an elementary school timetable from Québec or France)
  • recognize that the French accents are accessible on a French keyboard or through the use of specific computer commands
  • identify, with teacher assistance:
    • - that the terms a.m. and p.m. are not used in French to express “before noon” and “after noon”
    • - what constitutes a snack for elementary students in France 
    • - when and where elementary students in France typically eat snacks
    • - that clothing labels in Canada are available in at least two languages— French and English
    • - that food products sold in Canada have/contain information and instructions in at least two languages—French and English
  • demonstrate awareness of the following cultural characteristics of the French language:
    • - spacing of four digit numbers (e.g., 1 000)
    • - the abbreviation for hour (h)
    • - abbreviations for Monsieur—M., Madame—Mme, Mademoiselle—Mlle(in France).
Language Learning Strategies (Gr. 5)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of strategies to enhance learning and to communicate in French.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Comprehension Strategies
  • develop and use comprehension strategies to facilitate the understanding of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - guess the meaning of an unknown word or expression 
  • - use visual clues (e.g., pictures, gestures, illustrations) and auditory clues (e.g., street noises, intonation, sighs) 
  • - associate a gesture, a symbol or an illustration with a message 
  • - identify cognates and word families
  • - activate prior knowledge and experiences 
  • - predict what information a text may contain
  • - activate first-language listening and reading skills
  • - represent meaning by using mental images, illustrations or graphic representations 
  • - use repetition (e.g., listen again to a text or reread a text that is causing difficulty)

socio-affective

  • - participate willingly in French language learning experiences
  • - take the risk to listen to or read a new text in French
  • - ask questions, in the first language, to clarify or verify that a message has been understood
  • - tolerate ambiguity—accept that it is not necessary to understand every word in order to glean meaning 
  • - collaborate with others to build confidence and exchange information

metacognitive

  • - focus attention on the activity to be carried out
  • - activate prediction skills based on previous knowledge and experience 
  • - verify predictions
  • - focus attention on the required information
  • - focus attention on what is known and ignore what is unknown
Production Strategies
  • develop and use production strategies to produce a simple oral or written message

cognitive

  • - repeat a word, an expression, a pattern, a presentation, etc., silently or aloud
  • - use models to create a similar text
  • - use reference materials (e.g., vocabulary and expressions posted in the classroom)
  • - activate prior knowledge and experiences
  • - prepare a draft of the message
  • - find a different way of conveying a message (e.g., gestures, drawing, pointing to an example, using a different word or expression to approximate meaning)

socio-affective

  • - take the risk to say or write something in French
  • - ask questions to clarify understanding
  • - ask the speaker to repeat the message
  • - ask the speaker to explain what was said
  • - ask the speaker to speak more slowly
  • - encourage classmates using expressions of approval or praise (e.g., Bravo!)
  • - ask the speaker to spell out or draw the unknown word
  • - indicate to the speaker that the message was not understood
  • - use facial expressions or mime to get the message across
  • - seek assistance from the teacher or a peer to clarify instructions, word meaning, etc.
  • - collaborate with others to brainstorm, resolve problems, rehearse and communicate messages

metacognitive

  • - read instructions thoroughly before beginning a task
  • - ask for clarification of a task before beginning
  • - develop a plan, in English, to complete a class project (e.g., create a timeline for completing research or for the preparation of a piece of writing or artwork)
  • - use checklists, written in English, to verify the work
  • - reflect on and articulate, in English, what they have learned and can demonstrate in French
  • - articulate their understanding of the grade-specific Knowledge of Language Concepts
Memory Strategies
  • develop and use memory strategies to learn, retain or recall vocabulary or grammatical structures
  • - combine new learning of vocabulary with previously learned vocabulary 
  • - practise a word, an expression or a grammatical pattern 
  • - repeat a new word or expression, silently or aloud
  • - repeat a new word silently and associate it with an image
  • - repeat a new word saying the letters or syllables that make up the word
  • - use physical actions in conjunction with new vocabulary
  • - create a rhyme or a song to help remember vocabulary, expressions or grammatical rules.
Grade 6  
Experience (Gr. 6)

Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available.

My Health and Well-being

  • healthy eating
  • expression of feelings and emotions
  • feeling well/feeling ill
  • seasonal sports and physical activities

My Neighbourhood

  • neighbourhood buildings
  • people in the neighbourhood
  • neighbourhood plan
  • neighourhood transportation

Alberta—My Province  

  • location
  • landscapes
  • common wild animals
  • communities and their festivals
  • its riches

The Environment

  • natural environments and habitats
  • dangers to the environment
  • endangered animals
  • protection of the environment

Le Carnaval de Québec (To be integrated based on the calendar year)

  • location and date
  • symbols and activities

Four Holidays and Celebrations (To be integrated based on the calendar year)

  • greetings, symbols and colours associated with the four holidays and celebrations
Communication (Gr. 6)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of French to understand and/or to express a message effectively in various situations for a variety of purposes.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Listening Comprehension

  • demonstrate understanding of key words and ideas contained in simple, concrete oral texts by responding with physical actions; by answering in English; by using graphic representations, yes/no statements, simple identification at the word level or global expressions

Reading Comprehension

  • demonstrate understanding of key words and ideas in simple, concrete adapted or authentic written texts by responding with physical actions or by underlining, highlighting, matching, drawing or using English

Oral Production

  • express simple oral messages by using one word utterances, memorized global expressions or simple, concrete sentences based on available models and sometimes recombining known linguistic elements

Written Production

  • express simple written messages by copying, labelling, substituting words or using simple concrete sentences based on available models and sometimes recombining known linguistic elements.
Language (Gr. 6)

General Outcome: Students will use, with accuracy, knowledge of linguistic elements of the French language to fulfill their communicative intents.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Knowledge of Language Concepts

  • associate the French sound with the letter or letter combination or diacritical mark(s) (e.g., é [e] versus è [ε], beau [o])
  • state, orally in their own words, that “to conjugate a verb” means naming the different forms a verb takes according to the personal subject pronoun used
  • state, orally in their own words, that a conjugation is a verb pattern
  • state, orally in their own words, that the common format of a verb conjugation includes the infinitive and all of the personal subject pronouns with the corresponding form of the verb
  • explain, orally in their own words, the –er verb conjugation pattern in the present tense
  • state, orally in their own words, that in French the verb avoir is used in some expressions where the verb “to be” is used in English (e.g., J’ai faim. vs I am hungry.)
  • state, orally in their own words, that the preposition used in conjunction with the means of transportation varies according to the type of transportation being used (e.g., à bicyclette, en autobus)
  • state, orally in their own words, that in French the indefinite article is not used when identifying one’s profession (e.g., M. Brown est dentiste.)
  • recognize that the words du, de la, de l’ or des are used to express “some” in English (e.g., Je mange du brocoli./Je bois de l’eau.)
  • recognize that jouer à is used with certain sports and activities and that faire de is used with others

Knowledge of Vocabulary

  • demonstrate an understanding of vocabulary associated with:
    • - basic food items 
    • - the food groups
    • - nutritious foods
    • - meals and meal times
    • - expressions of feelings and emotions
    • - expressions of physical state 
    • - expressions of health 
    • - common physical activities
    • - seasonal sports and activities
    • - neighbourhood buildings 
    • - trades and professions of people in the neighbourhood
    • - a basic plan of a neighbourhood 
    • - common means of neighbourhood transportation
    • - Alberta’s geographical location
    • - cardinal and intermediate points 
    • - Alberta’s landscapes
    • - Alberta’s common wild animals
    • - Alberta’s communities and their festivals
    • - Alberta’s riches
    • - the environment
    • - natural environments and habitats
    • - dangers to the environment
    • - endangered animals
    • - protection of the environment
    • - le Carnaval de Québec
    • - holiday greetings and wishes
    • - common holiday symbols
    • - numbers to 1 000 000
    • - question words
    • - expressions of personal preference 
    • - basic description
    • - quantity

Application of Vocabulary and Language Concepts

  • use the following linguistic elements, mainly orally and sometimes in written form, in modelled situations, to communicate a simple message:
    • - vocabulary and language concepts presented in grades 4 and 5
    • - the names of basic food items
    • - the names of the food groups
    • - the names of nutritious foods
    • - the names of meals and meal times
    • - expressions of feelings and emotions (e.g., Je suis triste./Je suis heureuse.)
    • - expressions of physical state (e.g., J’ai chaud/froid/soif/faim.)
    • - expressions of health (e.g., J’ai mal à la tête./Je suis en bonne santé.)
    • - the names of common physical activities (e.g., une promenade, des exercices d’aérobie) 
    • - the names of seasonal sports (e.g., le soccer, le ski)
    • - expressions related to physical activities and seasonal sports (e.g., Je joue au baseball en été./Je fais du ski en hiver./Je saute à la corde.) 
    • - the names of neighbourhood buildings (e.g., un restaurant, un centre commercial)
    • - the names of trades and professions of people in the neighbourhood (e.g., médecin, factrice)
    • - vocabulary related to a basic plan of a neighbourhood (e.g., une rue/une avenue)
    • - the names of common means of neighbourhood transportation (e.g., un autobus, un taxi, un camion)
    • - vocabulary describing Alberta’s location within Canada and in relation to its neighbours (e.g., dans l’ouest du Canada, au nord des États-Unis)
    • - the names of cardinal and intermediate points (e.g., le sud, le nord-est)
    • - vocabulary related to Alberta’s landscapes (e.g., les montagnes Rocheuses, les prairies, les lacs)
    • - names of wild animals common to Alberta (e.g., une antilope, un mouflon, un orignal)
    • - names and locations of major towns and cities (e.g., Edmonton se trouve au centre de la province./Brooks est dans le sud de l’Alberta.)
    • - names and locations of some Francophone communities (e.g., Falher est dans le nord de l’Alberta.)
    • - names, symbols and major activities associated with an Alberta festival (e.g., La fête du village à Legal, Medicine Hat Stampede)
    • - vocabulary related to Alberta’s riches (e.g., les montagnes Rocheuses, ses animaux sauvages, les vastes espaces, son pétrole)
    • - vocabulary related to the environment (e.g., l’écosystème, l’environnement)
    • - vocabulary related to natural environments and habitats (e.g., le pré, les montagnes, les forêts)
    • - vocabulary related to dangers to the environment (e.g., l’effet de serre, la pollution)
    • - vocabulary related to endangered animals (e.g., L’ours polaire est un animal en danger de disparition.)
    • - vocabulary related to the protection of the environment (e.g., le recyclage, réutiliser les plastiques)
    • - vocabulary associated with le Carnaval de Québec (e.g., Bonhomme Carnaval, les sculptures de glace, défilé)
    • - the names of traditional holidays 
    • - colours associated with these holidays (e.g., la fête du Canada – le rouge et le blanc)
    • - symbols associated with these holidays (e.g., l’Action de grâces – le dindon)
    • - holiday greetings and wishes (e.g., Bonne fête Canada!)
    • - the expression il faut + infinitive (e.g., Il faut recycler.)
    • - the question forms, Qu’est-ce qu’il y a…?/Quel(s)/Quelle(s)… ?/Quand…?
    • - expressions of personal preference (e.g., j’aime, je n’aime pas, je déteste, je préfère…)
    • - the adverbs of quantity and intensity beaucoup, bien, peu, assez, trop, plus and moins (e.g., Je mange assez le matin./Je mange trop de chocolat à midi.)
    • - selected forms of the verb se trouver (e.g., Alberta se trouve entre la Colombie-Britannique et la Saskatchewan./ Les montagnes Rocheuses se trouvent dans l’ouest de l’Alberta.)
    • - singular forms of the verb travailler
    • - singular forms of the verb manger 
    • - singular forms of the verb préférer 
    • - singular forms of the verb protéger
    • - singular forms of the verb aller
    • - singular forms of the verb habiter
    • - singular forms of the verb faire
    • - singular forms of common –er verbs (e.g., jouer, danser, regarder)
    • - all forms of the verb aimer 
    • - all forms of the verb détester
    • - correct pronunciation of known words.
Culture (Gr. 6)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of different Francophone cultures and their own culture to be able to interact appropriately within these cultures.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

