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Social Studies K - Grade 12 (2005)

© Alberta Education, Canada 
 Table of Contents   Program of Studies
Rationale & Philosophy 
 
Outcomes 
 

There are 3 Teacher Resources related to the entire Program of Studies
Program Rationale & Philosophy

Social studies provides opportunities for students to develop the attitudes, skills and knowledge that will enable them to become engaged, active, informed and responsible citizens. Recognition and respect for individual and collective identity is essential in a pluralistic and democratic society. Social studies helps students develop their sense of self and community, encouraging them to affirm their place as citizens in an inclusive, democratic society. 

Program Vision 

The Alberta Social Studies Kindergarten to Grade 12 Program of Studies meets the needs and reflects the nature of 21st century learners. It has at its heart the concepts of citizenship and identity in the Canadian context. The program reflects multiple perspectives, including Aboriginal and Francophone, that contribute to Canada's evolving realities. It fosters the building of a society that is pluralistic, bilingual, multicultural, inclusive and democratic. The program emphasizes the importance of diversity and respect for differences as well as the need for social cohesion and the effective functioning of society. It promotes a sense of belonging and acceptance in students as they engage in active and responsible citizenship at the local, community, provincial, national and global level.

Central to the vision of the Alberta social studies program is the recognition of the diversity of experiences and perspectives and the pluralistic nature of Canadian society. Pluralism builds upon Canada's historical and constitutional foundations, which reflect the country's Aboriginal heritage, bilingual nature and multicultural realities. A pluralistic view recognizes that citizenship and identity are shaped by multiple factors such as culture, language, environment, gender, ideology, religion, spirituality and philosophy.

Definition Of Social Studies

Social studies is the study of people in relation to each other and to their world. It is an issues-focused and inquiry-based interdisciplinary subject that draws upon history, geography, ecology, economics, law, philosophy, political science and other social science disciplines. Social studies fosters students' understanding of and involvement in practical and ethical issues that face their communities and humankind. Social studies is integral to the process of enabling students to develop an understanding of who they are, what they want to become and the society in which they want to live.

The Role Of Social Studies 

Social studies develops the key values and attitudes, knowledge and understanding, and skills and processes necessary for students to become active and responsible citizens, engaged in the democratic process and aware of their capacity to effect change in their communities, society and world.

Values & Attitudes

Social studies provides learning opportunities for students to:

  • value the diversity, respect the dignity and support the equality of all human beings
  • demonstrate social compassion, fairness and justice
  • appreciate and respect how multiple perspectives, including Aboriginal and Francophone, shape Canada's political, socio-economic, linguistic and cultural realities
  • honour and value the traditions, concepts and symbols that are the expression of Canadian identity
  • thrive in their evolving identity with a legitimate sense of belonging to their communities, Canada and the world
  • demonstrate a global consciousness with respect to humanity and world issues
  • demonstrate a consciousness for the limits of the natural environment, stewardship for the land and an understanding of the principles of sustainability
  • value lifelong learning and opportunities for careers in the areas of social studies and the social sciences.
Knowledge & Understanding

Social studies provides learning opportunities for students to:

  • understand their rights and responsibilities in order to make informed decisions and participate fully in society
  • understand the unique nature of Canada and its land, history, complexities and current issues
  • understand how knowledge of the history of Alberta, of Canada and of the world, contributes to a better comprehension of contemporary realities
  • understand historic and contemporary issues, including controversial issues, from multiple perspectives
  • understand the diversity of Aboriginal traditions, values and attitudes
  • understand contemporary challenges and contributions of Aboriginal peoples in urban, rural, cultural and linguistic settings
  • understand the historical and contemporary realities of Francophones in Canada
  • understand the multiethnic and intercultural makeup of Francophones in Canada
  • understand the challenges and opportunities that immigration presents to newcomers and to Canada
  • understand how social cohesion can be achieved in a pluralistic society
  • understand how political and economic distribution of power affects individuals, communities and nations
  • understand the role of social, political, economic and legal institutions as they relate to individual and collective well-being and a sustainable society
  • understand how opportunities and responsibilities change in an increasingly interdependent world
  • understand that humans exist in a dynamic relationship with the natural environment.
Skills & Processes 

Social studies provides learning opportunities for students to:

  • engage in active inquiry and critical and creative thinking
  • engage in problem solving and conflict resolution with an awareness of the ethical consequences of decision making
  • apply historical and geographic skills to bring meaning to issues and events
  • use and manage information and communication technologies critically
  • conduct research ethically using varied methods and sources; organize, interpret and present their findings; and defend their opinions
  • apply skills of metacognition, reflecting upon what they have learned and what they need to learn
  • recognize and responsibly address injustices as they occur in their schools, communities, Canada and the world
  • communicate ideas and information in an informed, organized and persuasive manner.
Program Foundations 

The program of studies provides a foundation of learning experiences that address critical aspects of social studies and its application. These critical areas provide general direction for the program of studies and identify major components of its structure.

Core Concepts Of Citizenship & Identity 

The dynamic relationship between citizenship and identity forms the basis for skills and learning outcomes in the program of studies.

The goal of social studies is to provide learning opportunities for students to:

  • understand the principles underlying a democratic society
  • demonstrate a critical understanding of individual and collective rights
  • understand the commitment required to ensure the vitality and sustainability of their changing communities at the local, provincial, national and global levels
  • validate and accept differences that contribute to the pluralistic nature of Canada
  • respect the dignity and support the equality of all human beings.

The sense of being a citizen, enjoying individual and collective rights and equitable status in contemporary society, impacts an individual's sense of identity. Individuals need to feel that their identities are viewed as legitimate before they can contribute to the public good and feel a sense of belonging and empowerment as citizens.

Social studies provides learning opportunities for students to:

  • understand the complexity of identity formation in the Canadian context
  • understand how identity and self-esteem are shaped by multiple personal, social, linguistic and cultural factors
  • demonstrate sensitivity to the personal and emotional aspects of identity
  • demonstrate skills required to maintain individuality within a group
  • understand that with empowerment comes personal and collective responsibility for the public good.
Social Studies & Aboriginal Perspectives & Experiences  

For historical and constitutional reasons, an understanding of Canada requires an understanding:

  • of Aboriginal perspectives
  • of Aboriginal experiences
  • that Aboriginal students have particular needs and requirements.

Central to Aboriginal identity are languages and cultures that link each group with its physical world, worldviews and traditions. The role of Elders and community leaders is essential in this linkage.

The social studies program of studies provides learning opportunities that contribute to the development of self-esteem and identity in Aboriginal students by:

  • promoting and encouraging a balanced and holistic individual and strengthening individual capacity
  • honouring and valuing the traditions, concepts and symbols that are the expression of their identity
  • providing opportunities for students to express who they are with confidence as they interact and engage with others
  • contributing to the development of active and responsible members of groups and communities.
Social Studies & Francophone Perspectives & Experiences  

For historical and constitutional reasons, an understanding of Canada requires an understanding:

  • of Francophone perspectives
  • of Francophone experiences
  • that Francophone students have particular needs and requirements.

Social studies occupies a central position in successful Francophone education in Alberta. Francophone schools are a focal point of the Francophone community. They meet the needs and aspirations of parents by ensuring the vitality of the community. For students enrolled in Francophone schools, the social studies program will:

  • strengthen Francophone self-esteem and identity
  • encourage students to actively contribute to the flourishing of Francophone culture, families and communities
  • promote partnerships among the home, community and business world
  • engage students in participating in the bilingual and multicultural nature of Canada.
Pluralism: Diversity & Cohesion 

One of the goals of the social studies program is to foster understanding of the roles and contributions of linguistic, cultural and ethnic groups in Canada. Students will learn about themselves in relation to others. Social studies helps students to function as citizens in a society that values diversity and cohesion.

A key component of effective social organizations, communities and institutions is recognition of diversity of experiences and perspectives. The program of studies emphasizes how diversity and differences are assets that enrich our lives. Students will have opportunities to value diversity, to recognize differences as positive attributes and to recognize the evolving nature of individual identities. Race, socio-economic conditions and gender are among various forms of identification that people live with and experience in a variety of ways.

Social studies addresses diversity and social cohesion and provides processes that students can use to work out differences, drawing on the strengths of diversity. These processes include:

  • a commitment to respecting differences and fostering inclusiveness
  • an understanding and appreciation for shared values
  • a respect for democratic principles and processes for decision making such as dialogue and deliberation.

Diversity contributes to the development of a vibrant democratic society. Through the interactions of place and historical processes of change, diversity has been an important asset in the evolution of Canadian society. Some key manifestations of this diversity include:

  • First Nations, Inuit and Métis cultures
  • official bilingualism
  • immigration
  • multiculturalism.

Accommodation of diversity is essential for fostering social cohesion in a pluralistic society. Social cohesion is a process that requires the development of the relationships within and among communities. Social cohesion is manifested by respect for:

  • individual and collective rights
  • civic responsibilities
  • shared values
  • democracy
  • rule of law
  • diversity.
Social Studies: Learners & Learning 

Students bring their own perspectives, cultures and experiences to the social studies classroom. They construct meaning in the context of their lived experience through active inquiry and engagement with their school and community. In this respect, the infusion of current events, issues and concerns is an essential component of social studies.

Social studies recognizes the interconnections and interactions among school, community, provincial, national and global institutions.

The Alberta program of studies for social studies provides learning opportunities for students to develop skills of active and responsible citizenship and the capacity to inquire, make reasoned and informed judgments, and arrive at decisions for the public good.

Students become engaged and involved in their communities by:

  • asking questions
  • making connections with their local community
  • writing letters and articles
  • sharing ideas and understandings
  • listening to and collaborating and working with others to design the future
  • empathizing with the viewpoints and positions of others
  • creating new ways to solve problems.
Issues-Focused Approach to Teaching Social Studies 

A focus on issues through deliberation is intrinsic to the multidisciplinary nature of social studies and to democratic life in a pluralistic society. An issues-focused approach presents opportunities to address learning outcomes by engaging students in active inquiry and application of knowledge and critical thinking skills. These skills help students to identify the relevance of an issue by guiding them to develop informed positions and respect for the positions of others. This process enables students to question, validate, expand and express their understanding; to challenge their presuppositions; and to construct their own points of view.

The program of studies is designed to promote metacognition through critical reflection, questioning, decision making and consideration of multiple perspectives on issues. Through this process, students will strive to understand and explain the world in the present and to determine what kind of world they want in the future.

Current Affairs

Social studies fosters the development of citizens who are informed and engaged in current affairs. Accordingly, current affairs play a central role in learning and are integrated throughout the program. Ongoing reference to current affairs adds relevance, interest and immediacy to social studies issues. Investigating current affairs from multiple perspectives motivates students to engage in meaningful dialogue on relevant historical and contemporary issues, helping them to make informed and reasoned decisions on local, provincial, national and global issues.

An issues-focused approach that incorporates multiple perspectives and current affairs helps students apply problem-solving and decision-making skills to real-life and controversial issues.

In order to allow opportunities for students to engage in current affairs, issues and concerns of a local nature, the program of studies provides the flexibility to include these topics within the time allotted for social studies.

Opportunities may include:

  • current events in local communities
  • issues with local, provincial, national and/or global relevance
  • cultural celebrations
  • visits from dignitaries
  • special events.

Controversial Issues 

Controversial issues are those topics that are publicly sensitive and upon which there is no consensus of values or beliefs. They include topics on which reasonable people may sincerely disagree. Opportunities to deal with these issues are an integral part of social studies education in Alberta.

Studying controversial issues is important in preparing students to participate responsibly in a democratic and pluralistic society. Such study provides opportunities to develop the ability to think clearly, to reason logically, to open-mindedly and respectfully examine different points of view and to make sound judgments.

Controversial issues that have been anticipated by the teacher, and those that may arise incidentally during instruction, should be used by the teacher to promote critical inquiry and teach thinking skills.

Strands Of Social Studies

Learning related to the core concepts of citizenship and identity is achieved through focused content at each grade level. The six strands of social studies reflect the interdisciplinary nature of social studies. The strands are interrelated and constitute the basis for the learning outcomes in the program of studies.

Time, Continuity and Change  

Understanding the dynamic relationships among time, continuity and change is a cornerstone of citizenship and identity. Considering multiple perspectives on history, and contemporary issues within their historical context, enables students to understand and appreciate the social, cultural and political dimensions of the past, make meaning of the present and make decisions for the future.

The Land: Places and People  

Exploring the unique and dynamic relationship that humans have with the land, places and environments affects decisions that students make and their understanding of perspectives, issues, citizenship and identity. Students will examine the impact of physical geography on the social, political, environmental and economic organization of societies. This examination also affects students' understanding of perspectives and issues as they consider how connections to the land influence their sense of place.