  • identify, with teacher’s assistance:
    • - the difference between the names and times of meals in Québec and in France
    • - the difference in the number of food groups in Canada (four) and in France (six)
    • - the names of two winter Francophone celebrations in Canada (e.g., le Festival du Voyageur à Saint-Boniface au Manitoba, le Carnaval de Québec au Québec)
    • - examples of French language names found on signs, in directories, in newspapers, etc., in the students’ own neighbourhood or school neighbourhood (e.g., la Créperie Saint-Jacques, rue Sainte-Anne)
    • - two predominantly Francophone communities in Alberta and their locations (e.g., Beaumont est au sud d’Edmonton./Saint-Isidore est dans le nord de l’Alberta.)
    • - that the Canadian national anthem can be sung in English, in French and in a combination of both languages
    • - an historical fact about the Canadian national anthem
  • state, in French, that Canada has two official languages—French and English
  • recognize elements of Francophone cultures in the community (e.g., a French restaurant offering service in French; a police officer who can speak French and English)
  • recognize that searches can be done on the Internet using French language search engines
  • recognize that subject area content can be learned in French
  • demonstrate awareness of the following cultural characteristics of the French language:
    • - the spacing in four- to six-digit numbers (e.g., 15 150)
    • - the spacing between sets of digits in seven-digit numbers (e.g., 1 000 000)
    • - the abbreviations for the cardinal and intermediate points (e.g., N./N.-O.)
    • - the abbreviations for the rue (r) and avenue (av.).
Language Learning Strategies (Gr. 6)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of strategies to enhance learning and to communicate in French.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Comprehension Strategies
  • develop and use comprehension strategies to facilitate the understanding of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - guess the meaning of an unknown word or expression
  • - use visual clues (e.g., pictures, gestures, illustrations) and auditory clues (e.g., street noises, intonation, sighs)
  • - associate a gesture, a symbol or an illustration with a message
  • - identify cognates and word families
  • - activate prior knowledge and experiences
  • - predict what information a text may contain
  • - activate first language listening and reading skills
  • - represent meaning by using mental images, illustrations or graphic representations
  • - use repetition (e.g., listen again to a text or reread a text that is causing difficulty)

socio-affective

  • - participate willingly in French language learning experiences
  • - take the risk to listen to or read a new text in French
  • - ask questions, in the first language, to clarify or verify that a message has been understood
  • - tolerate ambiguity—accept that it is not necessary to understand every word in order to glean meaning
  • - collaborate with others to build confidence and exchange information

metacognitive

  • - focus attention on the activity to be carried out
  • - activate prediction skills based on previous knowledge and experience
  • - verify predictions
  • - focus attention on the required information
  • - focus attention on what is known and ignore what is unknown
Production Strategies
  • develop and use production strategies to produce a simple oral or written message

cognitive

  • - repeat a word, an expression, a pattern, a presentation, etc., silently or aloud
  • - use models to create a similar text
  • - use reference materials (e.g., vocabulary and expressions posted in the classroom)
  • - activate prior knowledge and experiences
  • - prepare a draft of the message
  • - find a different way of conveying a message (e.g., gestures, drawing, pointing to an example, using a different word or expression to approximate meaning)

socio-affective

  • - take the risk to say or write something in French
  • - ask questions to clarify understanding
  • - ask the speaker to repeat the message
  • - ask the speaker to explain what was said
  • - ask the speaker to speak more slowly
  • - encourage classmates using expressions of approval or praise (e.g., Bravo!)
  • - ask the speaker to spell out or draw the unknown word
  • - indicate to the speaker that the message was not understood
  • - use facial expressions or mime to get the message across
  • - seek assistance from the teacher or a peer to clarify instructions, word meaning, etc.
  • - collaborate with others to brainstorm, resolve problems, rehearse and communicate messages

metacognitive

  • - read instructions thoroughly before beginning a task
  • - ask for clarification of a task before beginning
  • - develop a plan, in English, to complete a class project (e.g., timeline for completing research, preparation, writing or a piece of artwork)
  • - use checklists, written in English, to verify the work
  • - reflect on and articulate, in English, what they have learned and can demonstrate in French
  • - articulate their understanding of the grade-specific Knowledge of Language Concepts
Memory Strategies
  • develop and use memory strategies to learn, retain or recall vocabulary or grammatical structures
  • - combine new learning of vocabulary with previously learned vocabulary
  • - practise a word, an expression or a grammatical pattern
  • - repeat a new word or expression, silently or aloud
  • - repeat a new word silently and associate it with an image
  • - repeat a new word saying the letters or syllables that make up the word
  • - use physical actions in conjunction with new vocabulary
  • - create a rhyme or a song to help remember vocabulary, expressions or grammatical rules.
Grade 7  
Experience (Gr. 7)

Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available.

School  

  • school supplies
  • school calendar
  • school plan
  • school personnel
  • school subjects
  • school activities

People around Me  

  • classmates
  • friends
  • family

Weather  

  • weather conditions 
  • climate 
  • Canada’s weather
  • weather folklore/weather proverbs 

Four Holidays and Celebrations (To be integrated based on the calendar year)  

  • origins of the four holidays and celebrations
  • traditions associated with the four holidays and celebrations
Communication (Gr. 7)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of French to understand and/or to express a message effectively in various situations for a variety of purposes.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Listening Comprehension

  • understand, in guided situations, by identifying key words or expressions previously taught, the main idea(s) or isolated details about a variety of concrete topics contained in authentic or adapted oral texts (e.g., understand a classroom command; identify a family member, his/her profession and his/her age; identify the general weather conditions for the day, or the morning and evening temperatures mentioned in a radio broadcast)

Reading Comprehension

  • understand, in guided situations, by identifying key words or expressions previously taught, the main idea(s) or isolated details about a variety of concrete topics contained in authentic or adapted written texts (e.g., identify the date, time and place of a party in an invitation; understand a list of required school supplies; identify the name of a Francophone celebration, and identify where, when and how it is celebrated)

Oral Production

  • name, list, describe, ask and answer questions, give simple directions, indicate basic needs or preferences orally, with limited spontaneity, in a defined, highly structured and modelled fashion, resulting in a prepared message, expressed in the present, that is comprehensible and accurate (e.g., identify a number of subjects taught at the school; describe the seasonal weather for a French-speaking area of the world; ask questions pertaining to statutory holidays)

Written Production

  • label, list, describe, ask and answer questions, give simple directions, indicate basic needs or preferences, in written form, in a defined, highly structured and modelled fashion, resulting in a prepared message, expressed in the present, that is comprehensible and accurate (e.g., label a school floor plan; describe holiday traditions; design a simple survey on family pets).
Language (Gr. 7)

General Outcome: Students will use, with accuracy, knowledge of linguistic elements of the French language to fulfill their communicative intents.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Knowledge of Language Concepts

  • continue to develop knowledge of the following concepts:
    • - nouns
    • - gender
    • - number
    • - articles—definite and indefinite
    • - possession
    • - possessive adjectives
    • - adjectives
    • - adjectival agreements
    • - prepositions
    • - the infinitive as a verb identifier
    • - personal subject pronouns
    • - verbs
    • - conjugation
    • - the present tense
    • - conjugation pattern of regular –er verbs in the present tense
    • - regular and irregular verbs
    • - negation
    • - the interrogative
    • - the sound–symbol system
    • - pronunciation
    • - word order at the phrase level
    • - construction of simple sentences
  • acquire knowledge of the following concepts:
    • - global expressions using faire and avoir
    • - prepositional phrases
    • - the contractions for à and de + definite articles
    • - interjections
    • - cardinal and ordinal numbers
    • - word order at the sentence level

Application of Vocabulary and Language Concepts

  • use, with a higher level of accuracy, in oral and written form, linguistic elements defined in grades 4–6, needed to communicate a message
  • use, with some consistency, the following linguistic elements needed to communicate a message in oral and written form:
    • - vocabulary associated with the fields of experience and their subfields
    • - number (singular versus plural) and gender (agreement of definite articles—le, la, l’, les, and indefinite articles—un, une, des, with nouns)
    • - possessive adjectives—mon, ma, mes; ton, ta, tes; son, sa, ses, notre, and nos
    • - basic qualifying adjectives (e.g., colour [les yeux verts], physical traits [e.g., Son père est mince.], qualities [e.g., Mon ami est sympathique.])
    • - present tense of avoir, être, faire, aller with all personal subject pronouns
    • - present tense of regular –er verbs with all personal subject pronouns (e.g., aimer, étudier, dessiner, fêter, regarder, travailler)
    • - expressions with avoir (e.g., J’ai douze ans. La réunion a lieu à 15 h 30.)
    • - expressions with faire (e.g., Il fait beau. Il fait du ski.)
    • - affirmative sentences
    • - negative sentences using ne… pas
    • - est-ce que and intonation as a way of asking questions
    • - question words—qui, qu’est-ce que, où, combien, comment, quand, quel/quelle, à quelle heure
    • - contractions for the prepositions à and de + definite articles
    • - prepositions of place and prepositional phrases—à, sous, sur, dans, devant, derrière, à côté de, etc. (e.g., Le bureau est à côté du tableau.)
    • - appropriate interjections—Attention!; Silence!; Brrr!; Bravo!; D’accord!; etc.
    • - correct pronunciation of known words
    • - approximate pronunciation of unknown words
    • - correct spelling (symbol system)
    • - the conjunction et to link a list of words or phrases (e.g., Il a les yeux bleus et les cheveux blonds.)
    • - correct word order at the phrase level (e.g., une grande fille versus une fille aimable)
    • - correct word order in simple sentences (e.g., Mon nom est Marc.).
Culture (Gr. 7)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of different Francophone cultures and their own culture to be able to interact appropriately within these cultures.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

  • identify geographical areas where French is spoken in Canada and other parts of the world
  • recognize, with teacher assistance, that Francophone education is available to Francophones in Alberta and in other provinces and territories
  • recognize, with teacher assistance, that students can obtain French language education at the post-secondary level in differents parts of Canada (e.g., Faculté Saint-Jean in Edmonton, Université Laval in Québec City, Université d’Ottawa in Ottawa)
  • identify, with teacher assistance, concrete facts that reflect the way of life of Francophone individuals or groups (e.g., Most French schools do not have classes on Wednesday afternoon.)
  • seek out information about Francophone cultures from authentic sources (e.g., school timetables, weather reports)
  • compare and contrast weather proverbs in English and in French
  • compare and contrast, with teacher assistance, their own way of life with the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures (e.g., the school day in Canada versus France)
  • compare and contrast, with teacher assistance, the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures
  • reflect, with teacher assistance, upon the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures
  • access appropriate Web sites using French language search engines
  • cite copyrighted French language sources when using information from digital technologies
  • demonstrate knowledge of the cultural characteristics of the French language by using the following sociolinguistic conventions:
    • - the sociolinguistic conventions listed in grades 4–6
    • - appropriate use of tu versus vous
    • - appropriate use of formal forms of addressing people—monsieur, madame or mademoiselle (e.g., France)
    • - appropriate abbreviations for monsieur—M., madame—Mme, mademoiselle—Mlle
    • - appropriate oral greetings and leave-taking expressions
    • - the appropriate convention for the date
    • - the appropriate conventions for time—informal use (12-hour clock) and formal use (24-hour clock)
    • - the appropriate abbreviations for time—h, min, s
    • - the appropriate conventions for telephone numbers (e.g., [403] 555–0000 au Canada; 01.42.00.48.49 en France)
    • - the appropriate conventions for addresses (e.g., 234, rue Lajoie)
    • - the appropriate conventions for the intermediate and cardinal points
    • - the appropriate abbreviations used in addresses (e.g., boulevard—boul., route—rte)
    • - the appropriate abbreviations for height and weight—kg, cm, m.
Language Learning Strategies (Gr. 7)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of strategies to enhance learning and to communicate in French.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Comprehension Strategies
  • develop and use comprehension strategies to facilitate the understanding of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - guess the meaning of an unknown word or expression
  • - use words around the unknown word to guess meaning
  • - associate a gesture, a symbol or an illustration with a message
  • - identify cognates and word families
  • - anticipate information from the context/situation
  • - activate prior knowledge and experiences
  • - activate first language listening and reading skills
  • - use contextual clues relating to who, what, where, when and why
  • - use visual clues (e.g., pictures, gestures, illustrations) and auditory clues (e.g., street noises, intonation, sighs)
  • - use highlighting or underlining to identify known words or expressions
  • - represent meaning by using mental images, illustrations or graphic representations
  • - categorize concrete information
  • - use repetition (e.g., listen to again or read again a part of a text that was causing difficulty)
  • - use a bilingual dictionary to verify word meaning or find unknown words
  • - focus attention on the required information
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6

socio-affective

  • - take the risk to listen to or read a new text in French
  • - take the risk to listen to authentic texts of varying lengths made available through different information and communication technologies
  • - take the risk to read authentic documents of varying lengths made available through different information and communication technologies
  • - ask questions, in the first language, to clarify or verify that a message has been understood
  • - tolerate ambiguity—accept that it is not necessary to understand every word in order to glean meaning
  • - collaborate with others to build confidence and exchange information
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6

metacognitive

  • - identify a strategy that can be or was used to facilitate comprehension of a text
  • - focus attention on the task
  • - focus attention on what is known and ignore what is unknown
  • - use self-talk to build confidence in listening and reading skills
  • - evaluate own ability to understand the message
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6
Production Strategies
  • develop and use production strategies to facilitate the communication of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - identify patterns or language features, such as verb endings or gender
  • - repeat a word, an expression, a pattern, a presentation, etc.
  • - combine new learning with previous learning (e.g., knowledge of the conjugation of the verb “avoir” and adding “avoir” expressions to the language repertoire)
  • - practise a word, an expression, a pattern, a presentation, etc.
  • - use models of texts to help map out ideas
  • - use models to analyze the structure of a text
  • - use models to create a similar text
  • - apply knowledge of a text type to follow its format and content
  • - apply knowledge of multimedia presentations to facilitate the communication of a message
  • - apply knowledge of word processing to produce a message
  • - create simple personal reference materials (e.g., vocabulary lists, grammar notes)
  • - use reference materials (e.g., a bilingual dictionary in either a print or an electronic format, verb charts, data bases) to improve the message
  • - use brainstorming techniques to stimulate ideas
  • - activate prior knowledge and experiences
  • - organize ideas using schemata (e.g., mind maps, T-charts)
  • - prepare a draft of the message
  • - plan and conduct a search using French language Internet search engines
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6

socio-affective

  • - take the risk to say or write something in French
  • - ask questions to clarify understanding
  • - ask the speaker to repeat the message
  • - ask the speaker to explain what was said
  • - ask the speaker to speak more slowly
  • - ask the speaker to spell out or draw the unknown word
  • - indicate to the speaker that the message was not understood
  • - use facial expressions or mime to get the message across
  • - seek assistance from the teacher or a peer to clarify instructions, word meaning, etc.
  • - collaborate with others to brainstorm, resolve problems, rehearse and communicate messages
  • - accept errors as a natural part of learning
  • - use self-talk to build confidence in oral and written production skills
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6

metacognitive

  • - prepare for the task (e.g., organize materials, go over the instructions, read through the checklist)
  • - use checklists, written mainly in English, to verify the work
  • - reflect on and articulate what they have learned and can demonstrate in French
  • - use a learning log to monitor and evaluate their own learning
  • - reflect on the use of different information and communication technologies to produce a message in French
  • - reflect on the use and choice of technology as a means of improving the communication of a message
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6
Memory Strategies
  • develop and use memory strategies to learn, recall or retain vocabulary or grammatical structures
  • - use rehearsal techniques (e.g., write or repeat the word over and over; teach the word to a partner; review words frequently)
  • - use organizational techniques (e.g., classify words by themes; use word webs, T-charts or vocabulary cards)
  • - play with language (e.g., create word searches, calligrams, riddles, charades)
  • - use elaboration techniques (e.g., associate a new word or a concept with a familiar concept or with other personally meaningful information; reuse vocabulary and expressions in new contexts or situations; use visualization)
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6.
Grade 8  
Experience (Gr. 8)

Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available.

Animals  

  • choice of pet 
  • pet care
  • animal families
  • wild animals
  • animals in zoos
  • animal adoption

Clothing  

  • clothing choices
  • clothing design
  • clothing care

Food  

  • food and nutrition
  • food preparation
  • ethnic cuisine
  • cuisine of the Francophone world
  • food and celebrations

Four Holidays and Celebrations (To be integrated based on the calendar year)  

  • origins of the four holidays and celebrations
  • traditions associated with the four holidays and celebrations
Communication (Gr. 8)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of French to understand and/or to express a message effectively in various situations for a variety of purposes.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Listening Comprehension

  • understand, in guided situations, by identifying key words or expressions previously taught, the main idea(s) and a few isolated details about a variety of concrete topics contained in authentic or adapted oral texts (e.g., identify the reason behind eating a healthy breakfast [Le corps a besoin d’énergie le matin.] and pull out two foods that comprise a healthy breakfast [un fruit, un liquide froid ou chaud])

Reading Comprehension

  • understand, in guided situations, by identifying key words or expressions previously taught, the main idea(s) and a few isolated details about a variety of concrete topics contained in authentic or adapted written texts (e.g., identify the colour “blue” [le bleu] and pull out two personality traits of someone who likes to wear blue [personne généreuse, créative] and two symbols associated with this colour [le bleu représente le ciel et les grands espaces])

Oral Production

  • name, list, encourage, describe, explain, ask and answer questions, give simple commands, directions, instructions or advice, express needs, desires, wishes and preferences, make suggestions, give compliments, orally, providing some details, in a defined, structured and modelled fashion, with limited spontaneity, resulting in a prepared message expressed in the present, that is comprehensible and accurate (e.g., itemize and describe one’s wardrobe; give someone directions to a specific area of the zoo; list the ingredients and describe the steps to follow for a favourite family recipe)

Written Production

  • name, label, list, encourage, describe, explain, ask and answer questions, give simple commands, directions, instructions or advice, express needs, desires, wishes and preferences, make suggestions, in written form, providing some details, in a defined, structured and modelled fashion, resulting in a prepared message expressed in the present, that is comprehensible and accurate (e.g., write a list of grocery items needed for a Moroccan recipe; give nutritional advice in the form of a game; describe an animal in the form of an information card).
Language (Gr. 8)

General Outcome: Students will use, with accuracy, knowledge of linguistic elements of the French language to fulfill their communicative intents.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Knowledge of Language Concepts

  • continue to develop knowledge of the following concepts:
    • - nouns
    • - gender
    • - number
    • - articles—definite and indefinite
    • - possession
    • - possessive adjectives
    • - adjectives
    • - adjectival agreements
    • - prepositions and prepositional phrases
    • - the infinitive as a verb identifier
    • - personal subject pronouns
    • - verbs
    • - conjugation
    • - the present tense
    • - conjugation pattern of regular –er verbs in the present tense
    • - negation
    • - the interrogative
    • - global expressions using faire and avoir
    • - the contractions for à and de + definite articles
    • - interjections
    • - cardinal and ordinal numbers
    • - the sound–symbol system
    • - pronunciation
    • - word order at the phrase level
    • - word order at the sentence level
    • - construction of simple sentences
  • acquire knowledge of the following concepts:
    • - determiners
    • - demonstrative adjectives
    • - exclamatory adjectives
    • - the partitive
    • - quantity
    • - adverbs and adverbial expressions
    • - different verb groupings (–er, –ir, –re)
    • - irregular verb conjugation patterns in the present tense
    • - pronominal versus nonpronominal verbs
    • - verb + infinitive
    • - the imperative
    • - negative expressions
    • - punctuation