Power, Authority and Decision Making  

Examining the concepts of power, authority and decision making from multiple perspectives helps students consider how these concepts impact individuals, relationships, communities and nations. It also broadens students' understanding of related issues, perspectives and their effect on citizenship and identity. A critical examination of the distribution, exercise and implications of power and authority is the focus of this strand. Students will examine governmental and political structures, justice and laws, fairness and equity, conflict and cooperation, decision-making processes, leadership and governance. This examination develops a student's understanding of the individual's capacity in decision-making processes and promotes active and responsible citizenship.

Economics and Resources

Exploring multiple perspectives on the use, distribution and management of resources and wealth contributes to students' understanding of the effects that economics and resources have on the quality of life around the world. Students will explore basic economic systems, trade and the effects of economic interdependence on individuals, communities, nations and the natural environment. Students will also critically consider the social and environmental implications of resource use and technological change.

Global Connections  

Critically examining multiple perspectives and connections among local, national and global issues develops students' understanding of citizenship and identity and the interdependent or conflicting nature of individuals, communities, societies and nations. Exploring this interdependence broadens students' global consciousness and empathy with world conditions. Students will also acquire a better comprehension of tensions pertaining to economic relationships, sustainability and universal human rights.

Culture and Community

Exploring culture and community allows students to examine shared values and their own sense of belonging, beliefs, traditions and languages. This promotes students' development of citizenship and identity and understanding of multiple perspectives, issues and change. Students will examine the various expressions of their own and others' cultural, linguistic and social communities.

General & Specific Outcomes 

The general and specific outcomes provide an organizational structure for assessment of student progress in the social studies program. These outcomes follow the progression of learning that occurs at each grade level.

General Outcomes

General outcomes identify what students are expected to know and be able to do upon completion of a grade/course. General outcomes have been identified within each grade/course.

Specific Outcomes

Specific outcomes identify explicit components of values and attitudes, knowledge and understanding, and skills and processes that are contained within each general outcome within each grade/course. Specific outcomes are building blocks that enable students to achieve general outcomes for each grade/course. Where appropriate, examples have been identified as an optional (e.g.) or required (i.e.) component of the specific outcome. At the 10-12 levels, all bracketed items are required components of the specific outcome.

Outcomes Related to Values and Attitudes 

The goal of social studies is to foster the development of values and attitudes that enable students to participate actively and responsibly as citizens in a changing and pluralistic society. Attitudes are an expression of values and beliefs about an issue or topic. Respect, a sense of personal and collective responsibility, and an appreciation of human interdependence are fundamental to citizenship and identity within local, national and global communities. Developing an ethic of care toward self, others and the natural world is central to these commitments.

Outcomes Related to Knowledge and Understanding

Outcomes related to knowledge and understanding are fundamental to informed decision making. Knowledge and understanding involve the breadth and depth of information, concepts, evidence, ideas and opinions.

Outcomes Related to Skills and Processes 

The specific outcomes for skills and processes provide opportunities for students to apply their learning to relevant situations and to develop, practise and maintain essential skills as their learning evolves within a grade/course and from grade to grade/course to course. The skill outcomes are grouped into the following categories for organizational purposes:

  • Dimensions of Thinking
  • Social Participation as a Democratic Practice
  • Research for Deliberative Inquiry
  • Communication

Dimensions of Thinking 

In social studies, students acquire and develop thinking strategies that assist them in making connections to prior knowledge, in assimilating new information and in applying learning to new contexts. The following dimensions of thinking have been identified as key components in social studies learning:

Critical Thinking  

Critical thinking is a process of inquiry, analysis and evaluation resulting in a reasoned judgment. Critical thinking promotes the development of democratic citizenship. Students will develop skills of critical thinking that include: distinguishing fact from opinion; considering the reliability and accuracy of information; determining diverse points of view, perspective and bias; and considering the ethics of decisions and actions.

Creative Thinking

Creative thinking occurs when students identify unique connections among ideas and suggest insightful approaches to social studies questions and issues. Through creative thinking, students generate an inventory of possibilities; anticipate outcomes; and combine logical, intuitive and divergent thought.

Historical Thinking   

Historical thinking is a process whereby students are challenged to rethink assumptions about the past and to reimagine both the present and the future. It helps students become well-informed citizens who approach issues with an inquiring mind and exercise sound judgment when presented with new information or a perspective different from their own. Historical thinking skills involve the sequencing of events, the analysis of patterns and the placement of events in context to assist in the construction of meaning and understanding, and can be applied to a variety of media, such as oral traditions, print, electronic text, art and music.

Historical thinking allows students to develop a sense of time and place to help define their identities. Exploring the roots of the present ensures the transmission and sharing of values, and helps individuals to realize that they belong to a civil society. Historical thinking develops citizens willing to engage in a pluralistic democracy and to promote and support democratic institutions.

Geographic Thinking   

Possessing geographic thinking skills provides students with the tools to address social studies issues from a geographic perspective. Geographic thinking skills involve the exploration of spatial orders, patterns and associations. They enable students to investigate environmental and societal issues using a range of geographic information. Developing these spatial skills helps students understand the relationships among people, events and the context of their physical environment, which will assist them to make choices and act wisely when confronted with questions affecting the land and water resources.

Decision Making and Problem Solving

Students develop the ability to make timely and appropriate decisions by identifying the need for a decision, then weighing the advantages, disadvantages and consequences of various alternatives. Decision making involves reserving judgments until all the options and perspectives have been explored; seeking clarity for a variety of choices and perspectives; examining the cause-and-effect relationship between choices; and basing decisions on knowledge, values and beliefs.

Problem-solving processes in social studies help students develop the ability to identify or pose problems and apply learning to consider the causes and dimensions of problems. These skills help develop thinking strategies, allowing students to determine possible courses of action and consequences of potential solutions for a problem that may have multiple or complex causes and that may not have a clear solution. Activities such as simulations, debates, public presentations and editorial writing foster the development of these skills.

Metacognition

Metacognition is "thinking about thinking." It involves critical self-awareness, conscious reflection, analysis, monitoring and reinvention. Students assess the value of the learning strategies they have used, modify them or select new strategies, and monitor the use of reinvented or new strategies in future learning situations. In this respect, students become knowledge creators and contribute to a shared understanding of the world we live in--a key feature of democratic life and commitment to pluralism.

Social Participation as a Democratic Practice  

Social participation skills enable students to develop effective relationships with others, to work in cooperative ways toward common goals and to collaborate with others for the well-being of their communities. Students will develop interpersonal skills that focus on cooperation, conflict resolution, consensus building, collaborative decision making, the importance of responsibility and the acceptance of differences. Development of these skills will enhance active participation in their communities. Activities in this regard could include social action and community projects, e.g., church groups, Amnesty International, Médecins sans frontières (Doctors Without Borders).

Research for Deliberative Inquiry  

Purposeful deliberation and critical reflection are essential skills and processes for democratic citizenship and problem solving. In social studies, the research process develops learners who are independent, self-motivated problem solvers and co-creators of knowledge. Developing research skills prepares students for the world of work, post-secondary studies, lifelong learning and citizenship in a complex world. These skills also enhance and enrich the process of identity formation as students critically reflect on their sense of self and relationship to others. The foundations of the research process are the application of acquired skills, the selection of appropriate resources and the use of suitable technology.

The Infusion of Technology   

Technology encompasses the processes, tools and techniques that alter human activity. Information communication technology provides a vehicle for communicating, representing, inquiring, making decisions and solving problems. It involves the processes, tools and techniques for:

  • gathering and identifying information
  • re-representations of dominant texts
  • expressing and creating
  • classifying and organizing
  • analyzing and evaluating
  • speculating and predicting.

Selected curriculum outcomes from Alberta Learning's Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Program of Studies are infused throughout the social studies program of studies and are indicated by this symbol . Further information regarding the Information and Communication Technology Program of Studies is contained within that program of studies.

Communication  

Communication skills enable students to comprehend, interpret and express information and ideas clearly and purposefully. These skills include the language arts of listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and representing, as well as the use of communication technologies for acquiring and exchanging information and ideas.

Oral, Written and Visual Literacy   

Through the language arts, human beings communicate thoughts, feelings, experiences, information and opinions and learn to understand themselves and others. Speaking, writing and representing are used in the social studies program to relate a community's stories and to convey knowledge, beliefs, values and traditions through narrative history, music, art and literature.

Reading, listening and viewing in social studies enables students to extend their thinking and their knowledge and to increase their understanding of themselves and others. These skills provide students with a means of accessing the ideas, perspectives and experiences of others.

The language arts enable students to explore, organize and clarify thoughts and to communicate these thoughts to others.

Media Literacy Skills   

Contemporary texts often involve more than one medium to communicate messages and as such, are often complex, having multi-layered meanings. Information texts include visual elements such as charts, graphs, diagrams, photographs, tables, pictures, collages and timelines. Media literacy skills involve accessing, interpreting and evaluating mass media texts such as newspapers, television, the Internet and advertising. Media literacy in social studies explores concepts in mass media texts, such as identifying key messages and multiple points of view that are being communicated, detecting bias, and examining the responsibility of citizens to respond to media texts.

Scope & Sequence 

The core concepts and six strands of the Alberta Social Studies Kindergarten to Grade 12 Program of Studies are reflected in each grade/course. The structure provides continuity and linkages from grade to grade/course to course. In addition, the general outcomes in each grade/course are components of the one central theme reflected in the grade/course title.

GradeGrade Title & General OutcomesLinkages & Sequencing
KindergartenBeing Together
K.1 I Am Unique
K.2 I Belong
Kindergarten emphasizes a strong sense of identity and self-esteem and is a student's introduction to citizenship.
OneCitizenship: Belonging and Connecting
1.1 My World: Home, School, Community
1.2 Moving Forward with the Past: My Family, My History and My Community
Grade 1 is an introduction to active and responsible citizenship and introduces the concept of community. The concept of historical thinking is applied to the study of community.
TwoCommunities in Canada
2.1 Canada's Dynamic Communities
2.2 A Community in the Past
Grade 2 expands on the concept of community through an examination of specific characteristics of communities in Canada. Building on the introduction of historical thinking in Grade 1, Grade 2 students will examine how a community changes over time.
ThreeConnecting with the World
3.1 Communities in the World
3.2 Global Citizenship
Grade 3 continues to build on the knowledge of community and citizenship by examining diverse communities in the world. Grade 3 students will be introduced to the concepts of global citizenship and quality of life.
FourAlberta: The Land, Histories and Stories
4.1 Alberta: A Sense of the Land
4.2 The Stories, Histories and People of Alberta
4.3 Alberta: Celebrations and Challenges
Grade 4 introduces specific geographic skills through an examination of Alberta and its cultural and geographic diversity. Linkages to literature and the continued development of historical thinking are reinforced through stories and legends. Archaeology and paleontology are also introduced in Grade 4 to further develop historical thinking skills.
FiveCanada: The Land, Histories and Stories
5.1 Physical Geography of Canada
5.2 Histories and Stories of Ways of Life in Canada
5.3 Canada: Shaping an Identity
Grade 5 examines the foundations of Canada through its physical geography, the ways of life and heritage of its diverse peoples. Grade 5 presents events and issues that have impacted citizenship and identity in the Canadian context over time.
SixDemocracy: Action and Participation
6.1 Citizens Participating in Decision Making
6.2 Historical Models of Democracy: Ancient Athens and the Iroquois Confederacy
Grade 6 emphasizes the importance of active and responsible participation as the foundation of a democratic society. Students will examine how the underlying principles of democracy in Canada compare to those of Ancient Athens and the Iroquois Confederacy.
SevenCanada: Origins, Histories and Movement of People
7.1 Toward Confederation
7.2 Following Confederation: Canadian Expansions
Grade 7 provides a comprehensive examination of Canadian history preceding and following Confederation. The concept of intercultural contact is introduced through an examination of migration and immigration. Grade 7 forms the foundation for the continued dialogue on citizenship and identity in Canada.
EightHistorical Worldviews Examined
8.1 From Isolation to Adaptation: Japan
8.2 Origins of a Western Worldview: Renaissance Europe
8.3 Worldviews in Conflict: The Spanish and the Aztecs
Grade 8 expands on the concept of intercultural contact and continues to develop historical thinking skills through an examination of past societies in different parts of the world.
NineCanada: Opportunities and Challenges
9.1 Issues for Canadians: Governance and Rights
9.2 Issues for Canadians: Economic Systems in Canada and the United States
Grade 9 focuses on citizenship, identity and quality of life and how they are impacted by political and legislative processes in Canada. The role of economic systems in Canada and the United States will also be examined.