Application of Vocabulary and Language Concepts

  • use, with a higher level of accuracy, in oral and written form, linguistic elements defined in grades 4–7, needed to communicate a message
  • use, with some consistency, in oral and written form, the following linguistic elements needed to communicate a message:
    • - vocabulary associated with the fields of experience and their subfields
    • - demonstrative adjectives—ce, cet, cette, ces
    • - possessive adjectives—notre, nos; votre, vos; leur, leurs
    • - exclamatory adjectives (e.g., Quel animal!/Quelle belle chemise!)
    • - the question word pourquoi
    • - the partitive articles—du, de la, de l’, des
    • - expressions of quantity (e.g., une boîte de, un kilo de)
    • - expressions with avoir (e.g., Tu as peur des serpents?/J’ai besoin de…/ J’ai faim/soif.)
    • - expressions with faire (e.g., Le chef fait sauter les oignons.)
    • - present tense of regular and irregular –er, –ir, –re verbs with all personal subject pronouns in affirmative and negative sentences
    • - the imperative in the affirmative and in the negative with regular and irregular –er, –ir, –re verbs (e.g., Choisis le bleu./Ne mettez pas trop de sel.)
    • - adverbs of manner (e.g., bien, fort, lentement), of time (e.g., demain, bientôt, parfois, souvent, tard), of quantity and intensity (e.g., assez, beaucoup, très, trop) and of place (e.g., à droite, autour, ici, là-bas, loin)
    • - adverbs and adverbial expressions of negation (e.g., rien, jamais, ne… jamais, ne… plus, ne… rien)
    • - parce que as an oral sentence starter
    • - appropriate punctuation marks.
Culture (Gr. 8)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of different Francophone cultures and their own culture to be able to interact appropriately within these cultures.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

  • identify, with teacher assistance, concrete facts that reflect the way of life of various Francophone peoples (e.g., Per capita, the French consume the most mineral water in the world.)
  • recognize and understand how the French language has evolved and is evolving (e.g., le rôle des emprunts et des anglicismes)
  • recognize regional variations in expressions used by different Francophone groups in a similar context (e.g., petit déjeuner, déjeuner, dîner [France] versus déjeuner, dîner, souper [Canada]; slip [France] versus caleçon [Canada])
  • seek out information about Francophone cultures from authentic sources (e.g., French language recipe books, zoo maps)
  • compare and contrast, with teacher assistance, their own way of life with the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures (e.g., eating-out patterns)
  • compare and contrast, with teacher assistance, the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures (e.g., the use of animal words in expressions that are similar in English—être fort comme un taureau = to be as strong as a bull, or are not similar—avoir un chat dans la gorge = to have a frog in one’s throat)
  • reflect, with teacher assistance, upon the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures
  • access appropriate Web sites using French language search engines
  • cite copyrighted French language sources when using information from digital technologies
  • demonstrate knowledge of the cultural characteristics of the French language by using the following sociolinguistic conventions:
    • - the sociolinguistic conventions listed in grades 4–7
    • - appropriate spacing between sets of digits in large numbers (e.g., 1 500 000)
    • - the appropriate convention for a written title (e.g., l’entretien des vêtements)
    • - the appropriate abbreviations or symbols for measurement (e.g., km, g, kg, ºC, ml, l)
    • - the appropriate abbreviations or symbols for Canadian and foreign currencies (e.g., $ can., €)
    • - the appropriate placement and spacing of the currency symbol and the comma (e.g., 1,50 $)
    • - the appropriate conventions for punctuation (e.g., The typographical symbol « » represents les guillemets français.)
    • - the appropriate conventions for spacing (e.g., There is one space before and after le deux-points.).
Language Learning Strategies (Gr. 8)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of strategies to enhance learning and to communicate in French.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Comprehension Strategies
  • develop and use comprehension strategies to facilitate the understanding of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - guess the meaning of an unknown word or expression
  • - use words around the unknown word to guess meaning
  • - associate a gesture, a symbol or an illustration with a message
  • - identify cognates and word families
  • - anticipate information from the context/situation
  • - activate prior knowledge and experiences
  • - activate first language listening and reading skills
  • - use contextual clues relating to who, what, where, when and why
  • - use visual clues (e.g., pictures, gestures, illustrations) and auditory clues (e.g., street noises, intonation, sighs)
  • - use highlighting or underlining to identify known words or expressions
  • - represent meaning by using mental images, illustrations or graphic representations
  • - categorize concrete information
  • - use repetition (e.g., listen to again or read again a part of a text that was causing difficulty)
  • - use a bilingual dictionary to verify word meaning or find unknown words
  • - focus attention on the required information
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6

socio-affective

  • - take the risk to listen to or read a new text in French
  • - take the risk to listen to authentic texts of varying lengths made available through different information and communication technologies
  • - take the risk to read authentic documents of varying lengths made available through different information and communication technologies
  • - ask questions, in the first language, to clarify or verify that a message has been understood
  • - tolerate ambiguity—accept that it is not necessary to understand every word in order to glean meaning
  • - collaborate with others to build confidence and exchange information
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6

metacognitive

  • - identify a strategy that can be or was used to facilitate comprehension of a text
  • - focus attention on the task
  • - focus attention on what is known and ignore what is unknown
  • - use self-talk to build confidence in listening and reading skills
  • - evaluate own ability to understand the message
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6
Production Strategies
  • develop and use production strategies to facilitate the communication of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - identify patterns or language features, such as verb endings or gender
  • - repeat a word, an expression, a pattern, a presentation, etc.
  • - combine new learning with previous learning (e.g., knowledge of the conjugation of the verb “avoir” and adding “avoir” expressions to the language repertoire)
  • - practise a word, an expression, a pattern, a presentation, etc.
  • - use models of texts to help map out ideas
  • - use models to analyze the structure of a text
  • - use models to create a similar text
  • - apply knowledge of a text type to follow its format and content
  • - apply knowledge of multimedia presentations to facilitate the communication of a message
  • - apply knowledge of word processing to produce a message
  • - create simple personal reference materials (e.g., vocabulary lists, grammar notes)
  • - use reference materials (e.g., a bilingual dictionary in either a print or an electronic format, verb charts, data bases) to improve the message
  • - use brainstorming techniques to stimulate ideas
  • - activate prior knowledge and experiences
  • - organize ideas using schemata (e.g., mind maps, T-charts)
  • - prepare a draft of the message
  • - plan and conduct a search using French language Internet search engines
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6

socio-affective

  • - take the risk to say or write something in French
  • - ask questions to clarify understanding
  • - ask the speaker to repeat the message
  • - ask the speaker to explain what was said
  • - ask the speaker to speak more slowly
  • - ask the speaker to spell out or draw the unknown word
  • - indicate to the speaker that the message was not understood
  • - use facial expressions or mime to get the message across
  • - seek assistance from the teacher or a peer to clarify instructions, word meaning, etc.
  • - collaborate with others to brainstorm, resolve problems, rehearse and communicate messages
  • - accept errors as a natural part of learning
  • - use self-talk to build confidence in oral and written production skills
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6

metacognitive

  • - prepare for the task (e.g., organize materials, go over the instructions, read through the checklist)
  • - use checklists, written mainly in English, to verify the work
  • - reflect on and articulate what they have learned and can demonstrate in French
  • - use a learning log to monitor and evaluate their own learning
  • - reflect on the use of different information and communication technologies to produce a message in French
  • - reflect on the use and choice of technology as a means of improving the communication of a message
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6
Memory Strategies
  • develop and use memory strategies to learn, recall or retain vocabulary or grammatical structures
  • - use rehearsal techniques (e.g., write or repeat the word over and over; teach the word to a partner; review words frequently)
  • - use organizational techniques (e.g., classify words by themes; use word webs, T-charts or vocabulary cards)
  • - play with language (e.g., create word searches, calligrams, riddles, charades)
  • - use elaboration techniques (e.g., associate a new word or a concept with a familiar concept or with other personally meaningful information; reuse vocabulary and expressions in new contexts or situations; use visualization)
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6.
Grade 9  
Experience (Gr. 9)

Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available.

Sports and Exercise  

  • venues, clothing and equipment
  • physical and mental traits of athletes
  • sporting events
  • injuries and injury prevention
  • physical activity and healthy lifestyles

Housing  

  • housing designs
  • housing plans
  • home décor
  • home leisure activities
  • household chores

Community  

  • country life and city life
  • urban and rural communities
  • community businesses and services
  • community clubs and associations
  • community events and festivities
  • French-Canadian communities

Four Holidays and Celebrations (To be integrated based on the calendar year)  

  • origins of the four holidays and celebrations
  • traditions associated with the four holidays and celebrations
Communication (Gr. 9)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of French to understand and/or to express a message effectively in various situations for a variety of purposes.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Listening Comprehension

  • understand, in guided situations, by identifying key words or expressions previously taught, the main idea(s) and a few specific details related to the main idea(s) about a variety of concrete topics contained in authentic or adapted oral texts (e.g., identify the name of a sport [le hockey sur glace] and pull out two rules about the game [Le hockeyeur doit porter un casque et des gants. Il doit faire pénétrer la rondelle dans le but.])

Reading Comprehension

  • understand, in guided situations, by identifying key words or expressions previously taught, the main idea(s) and a few specific details related to the main idea(s) about a variety of concrete topics contained in authentic or adapted written texts (e.g., identify what type of dwelling is for sale in a real estate advertisement [maison à deux étages] and pull out four features of the dwelling being sold [e.g., 8½ pièces, récemment rénovées, extérieur en briques, jardin bien aménagé])

Oral Production

  • name, list, encourage, describe, explain, ask and answer questions, give commands, directions, instructions or advice, express needs, desires, wishes and preferences, make suggestions, give compliments, orally, providing some details, in a defined, structured and modelled fashion, with limited spontaneity, resulting in a prepared message expressed mostly in the present and sometimes in the immediate future, that is comprehensible and accurate (e.g., describe the exterior features of a building; give someone directions to the neighbourhood video store; explain the rules, equipment and clothing needed to play soccer)

Written Production

  • name, label, list, encourage, describe, explain, ask and answer questions, give simple commands, directions or advice, express needs, desires, wishes and preferences, make suggestions, in written form, providing some details, in a defined, structured and modelled fashion, resulting in a prepared message expressed mostly in the present tense and sometimes in the immediate future, that is comprehensible and accurate (e.g., design a physical activity plan; explain the choice of colours and furniture for one’s new room; describe a community event in an e-mail message).
Language (Gr. 9)

General Outcome: Students will use, with accuracy, knowledge of linguistic elements of the French language to fulfill their communicative intents.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Knowledge of Language Concepts

  • continue to develop knowledge of the following concepts:
    • - nouns
    • - determiners
    • - gender
    • - number
    • - articles—definite and indefinite
    • - possession
    • - possessive adjectives
    • - adjectives
    • - adjectival agreements
    • - demonstrative adjectives
    • - exclamatory adjectives
    • - partitive
    • - quantity
    • - adverbs and adverbial expressions
    • - prepositions and prepositional phrases
    • - the infinitive as a verb identifier
    • - personal subject pronouns
    • - verbs
    • - conjugation patterns of regular and irregular –er, –ir and –re verbs in the present tense
    • - pronominal and nonpronominal verbs
    • - verb + infinitive
    • - negation and negative expressions
    • - the interrogative
    • - the imperative
    • - global expressions using faire and avoir
    • - the contractions for à and de + definite articles
    • - interjections
    • - cardinal and ordinal numbers
    • - the sound–symbol system
    • - pronunciation
    • - word order at the phrase level
    • - word order at the sentence level
    • - construction of simple sentences
    • - punctuation
  • acquire knowledge of the following concepts:
    • - formation of adverbs from adjectives
    • - pronominal reflexive verbs
    • - imperative with pronominal reflexive verbs
    • - the immediate future
    • - verbs taking a preposition