Senior High Course TitlesLinkages & Sequencing
10-1 Perspectives on Globalization
10-2 Living in a Globalizing World
Grade 10 explores multiple perspectives on the origins of globalization and the local,
national and international impacts of globalization on identity, lands, cultures, economies, human rights and quality of life.
20-1 Perspectives on Nationalism
20-2 Understandings of Nationalism
Grade 11 explores the complexities of nationalism in Canadian and international contexts and includes study of the origins of nationalism and the influence of nationalism on regional, international and global relations.
30-1 Perspectives on Ideology
30-2 Understandings of Ideologies
Grade 12 explores the origins and complexities of ideologies. Students will investigate, analyze and evaluate government policies and actions and develop individual and collective responses to contemporary local, national and global issues.
Kindergarten
Being Together 
Overview

Kindergarten students will explore who they are in relation to others in their world. They will be given opportunities to become aware of who they are as unique individuals and to express themselves by sharing their personal stories. Students will discover how they are connected to other people and to their communities and will be encouraged to express interest, sensitivity and responsibility in their interactions with others. Through inquiry into their social, physical, cultural and linguistic environments, students will see themselves as part of the larger world.

Rationale

In order to develop the foundations of active and responsible citizenship, social studies in Kindergarten emphasizes the development of a strong sense of identity, self-esteem and belonging.

Terms and Concepts

community, culture, environment, group, individual, past, respect, uniqueness

General Outcome K.1
I Am Unique
General Outcome K.2
I Belong
Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the multiple social, physical, cultural and linguistic factors that contribute to an individual's unique identity.Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the characteristics and interests that unite members of communities and groups.
Local and Current Affairs
Opportunities to discuss issues and concerns of a local nature should be provided to allow students to engage in current affairs.
Benchmark Skills and Processes

The following benchmark skills and processes are provided here as outcomes to be achieved by the end of Grade 3.

Dimension of Thinking
critical thinking and creative thinkingevaluate ideas and information from different points of view
historical thinkingcorrectly apply terms related to time, including past, present, future
geographic thinkingcreate and use a simple map to locate communities studied in the world
decision making and problem solvingapply new ideas and strategies to contribute to decision making and problem solving
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice
cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus buildingdemonstrate cooperative behaviour to ensure that all members of the group have an opportunity to participate
age appropriate behaviour for social involvementparticipate in projects that improve or meet the particular needs of their school or community
Research for Deliberative Inquiry
research and informationmake connections between cause-and-effect relationships from information gathered from varied sources
Communication
oral, written and visual literacyorganize and present information, such as written and oral reports, taking particular audiences and purposes into consideration
media literacycompare information on the same issue or topic from print media, television, photographs and the Internet
K.1: I Am Unique
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the multiple social, physical, cultural and linguistic factors that contribute to an individual's unique identity.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

K.1.1 - value their unique characteristics, interests, gifts and talents
Identity  

K.1.2 - appreciate the unique characteristics, interests, gifts and talents of others:

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

K.1.3 - examine what makes them unique individuals by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:

  • What are my gifts, interests, talents and characteristics?
    Identity  
  • How do my gifts, interests, talents and characteristics make me a unique individual?
    Identity  
  • How do culture and language contribute to my unique identity?
    Identity | Citizenship  
  • What is the origin and/or significance of my given names?
    Identity  

K.1.4 - explore how we demonstrate respect for ourselves and others by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:

K.2: I Belong
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the characteristics and interests that unite members of communities and groups.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

K.2.1 - value how personal stories express what it means to belong
Identity  

K.2.2 - value and respect significant people in their lives:

K.2.3 - appreciate how their participation in their communities affects their sense of belonging
Culture and Community | Identity

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

K.2.4 - examine the characteristics and interests that bring people together in groups by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:

K.2.5 - examine ways in which people create a climate of cooperation by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:

Skills & Processes for Kindergarten
Dimensions of Thinking

Students will:

K.S.1 - develop skills of critical thinking and creative thinking:

  • consider ideas and information from varied sources 
  • compare and contrast information provided 

K.S.2 - develop skills of historical thinking:

  • recognize that some activities or events occur at particular times of the day or year 
  • differentiate between events and activities that occurred recently and long ago 

K.S.3 - develop skills of geographic thinking:

  • recognize familiar places or points of reference in their surroundings 
  • ask geographic questions, such as asking for directions 

K.S.4 - demonstrate the skills of decision making and problem solving:

  • provide ideas and strategies to contribute to decision making and problem solving 
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice

Students will:

K.S.5 - demonstrate the skills of cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus building:

  • consider the needs of others 
  • work and play in harmony with others to create a safe and caring environment 
  • demonstrate a willingness to share space and resources 

K.S.6 - develop age-appropriate behaviour for social involvement as responsible citizens contributing to their community, such as:

  • being a classroom helper 
Research for Deliberative Inquiry

Students will:

K.S.7 - apply the research process:

  • ask questions to make meaning of a topic 
  • gather information on a particular topic from a variety of sources, e.g., illustrations, photographs, videos, objects, auditory cues 
Communication

Students will:

K.S.8 - demonstrate skills of oral, written and visual literacy:

  • listen to others in a socially appropriate manner 
  • respond appropriately to comments and questions, using language respectful of human diversity 

K.S.9 - develop skills of media literacy:

  • determine the main points or ideas in a media presentation 
Glossary of Terms & Concepts - Kindergarten

The following terms and concepts are contained within the general and specific outcomes in the grade. The definitions are provided to facilitate a better understanding and more effective application of the social studies concepts presented.

community - A group of people with commonalities that may include culture, language, values and beliefs, interests, practices and ways of life, history, and/or geographically defined shared space.

culture - The beliefs, values, socially transmitted behaviours and traditions, language, arts and other human endeavours considered together as being characteristics of a particular community, period or people.

environment - What constitutes immediate surroundings and can include physical, human and natural elements.

group - People who are together and connected by shared interests and characteristics.

individual - One human being.

past - The time before now and today.

respect - Willingness to show consideration or appreciation.

uniqueness - Characteristic of something that is one of a kind.

Grade 1
Citizenship: Belonging & Connecting  
Overview

Through inquiry into their social, physical, cultural and linguistic environments, Grade 1 students will see themselves as part of the larger world. They will have opportunities to share their personal stories and explore traditions and symbols that are reflected in their groups or communities. They will enhance their understanding of the diverse needs of others and how they can contribute as individuals to the well-being of the groups to which they belong. Students will explore roles and responsibilities they have as citizens in schools, groups and their own communities. They will be encouraged to care for the natural environment and to show concern for other people in their relationships, groups and communities.

Rationale

Grade 1 students will be given opportunities to further develop self-esteem by examining their own identity in relationship to groups and communities. Learning about the well-being, growth and vitality of the diverse groups to which they belong will help to build the foundations of active and responsible citizenship.

Terms and Concepts

characteristics, community, cooperation, decision making, family, interests, responsibility, role, traditions, vitality

General Outcome 1.1
My World:
Home, School, and Community
General Outcome 1.2
Moving Forward with the Past:
My Family, My History and My Community
Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how identity and self-esteem are enhanced by their sense of belonging in their world and how active members in a community contribute to the well-being, growth and vitality of their groups and communities.Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how changes over time have affected their families and influenced how their families and communities are today.
Local and Current Affairs
In order to allow opportunities for students to engage in current affairs, issues and concerns of a local nature, the program of studies provides the flexibility to include these topics within the time allotted for social studies.
Benchmark Skills and Processes

The following benchmark skills and processes are provided here as outcomes to be achieved by the end of Grade 3.

Dimension of Thinking
critical thinking and creative thinkingevaluate ideas and information from different points of view
historical thinkingcorrectly apply terms related to time, including past, present, future
geographic thinkingcreate and use a simple map to locate communities studied in the world
decision making and problem solvingapply new ideas and strategies to contribute to decision making and problem solving
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice
cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus buildingdemonstrate cooperative behaviour to ensure that all members of the group have an opportunity to participate
age appropriate behaviour for social involvementparticipate in projects that improve or meet the particular needs of their school or community
Research for Deliberative Inquiry
research and informationmake connections between cause-and-effect relationships from information gathered from varied sources
Communication
oral, written and visual literacyorganize and present information, such as written and oral reports, taking particular audiences and purposes into consideration
media literacycompare information on the same issue or topic from print media, television, photographs and the Internet
1.1: My World: Home, School, & Community
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how identity and self-esteem are enhanced by their sense of belonging in their world and how active members in a community contribute to the well-being, growth and vitality of their groups and communities.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

1.1.1 - value self and others as unique individuals in relation to their world:

  • appreciate how belonging to groups and communities enriches an individual's identity
    Identity  
  • appreciate multiple points of view, languages, cultures and experiences within their groups and communities
    Citizenship | Culture and Community  
  • demonstrate respect for their individual rights and the rights of others
    Citizenship | Identity  
  • recognize and respect how the needs of others may be different from their own
    Citizenship  

1.1.2 - value the groups and communities to which they belong:

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

1.1.3 - examine how they belong and are connected to their world by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:  

1.1.4 - determine what makes their communities thrive by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:  

1.1.5 - distinguish geographic features in their own community from other communities by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:

1.2: Moving Forward with the Past: My Family, My History & My Community
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how changes over time have affected their families and influenced how their families and communities are today.

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

1.2.1 - appreciate how stories and events of the past connect their families and communities to the present:  

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

1.2.2 - analyze how their families and communities in the present are influenced by events or people of the past by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:  

Skills & Processes for Grade 1

Alberta Learning's Information and Communication Technology (ICT) curriculum is infused throughout the social studies program of studies. Selected ICT outcomes are suggested throughout the program and are indicated by this symbol.

Dimensions of Thinking

Students will:

1.S.1 - develop skills of critical thinking and creative thinking:

  • examine ideas and information from varied sources 
  • choose and justify a course of action 
  • compare and contrast information from similar types of electronic sources 

1.S.2 - develop skills of historical thinking:

  • recognize that some activities or events occur on a seasonal basis 
  • differentiate between activities and events that occurred recently and long ago  

1.S.3 - develop skills of geographic thinking:

  • use a simple map to locate specific areas within the school and community 
  • ask geographic questions, such as asking for directions 
  • understand that globes and maps are visual representations of the world 
  • locate Canada on a globe or map 

1.S.4 - demonstrate skills of decision making and problem solving:

  • collaborate with others to devise strategies for decision making and problem solving 
  • apply ideas and strategies to contribute to decision making and problem solving 
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice

Students will:

1.S.5 - demonstrate skills of cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus building:

  • consider the ideas and suggestions of others 
  • work and play in harmony with others to create a safe and caring environment 
  • demonstrate a willingness to share space and resources 

1.S.6 - develop age-appropriate behaviour for social involvement as responsible citizens contributing to their community, such as:

  • behaviour in accordance with classroom, school and community expectations 
Research for Deliberative Inquiry

Students will:

1.S.7 - apply the research process:

  • ask questions to make meaning of a topic 
  • compare and contrast information gathered 
  • navigate within an electronic document 
  • access and retrieve appropriate information from electronic sources, when available, for a specific inquiry 
  • process information from more than one source to retell what has been discovered 
  • draw conclusions from organized information 
  • make predictions based on organized information 
Communication

Students will:

1.S.8 - demonstrate skills of oral, written and visual literacy:

  • interact with others in a socially appropriate manner 
  • respond appropriately, verbally and in written forms, using language respectful of human diversity 
  • listen to others in order to understand their point of view 
  • create visual images using paint and draw programs 

1.S.9 - develop skills of media literacy:

  • identify key words in a media presentation to determine the main idea 
Glossary of Terms & Concepts - Grade 1

The following terms and concepts are contained within the general and specific outcomes in the grade. The definitions are provided to facilitate a better understanding and more effective application of the social studies concepts presented.

characteristics - The particular combination of qualities in a person or place that makes that person or place different from others.

community - A group of people with commonalities that may include culture, language, values and beliefs, interests, practices and ways of life, history, and/or geographically defined shared space.

cooperation - To act or work together for a particular purpose, or to help someone willingly when help is requested.

decision making - The process of making a choice after careful consideration of all available options and potential consequences.

family - A social group of people that care for and support one another, often consisting of a parent, or parents, and their children, siblings and sometimes grandparents, uncles, aunts and other caregivers.

interests - Particular characteristics that motivate people to become involved with or participate in something.

responsibility - Having control and authority over something or someone and the duty of taking care of it or him/her.

role - The position of a person or group of people in a particular situation, or the duty which someone is expected to perform.

traditions - Beliefs, principles or ways of acting which people in a particular society or group have continued to follow for a long time, or all of the beliefs, principles or ways of acting in a particular group or society.

vitality - The capacity of a group or community to connect with its heritage and establish the institutions necessary for its functioning, growth and empowerment.

Grade 2
Communities In Canada  
Overview

Grade 2 students will investigate life in three diverse communities within Canada. Based on their understanding of their own communities, students will explore characteristics of selected rural and urban communities in Canada: an Inuit community, a prairie community and an Acadian community. They will apply their understanding of various aspects that define communities, such as geography, culture, language, heritage, economics and resources, in their investigation of how communities are connected. Students will discover how people live in each of these communities and will reflect upon the vastness of Canada and the diversity of Canadian communities.

Students will also be given the opportunity to study the past of their own or one of the other communities studied. Throughout the study, emphasis will be on the contribution of individuals and groups to a community.

Rationale

Grade 2 students will develop a process for identifying characteristics of communities within Canada. They will inquire into the defining characteristics of a variety of communities in Canada to foster an appreciation of what makes a community and of each community's contributions to Canada as a nation. Through these explorations, students will develop an appreciation of and respect for the vastness of Canada and the diversity of Canadian communities.

Terms and Concepts

Acadians, goods, human geography, Inuit, physical geography, services, cultural diversity, rural, urban

General Outcome 2.1
Canada's Dynamic Communities
General Outcome 2.2
A Community in the Past
Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how geography, culture, language, heritage, economics and resources shape and change Canada's communities.Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how a community emerged, and of how the various interactions and cooperation among peoples ensure the continued growth and vitality of their community.
Local and Current Affairs
In order to allow opportunities for students to engage in current affairs, issues and concerns of a local nature, the program of studies provides the flexibility to include these topics within the time allotted for social studies.
Benchmark Skills and Processes

The following benchmark skills and processes are provided here as outcomes to be achieved by the end of Grade 3.

Dimension of Thinking
critical thinking and creative thinkingevaluate ideas and information from different points of view
historical thinkingcorrectly apply terms related to time, including past, present, future
geographic thinkingcreate and use a simple map to locate communities studied in the world
decision making and problem solvingapply new ideas and strategies to contribute to decision making and problem solving
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice
cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus buildingdemonstrate cooperative behaviour to ensure that all members of the group have an opportunity to participate
age appropriate behaviour for social involvementparticipate in projects that improve or meet the particular needs of their school or community
Research for Deliberative Inquiry
research and informationmake connections between cause-and-effect relationships from information gathered from varied sources
Communication
oral, written and visual literacyorganize and present information, such as written and oral reports, taking particular audiences and purposes into consideration
media literacycompare information on the same issue or topic from print media, television, photographs and the Internet
2.1: Canada's Dynamic Communities
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how geography, culture, language, heritage, economics and resources shape and change Canada's communities.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

2.1.1 - appreciate the physical and human geography of the communities studied:   

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

2.1.2 - investigate the physical geography of an Inuit, an Acadian, and a prairie community in Canada by exploring and reflecting the following questions for inquiry:   

2.1.3 - investigate the cultural and linguistic characteristics of an Inuit, an Acadian and a prairie community in Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:   

2.1.4 - investigate the economic characteristics of communities in Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:   

2.2: A Community in the Past
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how a community emerged, and of how the various interactions and cooperation among peoples ensure the continued growth and vitality of the community.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

2.2.1 - appreciate how stories of the past connect individuals and communities to the present
Citizenship | Identity | Time, Continuity and Change   

2.2.2 - appreciate how Aboriginal and Francophone peoples have influenced the development of the student's community
Citizenship | Culture and Community | Identity   

2.2.3 - appreciate the importance of collaboration and living in harmony
Citizenship | Power, Authority and Decision Making  

2.2.4 - appreciate how connections to a community contribute to one's identity
Identity  

2.2.5 - appreciate how cultural and linguistic exchanges connect one community to another
Culture and Community  

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

2.2.6 - analyze how the community being studied emerged, by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:

2.2.7 - examine how the community being studied has changed, by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:

Skills & Processes for Grade 2

Alberta Learning's Information and Communication Technology (ICT) curriculum is infused throughout the social studies program of studies. Selected ICT outcomes are suggested throughout the program and are indicated by this symbol .

Dimensions of Thinking

Students will:

2.S.1 - develop skills of critical thinking and creative thinking:

  • distinguish between a fictional and a factual account about Canadian communities 
  • choose and justify a course of action 
  • compare and contrast information from similar types of electronic sources, such as information collected on the Internet. 

2.S.2 - develop skills of historical thinking:

  • correctly apply terms related to time (i.e., long ago, before, after)  
  • arrange events, facts and/or ideas in sequence 

2.S.3 - develop skills of geographic thinking:

  • use a simple map to locate communities studied in Canada  
  • determine distance on a map, using relative terms such as near/far, here/there 
  • apply the concept of relative location to determine locations of people and places 
  • use cardinal directions to locate communities studied in relation to one's own community 

2.S.4 - demonstrate skills of decision making and problem solving:

  • apply ideas and strategies to decision making and problem solving 
  • propose new ideas and strategies to contribute to decision making and problem solving 
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice

Students will:

2.S.5 - demonstrate skills of cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus building:

  • demonstrate the ability to deal constructively with diversity and disagreement 
  • work and play in harmony with others to create a safe and caring environment 
  • consider the needs and ideas of others 
  • share information collected from electronic sources to add to a group task 

2.S.6 - develop age-appropriate behaviour for social involvement as responsible citizens contributing to their community, such as:

  • participate in activities that enhance their sense of belonging within their school and community 
Research for Deliberative Inquiry

Students will:

2.S.7 - apply the research process:

  • participate in formulating research questions 
  • develop questions that reflect a personal information need 
  • follow a plan to complete an inquiry 
  • access and retrieve appropriate information from electronic sources for a specific inquiry 
  • navigate within a document, compact disc or other software program that contains links 
  • organize information from more than one source 
  • process information from more than one source to retell what has been discovered 
  • formulate new questions as research progresses 
  • draw conclusions from organized information 
  • make predictions based on organized information 
Communication

Students will:

2.S.8 - demonstrate skills of oral, written and visual literacy:

  • prepare and present information in their own words, using respectful language 
  • respond appropriately to comments and questions, using respectful language 
  • interact with others in a socially appropriate manner 
  • create visual images for particular audiences and purposes 
  • display data in a problem-solving context 
  • use technology to support a presentation 

2.S.9 - develop skills of media literacy:

  • identify key words from gathered information on a topic or issue 
  • compare information on the same topic or issue from print media, television and photographs 
Glossary of Terms & Concepts - Grade 2

The following terms and concepts are contained within the general and specific outcomes in the grade. The definitions are provided to facilitate a better understanding and more effective application of the social studies concepts presented.

Acadians - Descendants of approximately 100 French families who settled along the shores of the Baie française (now the Bay of Fundy) in the area now known as New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.

cultural diversity - Differences in groups having a variety of languages, ethnicity, nationalities, within a shared space.

goods - Items that are produced and have an economic value.

human geography - The branch of geography that pertains specifically to how humans adapt to their environment.

Inuit - A member of any of several Aboriginal peoples who live in coastal regions of the Canadian Arctic and in Greenland.

physical geography - The study of the physical characteristics of the environment, for example, landforms, climate and bodies of water.

rural - Relating to agricultural; or sparsely populated; of or relating to people who live in the country

services - Physical or intellectual labour.

urban - Relating to cities or city life.

Grade 3
Connecting With The World  
Overview

Grade 3 students will investigate life in four diverse communities around the world. The contemporary communities examined will be drawn from India, Tunisia, Ukraine and Peru. Students will inquire into how geographic, social, cultural and linguistic factors affect quality of life in communities in the world. Students will enrich their awareness and appreciation of how people live in other places. Their understanding of global citizenship will be further developed and they will recognize Canada's involvement in other parts of the world.

Rationale

Grade 3 provides opportunities to explore the defining and diverse nature of communities around the world. There will be an exploration of how common human needs are met and how they contribute to quality of life. Grade 3 also introduces students to global citizenship.

Terms and Concepts

equator, export, global, global citizenship, goods, hemisphere, import, poles, quality of life, relative location, resources, services

General Outcome 3.1
Communities in the World
General Outcome 3.2
Global Citizenship
Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how geographic, social, cultural and linguistic factors affect quality of life in communities in India, Tunisia, Ukraine and Peru.Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of Canada's roles and responsibilities in global citizenship in relationship to communities in India, Tunisia, Ukraine and Peru.
Local and Current Affairs
In order to allow opportunities for students to engage in current affairs, issues and concerns of a local nature, the program of studies provides the flexibility to include these topics within the time allotted for social studies.
Benchmark Skills and Processes

The following benchmark skills and processes are provided here as outcomes to be achieved by the end of Grade 3.

Dimension of Thinking
critical thinking and creative thinkingevaluate ideas and information from different points of view
historical thinkingcorrectly apply terms related to time, including past, present, future
geographic thinkingcreate and use a simple map to locate communities studied in the world
decision making and problem solvingapply new ideas and strategies to contribute to decision making and problem solving
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice
cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus buildingdemonstrate cooperative behaviour to ensure that all members of the group have an opportunity to participate
age appropriate behaviour for social involvementparticipate in projects that improve or meet the particular needs of their school or community
Research for Deliberative Inquiry
research and informationmake connections between cause-and-effect relationships from information gathered from varied sources
Communication
oral, written and visual literacyorganize and present information, such as written and oral reports, taking particular audiences and purposes into consideration
media literacycompare information on the same issue or topic from print media, television, photographs and the Internet
3.1: Communities in the World
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how geographic, social, cultural and linguistic factors affect quality of life in communities in India, Tunisia, Ukraine and Peru.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

3.1.1 - appreciate similarities and differences among people and communities:  

  • demonstrate an awareness of and interest in the beliefs, traditions and customs of groups and communities other than their own
    Culture and Community  
Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

3.1.2 - examine the social, cultural and linguistic characteristics that affect quality of life in communities in other parts of the world by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:   

3.1.3 - examine the geographic characteristics that shape communities in other parts of the world by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:  

3.1.4 - examine economic factors that shape communities in other parts of the world by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:  

3.2: Global Citizenship
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of Canada's roles and responsibilities in global citizenship in relation to communities in India, Tunisia, Ukraine and Peru.

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

3.2.1 - appreciate elements of global citizenship:  

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

3.2.2 - explore the concept of global citizenship by reflecting upon the following questions for inquiry:  

Skills & Processes for Grade 3

Alberta Learning's Information and Communication Technology (ICT) curriculum is infused throughout the social studies program of studies. Selected ICT outcomes are suggested throughout the program and are indicated by this symbol .

Dimensions of Thinking

Students will:

3.S.1 - develop skills of critical thinking and creative thinking:  

  • evaluate ideas and information from different points of view 
  • choose and justify a course of action 
  • generate original ideas and strategies in individual and group activities 
  • compare and contrast information from similar types of electronic sources, such as information collected on the Internet 

3.S.2 - develop skills of historical thinking:

  • correctly apply terms related to time, including past, present, future 
  • arrange events, facts and/or ideas in sequence 

3.S.3 - develop skills of geographic thinking:

  • create and use a simple map to locate communities studied in the world 
  • use cardinal and intermediate directions to locate places on maps and globes 
  • apply the concept of relative location to determine locations of people and places 
  • apply the terms hemisphere, poles, equator 

3.S.4 - demonstrate skills of decision making and problem solving:  

  • apply new ideas and strategies to contribute to decision making and problem solving 
  • support proposed ideas, strategies and options with facts and reasons 
  • collaborate with others to devise strategies for dealing with problems and issues 
  • use technology to organize and display data in a problem-solving context 
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice

Students will:

3.S.5 - demonstrate skills of cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus building:  

  • demonstrate cooperative behaviour to ensure that all members of the group have an opportunity to participate 
  • demonstrate willingness to seek consensus among members of a work group 
  • consider the needs and points of view of others 
  • work and play in harmony with others to create a safe and caring environment 
  • share information collected from electronic sources to add to a group task 

3.S.6 - develop age-appropriate behaviour for social involvement as responsible citizens contributing to their community, such as:  

  • participate in projects that improve or meet the particular needs of their school or community 
Research for Deliberative Inquiry

Students will:

3.S.7 - apply the research process:

  • make connections between cause-and-effect relationships from information gathered from varied sources 
  • evaluate whether information supports an issue or a research question 
  • develop questions that reflect a personal information need 
  • follow a plan to complete an inquiry 
  • access and retrieve appropriate information from electronic sources for a specific inquiry 
  • navigate within a document, compact disc or other software program that contains links 
  • organize information from more than one source 
  • process information from more than one source to retell what has been discovered 
  • draw conclusions from organized information 
  • make predictions based on organized information 
  • formulate new questions as research progresses 
Communication

Students will:

3.S.8 - demonstrate skills of oral, written and visual literacy:  

  • organize and present information, such as written and oral reports, taking particular audiences and purposes into consideration 
  • listen to others in order to understand their points of view 
  • interact with others in a socially appropriate manner 
  • create visual images for particular audiences and purposes 
  • use technology to support and present conclusions 

3.S.9 - develop skills of media literacy:

  • compare information on the same issue or topic from print media, television, photographs and the Internet 
  • identify key words from information gathered from a variety of media on a topic or issue 
Glossary of Terms & Concepts - Grade 3

The following terms and concepts are contained within the general and specific outcomes in the grade. The definitions are provided to facilitate a better understanding and more effective application of the social studies concepts presented.

equator - The imaginary circle around the Earth that is the same distance from the North and South Poles and divides the Earth into the northern and southern hemispheres.

export - To sell goods and services to another country.

global - Relating to the whole world.

global citizenship - A feeling of responsibility, beyond a country's borders, toward humanity.

goods - Items that are produced and have an economic value.

hemisphere - One half of the Earth, especially a half north or south of the equator or west or east of the Prime Meridian.

import - To buy or bring in products and services from another country, or to introduce new goods, customs or ideas to one country from another.

poles - North or South Pole: either of the two points on the Earth, the North and South Poles, that are the endpoints of its axis of rotation, are farthest from the equator, and are surrounded by icecaps.

quality of life - The sense of safety, comfort, security, health and happiness that a person has in his or her life.

relative location - A geographic location that is described by comparing its location to another location.

resources - Useful or valuable possessions or qualities of a country, organization or person.

services - Work done for somebody else: work done by somebody for somebody else as a job, a duty or a favour

Grade 4
Alberta: The Land, Histories & Stories  
Overview

Grade 4 students will explore the geographic, cultural, linguistic, economic and historical characteristics that define quality of life in Alberta. They will appreciate how these characteristics reflect people's interaction with the land and how physical geography and natural resources affect quality of life. Through this exploration, students will also examine how major events and people shaped the evolution of Alberta.