Application of Vocabulary and Language Concepts

  • use, with a higher level of accuracy, in oral and written form, linguistic elements defined in grades 4–8, needed to communicate a message
  • use, with some consistency, in oral and written form, the following linguistic elements needed to communicate a message:
    • - vocabulary associated with the fields of experience and their subfields
    • - expressions with avoir (e.g., L’athlète a mal aux jambes.)
    • - expressions with faire (e.g., Je fais du yoga./Mon père fait le ménage.)
    • - formation of adverbs from adjectives
    • - present tense of regular and irregular –er, –ir, –re verbs with all personal subject pronouns in affirmative and negative sentences
    • - present tense of pronominal reflexive verbs (e.g., se reposer, s’étirer) with all personal subject pronouns in affirmative and negative sentences
    • - present tense of vouloir, pouvoir, devoir with all personal subject pronouns in affirmative and negative sentences
    • - the immediate future—aller + infinitif—with all personal subject pronouns in affirmative and negative sentences
    • - the imperative in the affirmative and in the negative with regular and irregular –er, –ir, –re verbs and pronominal reflexive verbs (e.g., Repose-toi sur le sol.)
    • - present tense verb + infinitive (e.g., aimer, adorer, détester, vouloir, pouvoir, devoir + infinitif) with all personal subject pronouns in affirmative and negative sentences
    • - verbs taking a preposition (e.g., jouer au tennis; faire de la natation; opter pour une maison de plain-pied; commencer par le bon choix d’équipement sportif).
Culture (Gr. 9)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of different Francophone cultures and their own culture to be able to interact appropriately within these cultures.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

  • identify some trades or professions for which knowledge of French is useful or an asset
  • identify Francophone communities at the local (e.g., Edmonton), provincial (e.g., Saint-Paul, Legal), national (e.g., Saint-Boniface, Manitoba; Shédiac, Nouveau-Brunswick) and international (e.g., la Louisiane; Saint-Pierre et Miquelon) levels
  • identify some Francophone festivals in Canada and the world in which one could participate (e.g., le Festival du Homard, le Carnaval de Nice)
  • explain how Francophone cultures continue to evolve over time (e.g., introduction of new words into the language)
  • recognize some of the factors that affect the culture of a particular region (e.g., historical events, climate, geography, significant individuals)
  • recognize the fact that variations in accents exist within and among Francophone cultures in different areas (e.g., Acadian French, Québécois French, Parisian French)
  • seek out information about Francophone cultures from authentic sources (e.g., Encyclopédie des sports, maps)
  • identify, with teacher assistance, concrete facts that reflect the way of life of various Francophone peoples (e.g., One of the main streets in downtown Montréal—boulevard René-Lévesque—is named after a former Québec premier.)
  • compare and contrast, with teacher assistance, their own way of life with the way of life of Francophone individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures (e.g., choice of physical activity, size of housing)
  • compare and contrast, with teacher assistance, the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures
  • reflect, with teacher assistance, upon the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures
  • access appropriate Web sites using French language search engines
  • cite copyrighted French language sources when using information from digital technologies
  • demonstrate knowledge of the cultural characteristics of the French language by using the following sociolinguistic conventions:
    • - the sociolinguistic conventions listed in grades 4–8
    • - the appropriate abbreviations or symbols for measurement (e.g., km, m2)
    • - the appropriate spacing between sets of digits in large numbers (e.g., 2 648 000)
    • - the appropriate convention for naming buildings (e.g., l’Hôtel du Parlement à Québec), monuments (e.g., la tour Eiffel), streets (e.g., boulevard René-Lévesque) and communities (e.g., Sainte-Agathe-des- Monts)
    • - the appropriate titles and abbreviations for certain professions (e.g., Dr= Docteur)
    • - the appropriate conventions for informal letters.
Language Learning Strategies (Gr. 9)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of strategies to enhance learning and to communicate in French.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Comprehension Strategies
  • continue to develop and use a repertoire of comprehension strategies to facilitate the understanding of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - guess the meaning of an unknown word or expression
  • - use words around the unknown word to guess meaning
  • - associate a gesture, a symbol or an illustration with a message
  • - identify cognates and word families
  • - anticipate information from the context/situation
  • - activate prior knowledge and experiences
  • - activate first language listening and reading skills
  • - use contextual clues relating to who, what, where, when and why
  • - use visual clues (e.g., pictures, gestures, illustrations) and auditory clues (e.g., street noises, intonation, sighs)
  • - use highlighting or underlining to identify known words or expressions
  • - represent meaning by using mental images, illustrations or graphic representations
  • - categorize concrete information
  • - use repetition (e.g., listen to again or read again a part of a text that was causing difficulty)
  • - use a bilingual dictionary to verify word meaning or find unknown words
  • - focus attention on the required information
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6

socio-affective

  • - take the risk to listen to or read a new text in French
  • - take the risk to listen to authentic texts of varying lengths made available through different information and communication technologies
  • - take the risk to read authentic documents of varying lengths made available through different information and communication technologies
  • - ask questions, in the first language, to clarify or verify that a message has been understood
  • - tolerate ambiguity—accept that it is not necessary to understand every word in order to glean meaning
  • - collaborate with others to build confidence and exchange information
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6

metacognitive

  • - identify a strategy that can be or was used to facilitate comprehension of a text
  • - focus attention on the task
  • - focus attention on what is known and ignore what is unknown
  • - use self-talk to build confidence in listening and reading skills
  • - evaluate own ability to understand the message
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6
Production Strategies
  • develop and use production strategies to facilitate the communication of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - identify patterns or language features, such as verb endings or gender
  • - repeat a word, an expression, a pattern, a presentation, etc.
  • - combine new learning with previous learning (e.g., knowledge of the conjugation of the verb “avoir” and adding “avoir” expressions to the language repertoire)
  • - practise a word, an expression, a pattern, a presentation, etc.
  • - use models of texts to help map out ideas
  • - use models to analyze the structure of a text
  • - use models to create a similar text
  • - apply knowledge of a text type to follow its format and content
  • - apply knowledge of multimedia presentations to facilitate the communication of a message
  • - apply knowledge of word processing to produce a message
  • - create simple personal reference materials (e.g., vocabulary lists, grammar notes)
  • - use reference materials (e.g., a bilingual dictionary in either a print or an electronic format, verb charts, data bases) to improve the message
  • - use brainstorming techniques to stimulate ideas
  • - activate prior knowledge and experiences
  • - organize ideas using schemata (e.g., mind maps, T-charts)
  • - prepare a draft of the message
  • - plan and conduct a search using French language Internet search engines
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6

socio-affective

  • - take the risk to say or write something in French
  • - ask questions to clarify understanding
  • - ask the speaker to repeat the message
  • - ask the speaker to explain what was said
  • - ask the speaker to speak more slowly
  • - ask the speaker to spell out or draw the unknown word
  • - indicate to the speaker that the message was not understood
  • - use facial expressions or mime to get the message across
  • - seek assistance from the teacher or a peer to clarify instructions, word meaning, etc.
  • - collaborate with others to brainstorm, resolve problems, rehearse and communicate messages
  • - accept errors as a natural part of learning
  • - use self-talk to build confidence in oral and written production skills
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6

metacognitive

  • - prepare for the task (e.g., organize materials, go over the instructions, read through the checklist)
  • - use checklists, written mainly in English, to verify the work
  • - reflect on and articulate what they have learned and can demonstrate in French
  • - use a learning log to monitor and evaluate their own learning
  • - reflect on the use of different information and communication technologies to produce a message in French
  • - reflect on the use and choice of technology as a means of improving the communication of a message
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6
Memory Strategies
  • develop and use memory strategies to learn, recall or retain vocabulary or grammatical structures
  • - use rehearsal techniques (e.g., write or repeat the word over and over; teach the word to a partner; review words frequently)
  • - use organizational techniques (e.g., classify words by themes; use word webs, T-charts or vocabulary cards)
  • - play with language (e.g., create word searches, calligrams, riddles, charades)
  • - use elaboration techniques (e.g., associate a new word or a concept with a familiar concept or with other personally meaningful information; reuse vocabulary and expressions in new contexts or situations; use visualization)
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–6.
French 10–9Y
Experience (10–9Y)

Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available.

Activities

  • daily
  • social
  • cultural
  • physical

Shopping

  • shopping for goods and services
  • shopping advice
  • shopping habits

Vacations

  • Canadian and other travel destinations
  • vacation planning
  • travellers’ health and safety

Fine Arts

  • visual arts
  • performing arts
  • literary arts

Safety (optional)

  • vehicle safety
  • personal safety
Communication (10–9Y)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of French to understand and/or to express a message effectively in various situations for a variety of purposes.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Listening Comprehension

  • understand, in guided situations, by identifying key words and/or expressions previously taught, the main idea(s) and a number of specific details related to the main idea(s) about a variety of concrete topics contained in authentic or adapted oral texts (e.g., identify the type of a vacation being presented and a number of details pertaining to the vacation, such as the price of the trip, features of the travel package, general itinerary)

Reading Comprehension

  • understand, in guided situations, by identifying key words and/or expressions previously taught, the main idea(s) and a number of specific details related to the main idea(s) about a variety of concrete topics contained in authentic or adapted written texts (e.g., identify the type of film being described in a film capsule and a number of details pertaining to the film, such as the name of the film, the actors, the director, the setting, the plot)

Oral Production

  • name, list, encourage, describe, explain, request or provide information, give commands, directions, instructions and advice, express needs, desires, wishes and preferences, make suggestions, give compliments, issue and reply to invitations, orally, providing some details, in a structured and modelled fashion, with some spontaneity, resulting in a prepared message expressed in the present, sometimes in the past and sometimes in the immediate future, that is comprehensible and accurate (e.g., explain how to do a particular hobby; answer a travel agent’s questions about future holiday plans; give shopping advice)

Written Production

  • name, label, list, describe, explain, ask and answer questions, give simple commands, directions and advice, express needs, desires, wishes and preferences, make suggestions, encourage, issue and reply to invitations, in written form, providing some details, in a structured and modelled fashion, resulting in a prepared message, expressed in the present, sometimes in the past and sometimes in the immediate future, that is comprehensible and accurate (e.g., write a postcard to a friend about a place visited; write an e-mail message identifying leisure activities in one’s area; write a newspaper advertisement for selling an item; describe a sculpture).
Language (10–9Y)