Rationale

As they reflect upon the people, places and stories of Alberta, Grade 4 students will develop a sense of place, identity and belonging within Alberta.

Terms and Concepts

Aboriginal peoples, agriculture, archeology, cultural heritage, demographics, First Nations, fossils, Francophone, Francophonie, geology, Métis Nation, Métis settlements, multiculturalism, natural resources, paleontology, protected areas, sustainability, treaties

General Outcome 4.1
Alberta: A Sense of the Land
General Outcome 4.2
The Stories, Histories and Peoples of Alberta
General Outcome 4.3
Alberta: Celebrations and Challenges
Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how elements of physical geography, climate, geology and paleontology are integral to the landscapes and environment of Alberta.Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the role of stories, history and culture in strengthening communities and contributing to identity and a sense of belonging.Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how Alberta has grown and changed culturally, economically and socially since 1905.
Local and Current Affairs
In order to allow opportunities for students to engage in current affairs, issues and concerns of a local nature, the program of studies provides the flexibility to include these topics within the time allotted for social studies.
Benchmark Skills and Processes

The following benchmark skills and processes are provided here as outcomes to be achieved by the end of Grade 6.

Dimensions of Thinking
critical thinking and creative thinkingassess significant local and current affairs from a variety of sources, with a focus on examining bias and distinguishing fact from opinion
historical thinkinguse primary sources to broaden understanding of historical events and issues
geographic thinkingconstruct and interpret various types of maps (i.e., historical, physical, political maps) to broaden understanding of topics being studied
decision making and problem solvingpropose and apply new ideas, strategies and options, supported with facts and reasons, to contribute to decision making and problem solving
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice
cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus buildingdemonstrate the skills of compromise in order to reach group consensus
age-appropriate behaviour for social involvementdemonstrate commitment to the well-being of the community by drawing attention to situations of injustice where action is needed
Research for Deliberative Inquiry
research and informationdetermine the reliability of information, filtering for point of view and bias
Communication
oral, written and visual literacyexpress opinions and present perspectives and information in a variety of forms, such as oral or written presentations, speeches or debates
media literacydetect bias present in the media
4.1: Alberta: A Sense of the Land
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how elements of physical geography, climate, geology and paleontology are integral to the landscapes and environment of Alberta.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

4.1.1 - value Alberta's physical geography and natural environment:  

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

4.1.2 - examine, critically, the physical geography of Alberta by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

4.1.3 - examine, critically, how geology and paleontology contribute to knowledge of Alberta's physical geography by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

4.1.4 - analyze how Albertans interact with their environment by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

4.2: The Stories, Histories & Peoples of Alberta
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the role of stories, history and culture in strengthening communities and contributing to identity and a sense of belonging.  

Stories: Stories provide a vital opportunity to bring history to life. Through stories, people share information, values and attitudes about history, culture and heritage. Stories are communicated through legends, myths, creation stories, narratives, oral traditions, songs, music, dance, literature, visual and dramatic arts, traditions, and celebrations. They can include or be supported by biographies, autobiographies, archives, news items, novels or short stories.

In social studies, stories provide students with opportunities to understand the dynamics of peoples, cultures, places, issues and events that are integral to Alberta's history and to contemporary society.

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

4.2.1 - appreciate how an understanding of Alberta's history, peoples and stories contributes to their own sense of belonging and identity:   

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

4.2.2 - assess, critically, how the cultural and linguistic heritage and diversity of Alberta has evolved over time by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:   

4.3: Alberta: Celebrations & Challenges
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how Alberta has grown and changed culturally, economically and socially since 1905.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

4.3.1 - appreciate the factors contributing to quality of life in Alberta:  

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

4.3.2 - assess, critically, the challenges and opportunities that Alberta has faced in its growth and development by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

4.3.3 - examine, critically, Alberta's changing cultural and social dynamics by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

4.3.4 - examine recreation and tourism in Alberta by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

Skills & Processes for Grade 4

Alberta Education's Information and Communication Technology (ICT) curriculum is infused throughout the social studies program of studies. Selected ICT outcomes are suggested throughout the program and are indicated by this symbol .

Dimensions of Thinking

Students will:

4.S.1 - develop skills of critical thinking and creative thinking:

  • evaluate significant local and current affairs, distinguishing between fact and opinion 
  • evaluate, critically, ideas, information and positions from multiple perspectives 
  • re-evaluate opinions to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue 
  • generate original ideas and strategies in individual and group activities  
  • seek responses to inquiries from various authorities through electronic media 

4.S.2 - develop skills of historical thinking:  

  • use photographs and interviews to make meaning of historical information  
  • use historical and community resources to understand and organize the sequence of local historical events 
  • explain the historical context of key events of a given time period 

4.S.3 - develop skills of geographic thinking:  

  • use the scale on maps of Alberta to determine the distance between places 
  • construct graphs, tables, charts and maps to interpret information 
  • use historical maps to make meaning of historical events and issues 
  • use cardinal and intermediate directions to locate places on maps and globes 
  • identify the location of sources of nonrenewable resources (e.g., fossil fuels, minerals) 

4.S.4 - demonstrate skills of decision making and problem solving:

  • contribute and apply new ideas and strategies, supported with facts and reasons, to decision making and problem solving  
  • identify situations where a decision needs to be made and a problem requires attention 
  • select and use technology to assist in problem solving 
  • use data gathered from a variety of electronic sources to address identified problems 
  • solve problems requiring the sorting, organizing, classifying and extending of data, using such tools as calculators, spreadsheets, databases or hypertext technology  
  • use graphic organizers, such as mind mapping/webbing, flowcharting and outlining, to present connections among ideas and information in a problem-solving environment 
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice

Students will:

4.S.5 - demonstrate skills of cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus building:

  • demonstrate an awareness of the skills required for compromise and consensus building 
  • demonstrate the ability to deal constructively with diversity and disagreement 
  • consider the needs and points of view of others 
  • work collaboratively with others to complete a group task 
  • share information collected from electronic sources to add to a group task 

4.S.6 - develop age-appropriate behaviour for social involvement as responsible citizens contributing to their community:

  • initiate projects that meet the particular needs or expectations of their school or community 
Research for Deliberative Inquiry

Students will:

4.S.7 - apply the research process:

  • develop the skills of skimming and scanning to gather relevant information  
  • organize and synthesize information gathered from a variety of sources  
  • use graphic organizers, such as webbing or Venn diagrams, to make meaning of information 
  • draw and support conclusions, based on information gathered, to answer a research question  
  • formulate new questions as research progresses 
  • cite references as part of research 
  • access and retrieve appropriate information from the Internet by using a specific search path or from given uniform resource locations (URLs) 
  • navigate within a document, compact disc or software application that contains links 
  • organize information gathered from the Internet or an electronic source by selecting and recording the data in logical files or categories  
  • organize information by using tools such as databases, spreadsheets or electronic webbing 
Communication

Students will:

4.S.8 - demonstrate skills of oral, written and visual literacy:  

  • organize and present information, taking particular audiences and purposes into consideration  
  • respond appropriately to comments and questions, using language respectful of human diversity 
  • listen to others in order to understand their perspectives  
  • create visual images for particular audiences and purposes 
  • use selected presentation tools to demonstrate connections among various pieces of information  
  • communicate effectively through appropriate forms, such as speeches, reports and multimedia presentations, applying information technologies that serve particular audiences and purposes 

4.S.9 - develop skills of media literacy:  

  • compare information on the same issue or topic from print media, television, photographs and the Internet 
  • examine diverse perspectives regarding an issue presented in the media 
  • identify and distinguish points of view expressed in electronic sources on a particular topic 
Glossary of Terms & Concepts - Grade 4

The following terms and concepts are contained within the general and specific outcomes in the grade. The definitions are provided to facilitate a better understanding and more effective application of the social studies concepts presented.

Aboriginal peoples - The descendants of the original inhabitants of North America. First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples have unique heritages, languages, cultural practices and spiritual beliefs.

agriculture - The sector of the economy that deals with farming.

archeology - The study of the buildings, containers and other, usually buried, objects that belonged to people who lived in the past.

cultural heritage - The beliefs, customs, knowledge, values and historical experiences shared by a given group.

demographics - Information pertaining to the study of a population.

First Nations - Refers to the various governments of the First Nations peoples of Canada. There are over 630 First Nations across Canada, with 46 First Nations in Alberta.

fossils - Remnants or traces of organisms (plants or animals) of a past geologic age, such as skeletons embedded and preserved in the Earth's crust.

Francophone - A person for whom French is the first language learned and/or still in use; a person of French language and culture.

Francophonie - entire Francophone community in a given region, province, territory or country, or in the world. On a global level, La Francophonie is a group of 47 countries (representing approximately 150 million people) on five continents in which French is an official or commonly used language.

geology - The study of the origin, history and structure of the Earth.

Métis Nation - A group of individuals who are associated with a recognized Métis family or community and who self-identify as Métis people. The Métis Nation of Alberta Association (MNAA) consists of an elected provincial president and vice-president and an elected zone president and vice-president for each of the six zones across Alberta. There are approximately 65 MNAA locals across Alberta.

Métis settlements - Eight distinct geographic areas in northern Alberta, established in the 1930s as corporate entities and similar to municipal corporations, with broad self-governing powers. The settlements are governed locally by elected five-member councils and collectively by the Métis Settlements General Council.

multiculturalism - The policy of recognizing and promoting the cultural diversity of a population sharing a common territory.

natural resources - Elements of the natural environment that are of use to humans. They include nonrenewable and renewable resources. Nonrenewable resources, such as oil, natural gas and minerals, are limited in quantity; renewable resources, such as forests, water and fish, can be regenerated and can last indefinitely if used carefully.

paleontology - The study of the forms of life existing in prehistoric times.

protected areas - Areas identified and legislated by federal, provincial and municipal governments as needing particular care and protection for environmental and/or cultural reasons.

sustainability - The ability of land to maintain life and/or provide necessities or nourishment on a continued and renewed basis for the organisms interacting with it and depending on it.

treaties - Legal documents between government and a First Nation that confer rights and obligations on both parties. To First Nations peoples, the treaties are sacred documents made by the parties and often sealed by a pipe ceremony.

Grade 5
Canada: The Land, Histories & Stories  
Overview

Grade 5 students will examine how the ways of life of peoples in Canada are integral to Canadian culture and identity. They will explore the geographic vastness of Canada and the relationships between the land, places and people. As they reflect upon the stories of diverse Aboriginal, French, British and immigrant experiences in Canada over time, students will develop a sense of place and an awareness of how these multiple stories contribute to students' sense of citizenship and identity.

Rationale

Grade 5 students will be provided with opportunities to explore how the diversity of stories and experiences, and the vastness of Canada, affect citizenship and identity in the Canadian context.

Terms and Concepts

Aboriginal, anthropology, archaeology, Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Confederation, coureurs des bois, cultural heritage, demographics, Elder, First Nations, Francophone, fur trade, Great Depression, Great Migration, habitants, immigration, industrialization, Inuit, Métis, New France, reserve, seigneurial system, treaties, voyageurs

General Outcome 5.1
Physical Geography of Canada
General Outcome 5.2
Histories and Stories of Ways of Life in Canada
General Outcome 5.3
Canada: Shaping an Identity
Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how the physical geography and natural resources of Canada affect the quality of life of all Canadians.Students will demonstrate an understanding of the people and the stories of Canada and their ways of life over time, and appreciate the diversity of Canada's heritage.Students will demonstrate an understanding of the events and factors that have changed the ways of life in Canada over time and appreciate the impact of these changes on citizenship and identity.
Local and Current Affairs
In order to allow opportunities for students to engage in current affairs, issues and concerns of a local nature, the program of studies provides the flexibility to include these topics within the time allotted for social studies.
Benchmark Skills and Processes

The following benchmark skills and processes are provided here as outcomes to be achieved by the end of Grade 6.