General Outcome: Students will use, with accuracy, knowledge of linguistic elements of the French language to fulfill their communicative intents.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Knowledge of Language Concepts

  • continue to develop knowledge of the concepts presented in grades 4–9
  • acquire knowledge of the following concepts:
    • - adjectives/nouns/locutionary expressions that take a preposition
    • - functions of the infinitive
    • - the past tense
    • - the recent past
    • - the passé composé
    • - agreement of past participle with être
    • - the conditional “comme forme de politesse”
    • - present participle
    • - adverbs of affirmation and doubt
    • - subordinate and coordinate conjunctions
    • - inversion of subject and verb in the interrogative
    • - word order at the complex sentence level
    • - construction of complex sentences

Application of Vocabulary and Language Concepts

  • use, with a higher level of accuracy, in oral and written form, linguistic elements defined in grades 4–9, needed to communicate a message
  • use, with some consistency, in oral and written form, the following linguistic elements needed to communicate a message:
    • - vocabulary associated with the fields of experience and their subfields
    • - vocabulary related to information and communication technologies (e.g., télécopieur, clavier; envoyer un courriel, formater un texte)
    • - infinitives acting as imperatives (e.g., Consulter toujours un agent de bord avant d’utiliser des appareils électroniques.)
    • - recent past (venir + de + infinitif) with all personal subject pronouns in affirmative and negative sentences
    • - the passé composé with all personal subject pronouns in affirmative and negative sentences
    • - the expressions c’était and il y avait in affirmative and negative sentences (e.g., C’était un très bon roman.)
    • - the conditional of aimer, vouloir and pouvoir as a “forme de politesse” with the personal subject pronouns je, tu, nous, vous
    • - present participle and its use with en (e.g., Ma mère lit en écoutant de la musique.)
    • - expressions for giving advice (e.g., Il est important de + infinitif; Il faut + infinitif; Il est nécessaire de + infinitif)
    • - subordinate conjuctions—parce que and quand
    • - coordinate conjunctions—et and mais.
    • - use of depuis as a time marker (e.g., Je joue au hockey depuis six ans.)
    • - adverbs of affirmation (e.g., vraiment, certainement), doubt (e.g., probablement, peut-être) and time (e.g., hier, avant-hier)
    • - prepositions used with geographical names
    • - inversion in the interrogative
    • - appropriate interjections—Au feu!; Aïe!; Au secours!; etc.
    • - correct word order in complex sentences.
Culture (10–9Y)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of different Francophone cultures and their own culture to be able to interact appropriately within these cultures.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

  • identify some personal experiences they have had as a result of their knowledge of French
  • identify aspects of Francophone history, literature or arts that are of personal interest
  • seek out information about Francophone cultures from authentic sources (e.g., vacation guides, tourism videos)
  • identify, with teacher assistance, concrete facts that reflect the way of life of various Francophone peoples (e.g., Monet was a French impressionist painter who greatly influenced the art world.)
  • compare and contrast, with teacher assistance, their own way of life with the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures (e.g., shopping patterns, preferred activities)
  • compare and contrast, with teacher assistance, the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures
  • reflect, with teacher assistance, upon the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures
  • use digital resources to access current information about different Francophone cultures
  • demonstrate knowledge of the cultural characteristics of the French language by using the following sociolinguistic conventions:
    • - the sociolinguistic conventions listed in grades 4–9
    • - the appropriate conventions for formal oral or written requests for information, including e-mail
    • - the appropriate conventions for informal invitations and notes
    • - the appropriate conventions for informal oral messages (e.g., telephone calls) and written messages (e.g., postcards).
Language Learning Strategies (10–9Y)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of strategies to enhance learning and to communicate in French.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Comprehension Strategies
  • continue to expand and use a personal repertoire of comprehension strategies to facilitate the understanding of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - use the prefix, suffix, radical or root to guess or determine meaning
  • - use the context to determine the meaning of an unknown word or expression
  • - note unknown words to verify later
  • - use linking words (cohesive elements) to establish the relationship between ideas
  • - use time clues to determine if the message is being expressed in the past, present or future tense
  • - listen to the beginning and the end of an audio text or read the first and last paragraphs to have a better idea of the topic and the content of the text
  • - take down notes to summarize, compare and contrast information
  • - summarize and report information
  • - use French language reference materials to verify meaning
  • - skim a text using the title, subtitles, illustrations and legends to determine the topic and the main categories of ideas
  • - predict or determine the topic and/or main categories of ideas by fast forwarding an audio text and stopping at intervals
  • - establish connections between the information heard or read and previous knowledge
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9

socio-affective

  • - ask questions, in French, to clarify or verify a message
  • - take the risk to listen to or read more difficult and lengthy texts in French
  • - take the risk to listen to authentic texts (e.g., radio and television shows) or read authentic documents (e.g., newspaper articles, travel brochures)
  • - use information and communication technologies outside the classroom setting to gain access to the French language
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9

metacognitive

  • - identify strategies that can be or were used to facilitate comprehension of a text
  • - reflect upon the content of the text
  • - verify hypotheses made about the content of the text
  • - note unknown words to verify later
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9
Production Strategies
  • continue to expand and use a personal repertoire of production strategies to facilitate the communication of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - use specialized French language references, such as verb conjugation books, grammar references, etc.
  • - identify the communicative intent of the message (e.g., to inform, to entertain, to persuade)
  • - use an outline, word web, point-form notes, etc., to organize thoughts and to plan what is to be said or written
  • - identify vocabulary and grammatical elements needed to create a text
  • - use cue cards to note key ideas
  • - analyze a text in order to identify content, structural elements and ways of expressing ideas
  • - use circumlocutions to sustain a communication
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9

socio-affective

  • - as part of the editing process, work with a peer to read aloud a prepared production to determine if the message is clear
  • - react positively to feedback and implement appropriate changes to a production
  • - provide peers with constructive feedback
  • - use French to praise peers
  • - use French to evaluate peers
  • - take the risk to produce more elaborate oral or written messages
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9

metacognitive

  • - identify strategies that can be used or were used to produce a text
  • - refer back to previous productions of the same nature, analyze errors made and apply this knowledge to the current production
  • - use checklists, written in French, to verify the work
  • - develop a learning plan to carry out a task
  • - use a series of editing strategies to improve the quality of the production
  • - monitor an oral production and use self-correction when necessary
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9
Memory Strategies
  • continue to use a personal repertoire of memory strategies to facilitate the learning, recollection or retention of vocabulary and/or grammatical structures.
French 20–9Y
Experience (20–9Y)

Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available.

Senses and Feelings

  • exploration of feelings and emotions
  • exploration of the senses

Close Friends

  • friendship
  • social life
  • conflict resolution

Fads and Fashions

  • past and present
  • careers in fashion

Consumerism

  • consumer choices 
  • consumer rights and responsibilities 

Outdoor Life (optional)

  • survival skills
  • outdoor experiences
Communication (20–9Y)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of French to understand and/or to express a message effectively in various situations for a variety of purposes.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Listening Comprehension

  • understand, by identifying key words and phrases, some main ideas and some specific details related to these ideas about concrete or abstract topics contained in oral texts of varying lengths and levels of difficulty (e.g., identify the types of marketing strategies and the reasons behind the use of these strategies; identify the nature of conflict and a number of causes of conflict)

Reading Comprehension

  • understand, by identifying key words and phrases, some main ideas and some specific details related to these ideas about concrete or abstract topics contained in written texts of varying lengths and levels of difficulty (e.g., identify the clothing look of a time period and identify some clothing accessories and hairstyles that contributed to that look; identify the different types of shopping venues and some advantages and disadvantages of each venue)

Oral Production

  • name, list, encourage, request or provide information, ask for or give advice, instructions or directions, express needs, feelings, desires, wishes, preferences, opinions or judgements, give compliments, make comparisons, make suggestions, describe people, actions or events, narrate or explain events, issue invitations, convince, complain, orally, in a structured and modelled fashion, using a series of simple and complex sentences expressed in the past, present or immediate future, resulting in a prepared but sometimes spontaneous message, that is comprehensible, accurate and sustained (e.g., give advice to a friend on how to resolve a conflict; describe a situation that causes negative feelings; express an opinion on a past fad)

Written Production

  • name, label, list, encourage, request or provide information, ask for or give advice, instructions or directions, express needs, feelings, desires, wishes, preferences, opinions or judgements, give compliments, make comparisons, make suggestions, describe people, actions or events, narrate or explain events, issue invitations, convince, complain, in written form, in a prepared, structured and modelled fashion, using a series of simple and complex sentences expressed in the past, present or immediate future, resulting in a message that is comprehensible, accurate and sustained (e.g., write a poem about emotions; write a consumer complaint letter; write a newspaper article about past fashions).
Language (20–9Y)

General Outcome: Students will use, with accuracy, knowledge of linguistic elements of the French language to fulfill their communicative intents.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Knowledge of Language Concepts

  • continue to develop knowledge of the concepts presented in grades 4–10
  • acquire knowledge of the following concepts:
    • - emphatic pronouns
    • - direct object pronouns
    • - indirect object pronouns
    • - relative pronouns
    • - the comparative
    • - the superlative
    • - the structure—verb + à or de + infinitive
    • - the imparfait
    • - the distinction between the passé composé and the imparfait
    • - cohesion
    • - cohesion markers

Application of Vocabulary and Language Concepts

  • use, with a higher level of accuracy, in oral and written form, linguistic elements defined in grades 4–10, needed to communicate a message
  • use, with some consistency, in oral and written form, the following linguistic elements needed to communicate a message:
    • - vocabulary associated with the fields of experience and their subfields
    • - expressions for stating an opinion (e.g., Selon vous,…/À mon avis,…/ D’après l’article,…)
    • - expressions for giving advice (suggérer de…, recommander de…)
    • - negative expressions (ne… personne, ne… aucun(e), ne… que, ne… ni, personne ne…, rien ne…, aucun(e) ne…)
    • - emphatic pronouns—moi, toi, lui, elle, nous, vous, eux, elles
    • - direct object pronouns with present tense verbs, the imperative and verbs + infinitive in affirmative and negative sentences
    • - indirect object pronouns with present tense verbs, the imperative and verbs + infinitive in affirmative and negative sentences
    • - relative pronouns qui and que
    • - the comparative of adjectives and adverbs (e.g., Ces sacs à dos sont plus chers que les autres là-bas./Le Brie sent aussi fort que le Camembert.)
    • - the superlative of adjectives and adverbs (e.g., Je n’achète pas toujours les marques les moins connues./Le fromage bleu est le fromage qui sent le plus fort.)
    • - verb + the preposition à or de + infinitive
    • - the passé composé with all personal subject pronouns in affirmative and negative sentences
    • - the imparfait with all personal subject pronouns in affirmative and negative sentences
    • - adverbs and adverbial expressions as cohesive elements (e.g., d’abord, puis, d’habitude, parfois, enfin)
    • - conjunctions of coordination at the sentence level (e.g., car, cependant, c’est-à-dire, que, par exemple, alors)
    • - expressions with faire and se faire (e.g., Mon amie fait valoir ses talents./ Il se fait de nouveaux amis.)
    • - cohesion at the simple and complex sentence level
Culture (20–9Y)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of different Francophone cultures and their own culture to be able to interact appropriately within these cultures.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