Dimensions of Thinking
critical thinking and creative thinkingassess significant local and current affairs from a variety of sources, with a focus on examining bias and distinguishing fact from opinion
historical thinkinguse primary sources to broaden understanding of historical events and issues
geographic thinkingconstruct and interpret various types of maps (i.e., historical, physical, political maps) to broaden understanding of topics being studied
decision making and problem solvingpropose and apply new ideas, strategies and options, supported with facts and reasons, to contribute to decision making and problem solving
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice
cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus buildingdemonstrate the skills of compromise in order to reach group consensus
age-appropriate behaviour for social involvementdemonstrate commitment to the well-being of the community by drawing attention to situations of injustice where action is needed
Research for Deliberative Inquiry
research and informationdetermine the reliability of information, filtering for point of view and bias
Communication
oral, written and visual literacyexpress opinions and present perspectives and information in a variety of forms, such as oral or written presentations, speeches or debates
media literacydetect bias present in the media
5.1: Physical Geography of Canada
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how the physical geography and natural resources of Canada affect the quality of life of all Canadians.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

5.1.1 - value Canada's physical geography and natural environment:

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

5.1.2 - examine, critically, the physical geography of Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

5.1.3 - analyze how people in Canada interact with the environment by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

5.2: Histories & Stories of Ways of Life in Canada
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the people and the stories of Canada and their ways of life over time, and appreciate the diversity of Canada's heritage.  

Stories: Stories provide a vital opportunity to bring history to life. Through stories, people share information, values and attitudes about history, culture and heritage. Stories are communicated through legends, myths, creation stories, narratives, oral traditions, songs, music, dance, literature, visual and dramatic arts, traditions and celebrations. They can include or be supported by biographies, autobiographies, archives, news items, novels or short stories.

In social studies, stories provide students with opportunities to understand the dynamics of peoples, cultures, places, issues and events that are integral to Canada's history and contemporary society. 

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

5.2.1 - appreciate the complexity of identity in the Canadian context:  

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

5.2.2 - examine, critically, the ways of life of Aboriginal peoples in Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

5.2.3 - examine, critically, ways of life in New France by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

5.2.4 - examine, critically, ways of life of the fur traders by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

5.2.5 - examine, critically, ways of life of the United Empire Loyalists by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

5.2.6 - examine, critically, the ways of life of immigrants from the British Isles during the Great Migration by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

5.2.7 - examine, critically, how the North West Mounted Police shaped ways of life in Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

5.2.8 - examine, critically, ways of life of non-European immigrants by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

5.2.9 - examine, critically, how European immigrants shaped ways of life in western Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

5.3: Canada: Shaping an Identity
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the events and factors that have changed the ways of life in Canada over time and appreciate the impact of these changes on citizenship and identity.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

5.3.1 - appreciate how changes impact citizenship and identity:  

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

5.3.2 - assess, critically, the changes that occurred in Canada immediately following Confederation by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

5.3.3 - assess, critically, how the Famous Five brought about change in Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

5.3.4 - assess, critically, how economic booms and crashes affected ways of life in Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

5.3.5 - assess, critically, how historical events shaped collective identity in the Canadian context by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

Skills & Processes for Grade 5

Alberta Education's Information and Communication Technology (ICT) curriculum is infused throughout the social studies program of studies. Selected ICT outcomes are suggested throughout the program and are indicated by this symbol .

Dimensions of Thinking

Students will:

5.S.1 - develop skills of critical thinking and creative thinking:  

  • analyze significant local and current affairs from a variety of sources, distinguishing between fact and opinion 
  • evaluate ideas, information and positions from multiple perspectives 
  • re-evaluate personal opinions to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue 
  • generate original ideas and strategies in situations of individual and group activities 
  • seek responses to inquiries from various authorities through electronic media 
  • recognize that information serves different purposes and that data from electronic sources may need to be verified to determine accuracy or relevance for the purpose used 

5.S.2 - develop skills of historical thinking:  

  • use photographs and interviews to make meaning of historical information 
  • use historical and community resources to understand and organize the sequence of national historical events 
  • explain the historical context of key events of a given time period 
  • organize information, using such tools as a database, spreadsheet or electronic webbing 

5.S.3 - develop skills of geographic thinking:  

  • use latitude and longitude to determine the absolute location of places in Canada on maps and globes 
  • construct maps, diagrams and charts to display geographic information 
  • use historical maps to make meaning of historical events and issues  
  • use cardinal and intermediate directions and simple grids to locate places on maps and globes 
  • use the scale on maps and globes to determine the distance between places  
  • list, map and discuss major waterways that have been significant in the establishment of communities in Canada (e.g., St. Lawrence River, Great Lakes, St. Lawrence Seaway, Red River) 

5.S.4 - demonstrate skills of decision making and problem solving:  

  • determine when a decision needs to be made in dealing with problems and issues 
  • collaborate with others to apply strategies for decision making and problem solving 
  • select and use technology to assist in problem solving 
  • use data gathered from a variety of electronic sources to address identified problems 
  • solve problems requiring the sorting, organizing, classifying and extending of data, using such tools as calculators, spreadsheets, databases or hypertext technology 
  • use graphic organizers, such as mind mapping/webbing, flow charting and outlining, to present connections between ideas and information in a problem-solving environment 
  • generate alternative solutions to problems by using technology to facilitate the process 
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice

Students will:

5.S.5 - demonstrate skills of cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus building:

  • consider multiple points of view while attempting to reach group consensus 
  • demonstrate the ability to deal constructively with diversity and disagreement 
  • work collaboratively with others to achieve a common goal 
  • record group brainstorming, planning and sharing of ideas by using technology 
  • retrieve data from available storage devices, such as a shared folder, to which a group has contributed 

5.S.6 - develop age-appropriate behaviour for social involvement as responsible citizens contributing to their community:

  • demonstrate commitment to the well-being of the school or community by volunteering to help where needed 
Research for Deliberative Inquiry

Students will:

5.S.7 - apply the research process:

  • determine themes, patterns and trends from information gathered 
  • use graphs, tables, charts and Venn diagrams to interpret information 
  • draw and support conclusions, based on information gathered, to answer a research question 
  • cite references as part of research 
  • design and follow a plan, including a schedule, to be used during an inquiry process, and make revisions to the plan, as necessary 
  • access and retrieve appropriate information from the Internet by using a specific search path or from given uniform resource locators (URLs) 
  • navigate within a document, compact disc or other software program that contains links 
  • organize information gathered from the Internet, or an electronic source, by selecting and recording the data in logical files or categories 
  • organize information, using such tools as a database, spreadsheet or electronic webbing 
  • use a variety of technologies to organize and synthesize researched information 
  • reflect on and describe the processes involved in completing a project 
Communication

Students will:

5.S.8 - demonstrate skills of oral, written and visual literacy:  

  • select appropriate forms of delivery for written and oral information, taking particular audiences and purposes into consideration 
  • respond appropriately to comments and questions, using language respectful of human diversity 
  • listen to others to understand their perspectives 
  • create visual images for particular audiences and purposes 
  • identify and distinguish points of view expressed in electronic sources on a particular topic 
  • extend the scope of a project beyond classroom collaboration by using communication technologies, such as the telephone and e-mail 
  • communicate effectively through appropriate forms, such as speeches, reports and multimedia presentations, applying information technologies that serve particular audiences and purposes 

5.S.9 - develop skills of media literacy:

  • examine how various people might interpret a media message differently
  • examine diverse perspectives regarding an issue presented in the media
Glossary of Terms & Concepts - Grade 5

The following terms and concepts are contained within the general and specific outcomes in the grade. The definitions are provided to facilitate a better understanding and more effective application of the social studies concepts presented.

Aboriginal - The descendants of the original inhabitants of North America. First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples have unique heritages, languages, cultural practices and spiritual beliefs. Aboriginal is also a term used in other parts of the world to refer to the first inhabitants of a given area.

anthropology - The study of the human race, its cultures and societies, and their physical development.

archaeology - The study of the buildings, containers and other, usually buried, objects that belonged to people who lived in the past.

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Document entrenched in the Constitutional Act, 1982 that lists and describes the fundamental rights and freedoms guaranteed to Canadians.

Confederation - The passage of the British North America Act by the British Parliament in 1867, uniting the four provinces of Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

coureurs des bois - Young men who left the villages of New France to live among Aboriginal peoples; they made trading agreements and collected furs, learned native languages, and became skilled at wilderness travel and the native way of life.

cultural heritage - The beliefs, customs, knowledge, values and historical experiences shared by a given group.

demographics - Information pertaining to the study of a population.

Elder - Any person regarded or chosen by an Aboriginal group to be the keeper and teacher of its oral tradition and knowledge. This is a person who is recognized for his or her wisdom about spirituality, culture and life. Not all Elders are "old." An Aboriginal community and/or Aboriginal individuals will typically seek the advice and assistance of Elders regarding traditional as well as contemporary issues.

First Nations - Refers to the various governments of the First Nations peoples of Canada. There are over 630 First Nations across Canada, with 46 First Nations in Alberta.

Francophone - A person for whom French is the first language learned and/or still in use; a person of French language and culture.

fur trade - An important economic activity that took place in British North America between the 16th and 19th centuries, involving the buying and selling of animal pelts, primarily beaver.

Great Depression - Severe, prolonged period of low economic activity and high unemployment that existed in the 1930s.

Great Migration - The period between 1815 and 1850 during which large numbers of British immigrants immigrated to Canada.

habitants - Tenant farmers of New France who held land under the seigneurial system.

immigration - Movement of people intending to establish a home and gain citizenship in a country that is not their native country.

industrialization - The movement toward the use of machinery to collect and manufacture raw materials.

Inuit - Aboriginal peoples in northern Canada, most of whom live above the tree line in the Northwest Territories, northern Québec and Labrador.

Métis - People of mixed First Nations and European ancestry who identify themselves as Métis people. They are distinct from First Nations, Inuit and non-Aboriginal peoples. The Métis history and culture draws on diverse ancestral origins, such as Scottish, Irish, French, Ojibway and Cree.

New France - All the territory in North America claimed by France from the 1520s to 1763. This vast territory, from the Hudson Strait to the Gulf of Mexico, included Acadia, Louisiana and the Mississippi Valley. The largest French population was concentrated in the St. Lawrence Valley.

reserve - An area of land that is protected and set aside by the federal government for Aboriginal peoples in accordance with treaties.

seigneurial system - Name for the system by which land was held in New France. The Royal government in France granted large blocks of land in New France to French nobles, army officers, merchants and government officials, who became known as seigneurs (meaning "lords" or "landlords"). The seigneurs were required to either farm their land themselves or lease much of it to farmers (known as habitants).

treaties - Legal documents between a government and a First Nation that confer rights and obligations on both parties. To First Nations peoples, the treaties are sacred documents made by the parties and often sealed by a pipe ceremony.

voyageurs - Adventurers who ventured west by canoe from Montréal to the interior to trade with Aboriginal peoples for furs.

Grade 6
Democracy: Action & Participation  
Overview

Grade 6 students will examine how participation in the democratic process is a means for governments and citizens to effect change in their communities. They will explore how democratic principles and ideals are reflected in the structure and functions of their local and provincial governments. Students will examine how ancient Athens and the Iroquois Confederacy have influenced Canada's democratic processes.

Rationale

Grade 6 students will broaden their understanding of democracy in the Canadian experience and develop an awareness of the active role that engaged citizens can play within the democratic process.

Terms and Concepts

ACFA, Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, collective identity, consensus, democracy, electorate, equity, fairness, FNA, justice, local government, MLA, MNAA, official language minorities, provincial government, representative democracy, Treaty of La Grande Paix de Montréal, Wampum Treaty

General Outcome 6.1
Citizens Participating in
Decision Making
General Outcome 6.2
Historical Models of Democracy: Ancient Athens and the Iroquois Confederacy
Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the dynamic relationship between governments and citizens as they engage in the democratic process.Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the democratic principles exemplified by ancient Athens and the Iroquois Confederacy.
Local and Current Affairs
In order to allow opportunities for students to engage in current affairs, issues and concerns of a local nature, the program of studies provides the flexibility to include these topics within the time allotted for social studies.
Benchmark Skills and Processes

The following benchmark skills and processes are provided here as outcomes to be achieved by the end of Grade 6.

Dimensions of Thinking
critical thinking and creative thinkingassess significant local and current affairs from a variety of sources, with a focus on examining bias and distinguishing fact from opinion
historical thinkinguse primary sources to broaden understanding of historical events and issues
geographic thinkingconstruct and interpret various types of maps (i.e., historical, physical, political maps) to broaden understanding of topics being studied
decision making and problem solvingpropose and apply new ideas, strategies and options, supported with facts and reasons, to contribute to decision making and problem solving
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice
cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus buildingdemonstrate the skills of compromise in order to reach group consensus
age-appropriate behaviour for social involvementdemonstrate commitment to the well-being of the community by drawing attention to situations of injustice where action is needed
Research for Deliberative Inquiry
research and informationdetermine the reliability of information, filtering for point of view and bias
Communication
oral, written and visual literacyexpress opinions and present perspectives and information in a variety of forms, such as oral or written presentations, speeches or debates
media literacydetect bias present in the media
6.1: Citizens Participating in Decision Making
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the dynamic relationship between governments and citizens as they engage in the democratic process.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

6.1.1 - recognize how individuals and governments interact and bring about change within their local and national communities:  

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

6.1.2 - demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental principles of democracy by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

6.1.3 - analyze how the democratic ideals of equity and fairness have influenced legislation in Canada over time by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

6.1.4 - analyze the structure and functions of local governments in Alberta by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

6.1.5 - analyze the structure and functions of Alberta's provincial government by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

6.1.6 - analyze how individuals, groups and associations within a community impact decision making of local and provincial governments by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

  • How can individuals, groups and associations within a community participate in the decision-making process regarding current events or issues (i.e., lobbying, petitioning, organizing and attending local meetings and rallies, contacting elected representatives)?
    Citizenship | Power, Authority and Decision Making   
  • How do associations such as the Association canadienne-française de l'Alberta (ACFA), the Métis Nation of Alberta Association (MNAA) and the First Nations Authorities (FNA) provide their members with a voice, at local and provincial levels, exercising historical and constitutional rights?
    Citizenship | Identity | Power, Authority and Decision Making  
  • In what ways do elected officials demonstrate their accountability to the electorate (e.g., respond to constituents, participate in local events, represent and express in government meetings the concerns of constituents)?
    Citizenship | Power, Authority and Decision Making  
6.2: Historical Models of Democracy: Ancient Athens & the Iroquois Confederacy
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the democratic principles exemplified by ancient Athens and the Iroquois Confederacy.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

6.2.1 - appreciate the relationship between the values of a society and the model of government adopted within a society
Power, Authority and Decision Making  

6.2.2 - value the role of participation by citizens in diverse democratic societies
Citizenship | Power, Authority and Decision Making  

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

6.2.3 - analyze the structure and functions of the democratic system in ancient Athens by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

6.2.4 - analyze the structure and functions of the Iroquois Confederacy by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

Skills & Processes for Grade 6

Alberta Education's Information and Communication Technology (ICT) curriculum is infused throughout the social studies program of studies. Selected ICT outcomes are suggested throughout the program and are indicated by this symbol .

Dimensions of Thinking

Students will:

6.S.1 - develop skills of critical thinking and creative thinking:  

  • assess significant local and current affairs from a variety of sources, with a focus on examining bias and distinguishing fact from opinion  
  • critically evaluate ideas, information and positions 
  • re-evaluate personal opinions to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue 
  • generate original ideas and strategies in individual and group activities 
  • seek responses to inquiries from various authorities through electronic media 

6.S.2 - develop skills of historical thinking:

  • use primary sources to interpret historical events and issues 
  • use historical and community resources to understand and organize the sequence of historical events 
  • explain the historical contexts of key events of a given time period 
  • use examples of events to describe cause and effect and change over time  
  • organize information, using such tools as a database, spreadsheet or electronic webbing 

6.S.3 - develop skills of geographic thinking:

  • construct and interpret various types of maps (i.e., historical, physical, political maps) to broaden understanding of topics being studied 
  • use geographic tools, including software, that assist in preparing graphs and maps 
  • use cardinal and intermediate directions to locate places on maps and globes 
  • use scales to determine the distance between places on maps and globes 
  • identify geographic problems and issues and pose geographic questions 

6.S.4 - demonstrate skills of decision making and problem solving:  

  • propose and apply new ideas, strategies and options, supported with facts and reasons, to contribute to decision making and problem solving 
  • consider multiple perspectives when dealing with issues, decision making and problem solving 
  • collaborate with others to devise strategies for dealing with problems and issues 
  • select and use technology to assist in problem solving 
  • use data gathered from a variety of electronic sources to address identified problems 
  • solve problems requiring the sorting, organizing, classifying and extending of data, using such tools as calculators, spreadsheets, databases or hypertext technology 
  • use graphic organizers, such as mind mapping/webbing, flow charting and outlining, to present connections among ideas and information in a problem-solving environment 
  • solve issue-related problems, using such communication tools as a word processor or e-mail to involve others in the process 
  • generate alternative solutions to problems by using technology to facilitate the process 
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice

Students will:

6.S.5 - demonstrate skills of cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus building:  

  • demonstrate the skills of compromise to reach group consensus 
  • work collaboratively with others to achieve a common goal 
  • record group brainstorming, planning and sharing of ideas by using technology 
  • extend the scope of a project beyond classroom collaboration by using communication technologies, such as the telephone and e-mail 

6.S.6 - develop age-appropriate behaviour for social involvement as responsible citizens contributing to their community, such as:  

  • demonstrate commitment to the well-being of their community by drawing attention to situations of injustice where action is needed 
Research for Deliberative Inquiry

Students will:

6.S.7 - apply the research process:  

  • determine reliability of information filtering for point of view and bias 
  • formulate questions to be answered through the research process 
  • use graphs, tables, charts and Venn diagrams to interpret information 
  • draw and support conclusions based on information gathered to answer a research question 
  • include references in an organized manner as part of research 
  • formulate new questions as research progresses 
  • design and follow a plan, including a schedule, to be used during an inquiry process, and make revisions to the plan, as necessary 
  • access and retrieve appropriate information from the Internet by using a specific search path or from given uniform resource locators (URLs) 
  • organize information, using such tools as a database, spreadsheet or electronic webbing 
  • use a variety of technologies to organize and synthesize researched information 
  • reflect on and describe the processes involved in completing a project 
Communication

Students will:

6.S.8 - demonstrate skills of oral, written and visual literacy:  

  • express opinions and present perspectives and information in a variety of forms such as oral or written presentations, speeches or debates 
  • express reasons for their ideas and opinions, in oral or written form 
  • use skills of informal debate to persuasively express differing viewpoints regarding an issue 
  • respond appropriately to comments and questions, using language respectful of human diversity 
  • listen to others to understand their perspectives 
  • organize information gathered from the Internet, or an electronic source, by selecting and recording the data in logical files or categories 
  • communicate effectively through appropriate forms, such as speeches, reports and multimedia presentations, applying information technologies that serve particular audiences and purposes 

6.S.9 - develop skills of media literacy:  

  • detect bias present in the media 
  • examine and assess diverse perspectives regarding an issue presented in the media 
  • analyze significant current affairs 
  • identify and distinguish points of view expressed in electronic sources on a particular topic 
  • use selected presentation tools to demonstrate connections among various pieces of information 
  • recognize that information serves different purposes and that data from electronic sources may need to be verified to determine accuracy or relevance for the purpose used 
Glossary of Terms & Concepts - Grade 6

The following terms and concepts are contained within the general and specific outcomes in the grade. The definitions are provided to facilitate a better understanding and more effective application of the social studies concepts presented.

ACFA - Association canadienne-française de l'Alberta (French-Canadian Association of Alberta); a provincial association founded in 1926 to represent the needs of Franco-Albertans relating to education, health, politics, media, culture and communities.

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Document entrenched in the Constitutional Act, 1982 that lists and describes the fundamental rights and freedoms guaranteed to Canadians.

collective identity - Sense of belonging to a community or group, established and strengthened through common characteristics and interests. Culture and language are determining factors in the formation of collective identity.

consensus - The achievement of agreement through a process of consultation, in which all parties affected by a decision have equal power and equal voice.

democracy - Political system in which citizens have a voice in decision making (government of the people, for the people, by the people).

electorate - Group of qualified voters.

equity - The state or quality of being just and impartial, respecting individual and collective rights.

fairness - Justice; equity; the state of being consistent with rules, logic or ethics.

FNA - First Nations Authorities; local governing authorities for all First Nations in Alberta, made up of First Nations Chiefs and Councils. All First Nations in Alberta are a member of one of three treaty organizations: Treaty 8 First Nations of Alberta, the Confederacy of Treaty 6 First Nations or the Treaty 7 First Nations.

justice - Upholding just, fair and equitable treatment, and providing due reward in accordance with honour, standards or law.

local government - The level of government empowered by the provincial or territorial government, whose mandate is to make decisions and bylaws relating to local issues and services.

MLA - Elected member of the legislative assembly, representing a specific constituency within the province.

MNAA - Métis Nation of Alberta Association; consists of an elected provincial president and vice-president, six elected zone presidents and six vice-presidents from each of six zones across Alberta. There are approximately 65 MNAA locals across Alberta.

official language minorities - Groups for whom one official language of Canada is their first language and who live within a larger group for whom the other official language of Canada is the first language. Section 23 of the Charter helps ensure the protection of Canada's two official languages by providing minority groups of both official languages with education in their mother tongue, thereby contributing to the vitality of their communities.

provincial government - The level of government whose constitutional mandate is to make decisions and pass legislation relating to provincial issues and services.

representative democracy - Political system whereby citizens elect their representatives to govern and make decisions on their behalf.

Treaty of La Grande Paix de Montréal - Treaty signed in Montréal in 1701 by the representatives of the government of France and representatives of 39 North American Aboriginal nations, including five Iroquois nations. The Aboriginal representatives were from the Great Lakes region, New York State, the shores of the Mississippi, Acadia and the Saint-Lawrence region.

Wampum Treaty - Treaty representing a peaceful, parallel co-existence between the Iroquois Confederacy and Europeans. This treaty, symbolized by the Two Row Wampum Belt, is a relationship of mutuality in which neither side can act unilaterally without consultation.

The Two Row Wampum Belt symbolizes the relationship between the Aboriginal peoples of North America and the Europeans. One purple row of beads represents the path of the Aboriginals' canoe, which contains their customs and laws. The other row represents the path of the Europeans' vessel, the sailing ship, which contains their customs and laws. The two-row wampum captures the original values that governed the relationship between the Aboriginal peoples and the Europeans--equality, respect, dignity and a sharing of the river that both groups travel on.

Grade 7
Canada: Origins, Histories & Movement Of Peoples  
Overview

Grade 7 students will explore the origins, histories and movement of peoples who forged the foundations of Canadian Confederation. They will examine how the political, demographic, economic and social changes that have occurred since Confederation have influenced ways in which contemporary Canada has evolved.

Rationale

Through an examination of events preceding and following Confederation, Grade 7 students will acquire an understanding of how Canada has evolved into a multicultural, bilingual, pluralistic and diverse society; and they will appreciate how these dimensions of Canada have affected citizenship and identity over time.

Terms and Concepts

assimilation, colony, demographics, Great Deportation, immigration, imperialism, migration, National Policy, settlement, Treaty of Paris, urbanization

General Outcome 7.1
Toward Confederation
General Outcome 7.2
Following Confederation:
Canadian Expansions
Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the distinct roles of, and the relationships among, the Aboriginal, French and British peoples in forging the foundations of Canadian Confederation.Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how the political, demographic, economic and social changes that have occurred since Confederation have presented challenges and opportunities for individuals and communities.
Local and Current Affairs
In order to allow opportunities for students to engage in current affairs, issues and concerns of a local nature, the program of studies provides the flexibility to include these topics within the time allotted for social studies.
Benchmark Skills and Processes

The following benchmark skills and processes are provided here as outcomes to be achieved by the end of Grade 9.

Dimensions of Thinking
critical thinking and creative thinkingdetermine the validity of information based on context, bias, source, objectivity, evidence and/or reliability to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue
historical thinkinganalyze selected issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a context of time and place
geographic thinkinginterpret thematic maps to analyze economic and political issues
decision making and problem solvingtake appropriate action and initiative, when required, in decision-making and problem-solving scenarios
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice
cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus buildingdemonstrate leadership in groups, where appropriate, to achieve consensus and resolve conflicts peacefully and equitably
age-appropriate behaviour for social involvementdevelop leadership skills by assuming specific roles and responsibilities in organizations, projects and events within the community
Research for Deliberative Inquiry
research and informationreflect on changes of perspective or opinion based on information gathered and research conducted
Communication
oral, written and visual literacycommunicate in a persuasive and engaging manner through speeches, multimedia presentations and written and oral reports, taking particular audiences and purposes into consideration
media literacyexamine techniques used to enhance the authority and authenticity of media messages
7.1: Toward Confederation
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the distinct roles of, and the relationships among, the Aboriginal, French and British peoples in forging the foundations of Canadian Confederation.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

7.1.1 - appreciate the influence of diverse Aboriginal, French and British peoples on events leading to Confederation
Citizenship | Identity | Time, Continuity and Change   

7.1.2 - appreciate the challenges of co-existence among peoples
Citizenship | Culture and Community | Identity | The Land: Places and People  

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

7.1.3 - compare and contrast diverse social and economic structures within the societies of Aboriginal, French and British peoples in pre-Confederation Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

7.1.4 - assess, critically, the economic competition related to the control of the North American fur trade by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

7.1.5 - assess, critically, the political competition between the French and the British in attempting to control North America by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

7.1.6 - assess, critically, how political, economic and military events contributed to the foundations of Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

7.2: Following Confederation: Canadian Expansions
General Outcome

Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how the political, demographic, economic and social changes that have occurred since Confederation have presented challenges and opportunities for individuals and communities.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

7.2.1 - recognize the positive and negative aspects of immigration and migration
Global Connections | The Land: Places and People | Citizenship | Identity  

7.2.2 - recognize the positive and negative consequences of political decisions
Power, Authority and Decision Making  

7.2.3 - appreciate the challenges that individuals and communities face when confronted with rapid change
Identity | Culture and Community | The Land: Places and People  

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

7.2.4 - assess, critically, the role, contributions and influence of the Red River Métis on the development of western Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

7.2.5 - evaluate the impact of Confederation and of subsequent immigration on Canada from 1867 to the First World War by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

7.2.6 - assess, critically, the impacts of social and political changes on individual and collective identities in Canada since 1918 by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

7.2.7 - assess, critically, the impact of urbanization and of technology on individual and collective identities in Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

Skills & Processes for Grade 7

Alberta Education's Information and Communication Technology (ICT) curriculum is infused throughout the social studies program of studies. Selected ICT outcomes are suggested throughout the program and are indicated by this symbol .