  • seek out information about Francophones from authentic sources (e.g., fashion magazines, consumer information pamphlets)
  • research and identify concrete facts that reflect the way of life of Francophone peoples (e.g., French couturiers have a major influence on the fashion world)
  • compare and contrast the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures (e.g., consumer rights and responsibilities)
  • compare and contrast their own way of life with the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures (e.g., fashion fads and trends between generations)
  • reflect upon the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures
  • identify and use the information and communication technologies available outside the classroom setting to access information about different Francophone cultures
  • demonstrate knowledge of the cultural characteristics of the French language by using the following sociolinguistic conventions:
    • - the sociolinguistic conventions listed in grades 4–10
    • - the appropriate conventions for business letters
    • - the appropriate conventions for informal letters
    • - the appropriate conventions for a newspaper article.
Language Learning Strategies (20–9Y)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of strategies to enhance learning and to communicate in French.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Comprehension Strategies
  • continue to expand and use a personal repertoire of comprehension strategies to facilitate the understanding of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - use the prefix, suffix, radical or root to guess or determine meaning
  • - use the context to determine the meaning of an unknown word or expression
  • - note unknown words to verify later
  • - use linking words (cohesive elements) to establish the relationship between ideas
  • - use time clues to determine if the message is being expressed in the past, present or future
  • - listen to the beginning and the end of an audio text or read the first and last paragraphs to have a better idea of the topic and the content of the text
  • - take down notes to summarize, compare and contrast information
  • - summarize and report information
  • - use French language reference materials to verify meaning
  • - skim a text using the title, subtitles, illustrations and legends to determine the topic and the main categories of ideas
  • - predict or determine the topic and/or main categories of ideas by fast forwarding an audio text and stopping at intervals
  • - establish connections between the information heard or read and previous knowledge
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9

socio-affective

  • - ask questions, in French, to clarify or verify a message
  • - take the risk to listen to or read more difficult and lengthy texts in French
  • - take the risk to listen to authentic texts (e.g., radio and television shows) or read authentic documents (e.g., newspaper articles, travel brochures)
  • - use information and communication technologies outside the classroom setting to gain access to the French language
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9

metacognitive

  • - identify strategies that can be or were used to facilitate comprehension of a text
  • - reflect upon the content of the text
  • - verify hypotheses made about the content of the text
  • - note unknown words to verify later
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9
Production Strategies
  • continue to expand and use a personal repertoire of production strategies to facilitate the communication of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - use specialized French language references, such as verb conjugation books, grammar references, etc.
  • - identify the communicative intent of the message (e.g., to inform, to entertain, to persuade)
  • - use an outline, word web, point-form notes, etc., to organize thoughts and to plan what is to be said or written
  • - identify vocabulary and grammatical elements needed to create a text
  • - use cue cards to note key ideas
  • - analyze a text in order to identify content, structural elements and ways of expressing ideas
  • - use circumlocutions to sustain a communication
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9

socio-affective

  • - as part of the editing process, work with a peer to read aloud a prepared production to determine if the message is clear
  • - react positively to feedback and implement appropriate changes to a production
  • - provide peers with constructive feedback
  • - use French to praise peers
  • - use French to evaluate peers
  • - take the risk to produce more elaborate oral or written messages
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9

metacognitive

  • - identify strategies that can be used or were used to produce a text
  • - refer back to previous productions of the same nature, analyze errors made and apply this knowledge to the current production
  • - use checklists, written in French, to verify the work
  • - develop a learning plan to carry out a task
  • - use a series of editing strategies to improve the quality of the production
  • - monitor an oral production and use self-correction when necessary
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9
Memory Strategies
  • continue to use a personal repertoire of memory strategies to facilitate the learning, recollection or retention of vocabulary and/or grammatical structures.
French 30–9Y
Experience (30–9Y)

Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available.

World of Work

  • employability skills
  • job market

Travel and Tourism

  • tourist information
  • travel advice
  • Francophone destinations

Role of the Media

  • radio
  • television
  • newspapers
  • advertising 

Conservation and the Environment (optional) 

  • issues
  • problems
  • solutions
Communication (30–9Y)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of French to understand and/or to express a message effectively in various situations for a variety of purposes.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Listening Comprehension

  • understand, by identifying key words and phrases, the main ideas and a number of specific details related to these ideas about concrete or abstract topics contained in oral texts of varying lengths and levels of difficulty (e.g., identify types of job search techniques and details regarding each type of technique; identify the environmental problem and the effects it has on the environment)

Reading Comprehension

  • understand, by identifying key words and phrases, the main ideas and a number of specific details related to these ideas about concrete or abstract topics contained in written texts of varying lengths and levels of difficulty (e.g., identify the basic duty-free exemptions for entering a country and the rules governing these exemptions; identify the strengths and weaknesses of various media in advertising)

Oral Production

  • name, list, encourage, request or provide information, ask for or give advice, instructions or directions, express needs, feelings, desires, wishes, preferences, opinions, judgements or conditions, give compliments, make comparisons, make suggestions, describe people, actions or events, narrate or explain events, make simple hypotheses, issue invitations, convince, complain, orally, in a structured and modelled fashion, using a series of simple and complex sentences expressed in the past, present or future, resulting in a prepared or spontaneous message that is comprehensible, accurate and sustained (e.g., interview a candidate for a job; express an opinion about a current television show and support it; present French Polynesia as a possible travel destination)

Written Production

  • name, label, list, encourage, request or provide information, ask for or give advice, instructions or directions, express needs, feelings, desires, wishes, preferences, opinions, judgements or conditions, give compliments, make comparisons, make suggestions, describe people, actions or events, narrate or explain events, make simple hypotheses, issue invitations, convince, complain, in written form, in a prepared, structured and modelled fashion, using a series of simple and complex sentences expressed in the past, present or future, resulting in a message that is comprehensible, accurate and sustained (e.g., provide travel information in the form of an itinerary; hypothesize about the future of the planet in an opinion letter; write a film critique).
Language (30–9Y)

General Outcome: Students will use, with accuracy, knowledge of linguistic elements of the French language to fulfill their communicative intents.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Knowledge of Language Concepts

  • continue to develop knowledge of the concepts presented in grades 4–11
  • acquire knowledge of the following concepts:
    • - pronouns y and en
    • - interrogative pronouns
    • - agreement of past participle with avoir and direct object pronouns
    • - the past infinitive
    • - the simple future
    • - the present conditional
    • - direct and indirect discourse
    • - communicative intents
    • - coherence

Application of Vocabulary and Language Concepts

  • use, with a higher level of accuracy, in oral and written form, linguistic elements defined in grades 4–11, needed to communicate a message
  • use, with some consistency, in oral and written form, the following linguistic elements needed to communicate a message:
    • - vocabulary associated with the fields of experience and their subfields
    • - direct object pronouns with all prescribed tenses
    • - indirect object pronouns with all prescribed tenses
    • - the pronouns y and en with all prescribed tenses
    • - interrogative pronouns (lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles)
    • - relative pronouns—and dont
    • - conjunctive words or expressions at the discourse level (en effet, alors, donc, pendant que, lorsque, tandis que)
    • - agreement of the past participle with avoir and direct object pronouns
    • - the past infinitive (e.g., Après avoir entendu les nouvelles…/Après être allé à l’entrevue…)
    • - the simple future with all personal subject pronouns in affirmative and negative sentences
    • - the present conditional with all personal subject pronouns in affirmative and negative sentences
    • - direct and indirect discourse
    • - coherence at the discourse level.
Culture (30–9Y)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of different Francophone cultures and their own culture to be able to interact appropriately within these cultures.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

  • explore opportunities for further education or career prospects in which knowledge of French would be an asset
  • seek out information about Francophones from authentic sources (e.g., job announcements, travel brochures, advertisements)
  • research and identify concrete facts that reflect the way of life of Francophone peoples (e.g., French job advertisements indicate gender and age requirements.)
  • compare and contrast the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures (e.g., compare and contrast content in French language magazines and English language magazines)
  • compare and contrast their own way of life with the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures (e.g., preparing one’s curriculum vitæ [CV] for Canada versus France)
  • reflect upon the way of life of individuals or groups from various Francophone cultures as a means of developing an appreciation of these cultures
  • explore stereotypical thinking as a barrier to global understanding
  • identify and use information and communication technologies available outside the classroom setting to access information about different Francophone cultures
  • demonstrate knowledge of the cultural characteristics of the French language by using the following sociolinguistic conventions:
    • - the sociolinguistic conventions listed in grades 4–11
    • - appropriate expressions for beginning and concluding a speech or a presentation.
Language Learning Strategies (30–9Y)

General Outcome: Students will use their knowledge of strategies to enhance learning and to communicate in French.