Dimensions of Thinking

Students will:

7.S.1 - develop skills of critical thinking and creative thinking:  

  • determine the validity of information based on context, bias, source, objectivity, evidence and/or reliability to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue 
  • evaluate, critically, ideas, information and positions from multiple perspectives 
  • demonstrate the ability to analyze local and current affairs 
  • re-evaluate personal opinions to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue 
  • generate creative ideas and strategies in individual and group activities 
  • access diverse viewpoints on particular topics, using appropriate technologies 

7.S.2 - develop skills of historical thinking:  

  • analyze historical issues to form or support an opinion 
  • use historical and community resources to organize the sequence of historical events 
  • explain the historical contexts of key events of a given time period 
  • distinguish cause, effect, sequence and correlation in historical events, including the long-and short-term causal relations of events 
  • create a simulation or a model, using technology that permits the making of inferences 
  • identify patterns in organized information 

7.S.3 - develop skills of geographic thinking:  

  • construct and interpret maps to broaden understanding of issues, places and peoples of Canada (i.e., elevation, latitude and longitude, population density, waterways) 
  • use geographic tools, such as geographical information system (GIS) software, to assist in preparing graphs and maps 
  • interpret historical maps to broaden understanding of historical events 
  • define geographic challenges and issues that lead to geographic questions 
  • access and operate multimedia applications and technologies from stand-alone and online sources; e.g., GIS 

7.S.4 - demonstrate skills of decision making and problem solving:  

  • predict outcomes of decision-making and problem-solving scenarios from multiple perspectives 
  • propose and apply new ideas and strategies, supported with facts and reasons, to contribute to problem solving and decision making 
  • articulate clearly a plan of action to use technology to solve a problem 
  • identify appropriate materials and tools to use in order to accomplish a plan of action 
  • use networks to brainstorm, plan and share ideas with group members 
  • evaluate choices and progress in problem solving, then redefine the plan of action as necessary 
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice

Students will:

7.S.5 - demonstrate skills of cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus building:

  • assume various roles within groups, including roles of leadership where appropriate 
  • identify and use a variety of strategies to resolve conflicts peacefully and equitably 
  • consider the needs and perspectives of others 

7.S.6 - develop age-appropriate behaviour for social involvement as responsible citizens contributing to their community:

  • support and participate in activities and projects that promote the well-being and meet the particular needs of their community 
Research for Deliberative Inquiry

Students will:

7.S.7 - apply the research process:

  • develop a position that is supported by information gathered through research 
  • draw conclusions based upon research and evidence 
  • determine how information serves a variety of purposes and that the accuracy or relevance of information may need verification 
  • organize and synthesize researched information 
  • formulate new questions as research progresses 
  • integrate and synthesize concepts to provide an informed point of view on a research question or an issue 
  • practise the responsible and ethical use of information and technology 
  • include and organize references as part of research 
  • plan and conduct a search, using a wide variety of electronic sources 
  • demonstrate the advanced search skills necessary to limit the number of hits desired for online and offline databases; for example, the use of "and" or "or" between search topics and the choice of appropriate search engines for the topic 
  • develop a process to manage volumes of information that can be made available through electronic sources 
  • evaluate the relevance of electronically accessed information to a particular topic 
  • make connections among related, organized data and assemble various pieces into a unified message 
  • refine searches to limit sources to a manageable number 
  • analyze and synthesize information to produce an original work 
Communication

Students will:

7.S.8 - demonstrate skills of oral, written and visual literacy:

  • communicate information in a clear, persuasive and engaging manner, through written and oral means 
  • use skills of informal debate to persuasively express differing viewpoints regarding an issue 
  • elicit, clarify and respond appropriately to questions, ideas and multiple points of view in discussions 
  • listen to others in order to understand their perspectives 
  • offer reasoned comments related to a topic of discussion 
  • use selected presentation tools to demonstrate connections among various pieces of information 

7.S.9 - develop skills of media literacy:  

  • analyze the impact of television, the Internet, radio and print media on a particular current affairs issue 
  • detect bias on issues presented in the media 
  • examine techniques used to enhance the authority and authenticity of media messages 
  • examine the values, lifestyles and points of view represented in a media message 
  • identify and distinguish points of view expressed in electronic sources on a particular topic 
  • recognize that information serves different purposes and that data from electronic sources may need to be verified to determine accuracy or relevance for the purpose used 
Glossary of Terms & Concepts - Grade 7

The following terms and concepts are contained within the general and specific outcomes in the grade. The definitions are provided to facilitate a better understanding and more effective application of the social studies concepts presented.

assimilation - Process by which an individual or minority group loses its original culture when absorbed into another culture; in the context of colonialism, a policy of total integration of colonies into the colonizing country.

colony - Territory that is dominated by a foreign country.

demographics - Data that pertains to the population of a given region or country.

Great Deportation - British uprooting of up to 12 000 Acadians from their homes in Nova Scotia in October 1755. Confiscation of the land, homes, cattle and other belongings of Acadians was authorized by the British Crown.

immigration - Movement of people intending to establish a home and gain citizenship in a country that is not their native country.

imperialism - Policy of a country or empire to extend its authority or domination by political, economic or military means.

migration - Movement of people from one region of a country to another.

National Policy - Policy put in place by the government of John A. Macdonald, consisting of three major elements: a) the implementation of a series of tariffs to protect Canadian producers and products; b) the launching of the Canadian Pacific Railway to connect the central provinces to the Pacific coast by railroad; and c) the establishment of immigration policies aimed specifically at populating western Canada.

settlement - Establishment of people in a newly colonized region.

Treaty of Paris - Also known as the Royal Proclamation, the treaty signed in 1763 to mark the end of the Seven Years' War. Through this treaty, France ceded its North American territories to England, with the exception of St. Pierre and Miquelon.

urbanization - An increase in the number of people residing in cities and an extension of urban boundaries to include areas that were previously rural.

Grade 8
Historical Worldviews Examined  
Overview

Grade 8 students will examine issues related to contact between societies with differing worldviews. They will explore elements of worldviews and how these views are expressed by people living in different times and in different places. Through this inquiry, students will reflect on their own worldviews and assess the influence that the past has had on the present. Examples will be drawn from Japan, Renaissance Europe and Spanish and Aztec societies.

Rationale

Grade 8 students will learn how intercultural contact between societies leads to significant change and alters each society's worldview. 

Terms and Concepts

adaptation, contact, expansionist, humanist, imperialism, intercultural, isolation, Renaissance, social structures, society, worldview

General Outcome 8.1
From Isolation to Adaptation: Japan
General Outcome 8.2
Origins of a Western Worldview: Renaissance Europe
General Outcome 8.3
Worldviews in Conflict: The Spanish and the Aztecs
Through an examination of Japan, students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the ways in which beliefs, values and knowledge shape worldviews and contribute to a society's isolation or adaptation.Through an examination of Renaissance Europe, students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how the exchange of ideas and knowledge contributed to shaping the worldview of the Western world.Through an examination of Spanish and Aztec societies, students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how intercultural contact affects the worldviews of societies.
Local and Current Affairs
In order to allow opportunities for students to engage in current affairs, issues and concerns of a local nature, the program of studies provides the flexibility to include these topics within the time allotted for social studies.
Benchmark Skills and Processes

The following benchmark skills and processes are provided here as outcomes to be achieved by the end of Grade 9.

Dimensions of Thinking
critical thinking and creative thinkingdetermine the validity of information based on context, bias, source, objectivity, evidence and/or reliability to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue
historical thinkinganalyze selected issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a context of time and place
geographic thinkinginterpret thematic maps to analyze economic and political issues
decision making and problem solvingtake appropriate action and initiative, when required, in decision-making and problem-solving scenarios
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice
cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus buildingdemonstrate leadership in groups, where appropriate, to achieve consensus and resolve conflicts peacefully and equitably
age-appropriate behaviour for social involvementdevelop leadership skills by assuming specific roles and responsibilities in organizations, projects and events within the community
Research for Deliberative Inquiry
research and informationreflect on changes of perspective or opinion based on information gathered and research conducted
Communication
oral, written and visual literacycommunicate in a persuasive and engaging manner through speeches, multimedia presentations and written and oral reports, taking particular audiences and purposes into consideration
media literacyexamine techniques used to enhance the authority and authenticity of media messages
8.1: From Isolation to Adaptation: Japan
General Outcome

Through an examination of Japan, students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the ways in which beliefs, values and knowledge shape worldviews and contribute to a society's isolation or adaptation.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

8.1.1 - appreciate the roles of time and geographic location in shaping a society's worldview
Citizenship | Identity | Time, Continuity and Change | The Land: Places and People  

8.1.2 - appreciate how a society's worldview can foster the choice to remain an isolated society
Citizenship | Identity | Time, Continuity and Change   

8.1.3 - appreciate how models of governance and decision making reflect a society's worldview
Citizenship | Identity | Time, Continuity and Change | Power, Authority and Decision Making  

8.1.4 - appreciate how a society's worldview shapes individual citizenship and identity
Citizenship | Identity | Time, Continuity and Change  

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

8.1.5 - analyze the effects of cultural isolation during the Edo period by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

8.1.6 - analyze the effects that rapid adaptation had on traditionally isolated Japan during the Meiji period by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

8.2: Origins of a Western Worldview: Renaissance Europe
General Outcome

Through an examination of Renaissance Europe, students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how the exchange of ideas and knowledge contributed to shaping the worldview of the Western world.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

8.2.1 - appreciate how Renaissance Europe formed the basis for the worldview of the Western world
Citizenship | Time, Continuity and Change  

8.2.2 - demonstrate a willingness to consider differing beliefs, values and worldviews
Citizenship | Identity  

8.2.3 - recognize how beliefs and values are shaped by time, geographic location and societal context
Citizenship | Time, Continuity and Change | The Land: Places and People  

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

8.2.4 - examine, critically, the factors that shaped the worldview evolving in western Europe during the Renaissance by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:  

8.3: Worldviews in Conflict: The Spanish & the Aztecs
General Outcome

Through an examination of Spanish and Aztec societies, students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how intercultural contact affects the worldviews of societies.  

Specific Outcomes: Values and Attitudes

Students will:

8.3.1 - appreciate how a society's worldview influences the society's choices, decisions and interactions with other societies
Citizenship | Identity  

8.3.2 - appreciate how Aztec and Spanish identities and worldviews were affected by intercultural contact
Time, Continuity and Change | Global Connections | Identity   

8.3.3 - appreciate and recognize how rapid adaptation can radically change a society's beliefs, values and knowledge
Time, Continuity and Change | Global Connections  

Specific Outcomes: Knowledge and Understanding

Students will:

8.3.4 - assess, critically, how the Aztecs were affected by the Spanish worldview by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

Skills & Processes for Grade 8

Alberta Education's Information and Communication Technology (ICT) curriculum is infused throughout the social studies program of studies. Selected ICT outcomes are suggested throughout the program and are indicated by this symbol .

Dimensions of Thinking

Students will:

8.S.1 - develop skills of critical thinking and creative thinking:

  • analyze the validity of information based on context, bias, source, objectivity, evidence and reliability to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue 
  • evaluate ideas, information and positions from multiple perspectives 
  • demonstrate the ability to analyze local and current affairs 
  • re-evaluate personal opinions to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue 
  • generate creative ideas and strategies in individual and group activities 
  • access diverse viewpoints on particular topics by using appropriate technologies 

8.S.2 - develop skills of historical thinking:  

  • distinguish cause, effect, sequence and correlation in historical events, including the long-and short-term causal relations 
  • use historical and community resources to organize the sequence of historical events 
  • analyze the historical contexts of key events of a given time period  
  • create a simulation or a model by using technology that permits the making of inferences 
  • identify patterns in organized information