Specific Outcomes: Given the following fields of experience and the subfields within each field, and other areas of interest, students will engage in various language activities, based on the context, the communicative task and the different information and communication technologies available, in order to:

Comprehension Strategies
  • continue to expand and use a personal repertoire of comprehension strategies to facilitate the understanding of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - use the prefix, suffix, radical or root to guess or determine meaning
  • - use the context to determine the meaning of an unknown word or expression
  • - note unknown words to verify later
  • - use linking words (cohesive elements) to establish the relationship between ideas
  • - use time clues to determine if the message is being expressed in the past, present or future
  • - listen to the beginning and the end of an audio text or read the first and last paragraphs to have a better idea of the topic and the content of the text
  • - take down notes to summarize, compare and contrast information
  • - summarize and report information
  • - use French language reference materials to verify meaning
  • - skim a text using the title, subtitles, illustrations and legends to determine the topic and the main categories of ideas
  • - predict or determine the topic and/or main categories of ideas by fast forwarding an audio text and stopping at intervals
  • - establish connections between the information heard or read and previous knowledge
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9

socio-affective

  • - ask questions, in French, to clarify or verify a message
  • - take the risk to listen to or read more difficult and lengthy texts in French
  • - take the risk to listen to authentic texts (e.g., radio and television shows) or read authentic documents (e.g., newspaper articles, travel brochures)
  • - use information and communication technologies outside the classroom setting to gain access to the French language
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9

metacognitive

  • - identify strategies that can be or were used to facilitate comprehension of a text
  • - reflect upon the content of the text
  • - verify hypotheses made about the content of the text
  • - note unknown words to verify later
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9
Production Strategies
  • continue to expand and use a personal repertoire of production strategies to facilitate the communication of an oral or written message

cognitive

  • - use specialized French language references, such as verb conjugation books, grammar references, etc.
  • - identify the communicative intent of the message (e.g., to inform, to entertain, to persuade)
  • - use an outline, word web, point-prepared or spontaneous, prepared or spontaneous, form notes, etc., to organize thoughts and to plan what is to be said or written
  • - identify vocabulary and grammatical elements needed to create a text
  • - use cue cards to note key ideas
  • - analyze a text in order to identify content, structural elements and ways of expressing ideas
  • - use circumlocution(s) to sustain a communication
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9

socio-affective

  • - as part of the editing process, work with a peer to read aloud a prepared production to determine if the message is clear
  • - react positively to feedback and implement appropriate changes to a production
  • - provide peers with constructive feedback
  • - use French to praise peers
  • - use French to evaluate peers
  • - take the risk to produce more elaborate oral or written messages
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9

metacognitive

  • - identify strategies that can be used or were used to produce a text
  • - refer back to previous productions of the same nature, analyze errors made and apply this knowledge to the current production
  • - use checklists, written in French, to verify the work
  • - develop a learning plan to carry out a task
  • - use a series of editing strategies to improve the quality of the production
  • - monitor an oral production and use self-correction when necessary
  • - use strategies defined in grades 4–9
Memory Strategies
  • continue to use a personal repertoire of memory strategies to facilitate the learning, recollection or retention of vocabulary and/or grammatical structures.
Appendices
Glossary of Terms

abstract topic: concerned with theoretical constructs, apart from concrete realities (e.g., truth, justice, excellence).

accuracy: the correct use of a linguistic element.

adapted text: audio or print material that is based on factual information or an authentic document, but tailored to meet the language proficiency level of the second language learner.

application: the act of putting linguistic knowledge to communicative use.

attitude: a way of thinking.

auditory clue: a sound that has meaning in and of itself and that can be used by the learner to understand aspects of the context (e.g., the honking of a car horn signals a person’s attention, but it also indicates that the action is occurring outside or in a parking facility).

authentic text: any audio or print material written for native speakers of the language.

behaviour: a way of acting influenced by attitude.

circumlocution: a strategy that includes finding other ways to sustain a communication when one wants to express an idea but is lacking the exact word or expression.

cognate: a word that is similar in both languages and has the same meaning in both languages (e.g., hôpital/hospital).

coherence: contextualized, logical links between ideas in discourse.

cohesion: the act of making appropriate links between linguistic elements at the word, sentence or discourse level.

cohesion marker: any word or expression that joins sentences together to create a coherent flow of ideas (e.g., donc, ainsi, mais).

cohesive element: a word or an expression that connects words or ideas (e.g., Paul et Marie [word level]; J’aime Paul parce qu’il est fiable. [sentence level]; Puisque la situation demandait plus de recherche, le procès a été suspendu. [discourse level]).

communication: the process of interpreting, expressing and negotiating the meaning of a message.

communicative competence: the ability of the learner to use his or her knowledge of context, language functions, vocabulary and grammatical rules to understand and/or express a message.

communicative function: purpose or goal of a communication that is either oral or written (e.g., to inform, to persuade).

communicative intent: synonym of communicative function.

communicative task: a real-life activity that involves listening, speaking, reading or writing, such as listening to a weather report, reading a film critique, making a telephone call, writing a letter.

complex sentence: a sentence containing two or more ideas that are connected by a cohesive element (e.g., J’aime mieux les repas qui sont moins épicés.).

comprehensible production: an oral or written message produced by students that can be easily understood by other students, teachers and native speakers of the language.

comprehension: the derivation of meaning from an oral or written message.

concrete fact: in the context of culture, it refers to names, objects or events that provide information about the way of life of Francophone peoples.

concrete topic: concerned with realities, actual instances and substances (e.g., food, animals, friends).

conjunction: an invariable word that links two words or two clauses.

conjunction of coordination: a word that links words or clauses of the same nature (e.g., des oranges et des pommes; Nous irons à la montagne ou nous partirons en Europe.).

conjunction of subordination: a word that links a subordinate and a principal clause (e.g., Il a dit que son ami était fiable.).

consistency: the ability of the learner to apply his or her knowledge of a linguistic element to communicative use, committing the odd error from time to time.

context: information that situates the learner as to the who, what, where, when and why of the language activity.

cross-curricular integration: the infusion of content or concepts from other subject areas.

cultural artifact: an object, such as a painting, poem, menu, newspaper, that pertains to a culture and that provides insight into that culture.

cultural competence: the ability of the learner to demonstrate knowledge of the target language and culture and to use his or her cultural awareness to reflect upon the target culture’s views of the world.

culture: the signs, symbols, ideas and behaviours shared by a group of people.

determiner: a word that determines if the noun is being referred to in a specific or general manner (e.g., un, la, ces).

discourse: oral or written messages that are logically connected and composed of a series of simple or complex sentences, or a combination of both, expressing one or more ideas on a given topic.

discourse features: linking words or expressions and organizational patterns that work together to join ideas in a coherent and cohesive fashion.

environment: a person’s physical, social, cultural and intellectual surroundings.

experience: knowledge, attitude or behaviours acquired through an interaction with the environment.

fields of experience: overarching life themes and the specific aspects associated with these themes (subfields) about which the student already has some knowledge (e.g., life theme = food; subfield = shopping for food, ordering food, preparing food).

graphic representation: a visual symbol (e.g., illustration or drawing) that serves to embody the meaning of a message.

guided situation: a situation in which students’ learning is directed and controlled (e.g., students are given the categories of information and the exact number of details needed to complete a task).

information and communication technologies: refers to the transmission and/or reception of communication signals and information content through electromagnetic signals between two or more entities (e.g., teacher and student; one student and one “machine”; between “two machines”, such as in e-mail). These technologies include computers, wireless devices, telephones, fax machines, CD-ROM, televisions, Intranet and Internet.

intercultural competence: a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes that enables individuals to communicate and interact across cultural boundaries by acquiring information about other cultures in addition to developing a heightened awareness of their own culture.

key word: a word that is important to the understanding of a communication.

knowledge: information the learner already understands and knows about a given topic.

language acquisition: the process by which a learner systematically gains knowledge of the language.

language activity: an activity designed to develop communicative, linguistic, cultural and strategic competencies in the four language skills.

language experience: the use, in the target language, of one’s communicative, linguistic, cultural and strategic competencies in order to interact with one’s environment.

language proficiency: a description of what a person is able to do in each of the four language skills as determined by a set of criteria.

language skill: an ability to do something in the target language (e.g., listen to a text and understand the main ideas and some details).

learning plan: the steps defined by students, orally or in written form, as to how they would go about completing a given task (e.g., for “writing an essay,” a student may state, “I need to find information to support my point of view, and then write an outline.”).

limited spontaneity: the learner is not able to sustain a conversation without the assistance of the teacher or a native speaker of the language or without some preparation.

linguistic competence: the ability of the learner to demonstrate his or her knowledge of the rules governing the use of the target language, and the accurate application of this knowledge.

linguistic elements: sounds, symbols, vocabulary, grammar and discourse features that are part of a language.

main idea: basic, principal or general information found in a text.

message: the content of a communication.

metacognitive processes: reflection on thought; a person’s awareness of how he or she thinks.

modelled fashion: a text produced by a student in which he or she has followed the structure and format of a text type.

nonverbal: a form of expression where the intent is communicated without words, that is, by gestures, illustrations, paralinguistic features.

orthography: the rules governing the spelling of words and punctuation usage.

paralinguistic features: pauses, hesitations, silence, social distance, body posture, etc., that in and of themselves have meaning.

performance-based: the ability to demonstrate what one is able to do under certain conditions.

prepared production: an oral or written text that involves degrees of reflection, organization and development to arrive at a finished product.

production: an oral or written message whose structure and content are driven by the context and the communicative task.

research: the systematic discovery of information.

risk-taking: the confidence required to attempt to carry out a communicative task.

simple sentence: a sentence containing a subject, a verb and sometimes a complement.

socio-affective: a combination of social and emotive factors.

sociolinguistic convention: the rules governing the use of a certain linguistic element as dictated by the social setting and the culture (e.g., the salutation used in a formal letter).

sound–symbol system: the relationship that written symbols, such as the alphabet, have with particular sounds, for example [e] = er, ez, et, é.

specific details: separate points of information relating to a particular subject.

spontaneous production: an oral or written text that is, for the most part, not prepared but is coherent, often lacking cohesion and completeness in the following ways—false starts, hesitations, repetitions, incomplete sentences— and in general, has more errors than would be tolerated ordinarily in a more formal, prepared oral or written discourse.

strategic competence: the ability of the learner to resort to a strategy or a number of strategies to facilitate learning or to solve a communication problem.

strategy: a specific action performed by a learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective and transferable to new situations.

structured fashion: a situation in which linguistic elements, cultural knowledge and strategy use are predetermined for second language learners (e.g., scripted audio texts, designed communicative tasks complete with instructions, checklists and evaluation criteria).

supporting details: separate points of information that directly back up the main idea.

text: a combination or a series of connected ideas, that has a definable structure and format, presented orally or in written form to express a message (e.g., a speech, a radio broadcast, a letter, an article, a novel).

to tolerate ambiguity: the ability to maintain a positive attitude by not becoming frustrated when there is a lack of full comprehension of a message and whereby learners use their knowledge to glean meaning without necessarily understanding every word.

visual clue: an image that has meaning in and of itself and that can be used by the learner to understand aspects of the context (e.g., a bar graph in an article signals that statistics will be discussed).

Breakdown of the Field Holidays & Celebrations

A suggested breakdown of this field of experience for grades 4–9 is as follows:

Grade 4

  • - L’Halloween
  • - La Saint-Valentin
  • - La Saint-Patrick
  • - La fête des Mères/la fête des Pères

Grade 5

  • - Noël
  • - Le jour de l’An
  • - La fête des Rois
  • - Pâques

Grade 6

  • - L’Action de grâces
  • - Le jour du Souvenir
  • - La Sainte-Catherine
  • - La fête du Canada

Grade 7

  • - Le jour du Souvenir
  • - La Saint-Valentin
  • - La Saint-Patrick
  • - La fête des Mères/la fête des Pères
  • - Other Francophone holidays and celebrations

Grade 8

  • - L’Action de grâces
  • - La Sainte-Catherine
  • - La Fête de la Chandeleur
  • - Le Vendredi saint and Pâques
  • - Other Francophone holidays and celebrations

Grade 9

  • - Noël
  • - Le jour de l’An
  • - La fête des Rois
  • - La fête nationale du Québec
  • - Other Francophone holidays and celebrations





Resources to support: