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English Language Arts (K & E) Grade 8 - 9 (2006)

© Alberta Education, Canada 
 Table of Contents   Program of Studies

There is 1 Teacher Resource related to the entire Program of Studies

Knowledge and Employability courses provide students who meet the criteria with opportunities to experience success and become well prepared for employment, further studies, citizenship and lifelong learning.

Vision

Through Knowledge and Employability courses, students become active and responsible citizens, achieve their educational and career goals, improve quality of life for themselves and their families and positively impact their communities.

Philosophy & Rationale

The development of the Knowledge and Employability courses was based on input received from consultations with education stakeholders throughout the province. The distinctive sequence of courses was designed to meet the educational needs of students who learn best:

  • when focusing on the development and application of reading, writing and mathematical literacy1, and on essential employability skills
  • through experiential learning activities
  • when meaningful connections are made between schooling and personal experiences.

1Mathematical literacy: Selecting and applying appropriate mathematical operations, problem-solving strategies, tools and technology, and communicating using mathematical vocabulary in home, workplace and community experiences.

Knowledge and Employability courses assist students in:

  • transitioning from school to the workplace and community
  • preparing for responsible citizenship
  • gaining recognition, respect and value from employers and further education providers.

Knowledge and Employability courses promote student skills, abilities and work ethics, including:

  • academic and occupational skills of a standard determined by the workplace to be necessary for success
  • practical applications through on- and off-campus experiences and/or community partnerships
  • career development skills to explore careers, develop a career-focused portfolio and assess career skills
  • interpersonal skills to ensure respect, support and cooperation with others.
Aboriginal Perspectives and Experiences 

understanding of First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) experiences and perspectives, and recognition that First Nations, Métis and Inuit students have particular needs and requirements, is necessary to enable all students to be respectful and responsible citizens.

Knowledge and Employability courses serve to facilitate positive experiences that will help Aboriginal students better see themselves in the curriculum and assist non-Aboriginal students to develop a better understanding of Alberta’s First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples.

Goals of Knowledge and Employability Courses

Knowledge and Employability courses provide students with practical and applied opportunities to develop competencies necessary to meet or exceed the following goals. Knowledge and Employability courses prepare students to:

  • earn a senior high school credential
  • enter the workplace upon leaving school with employability and occupational skills that meet industry standards
  • make successful transitions to other courses or to further education and training
  • become responsible and contributing members of society.
Cross-curricular Community and Workplace Connections

Programs of study and resources for Knowledge and Employability courses are distinctive, in part, because they promote cross-curricular, community and workplace connections.

Cross-curricular Connections

Knowledge and Employability courses promote the integration of subjects to emphasize their interrelationships and connections to other school subjects. The philosophy of Knowledge and Employability courses is that students learn best when they can clearly recognize, in their course work, connections, applications and relevance to a variety of everyday experiences. Organizing for instruction may include thematic units, subject integration within units and/or projects in other subjects.

Community and Workplace Connections

Knowledge and Employability courses provide students with practical and applied opportunities to develop basic reading, writing and mathematical literacy. Community and workplace connections ensure learning within applied contexts, connecting the school with environments beyond school, and may include tours to local businesses and industries, mentorships, job shadowing and work experience.

Knowledge and Employability courses promote the development of career portfolios that help students connect their school experience to the world beyond school. Each portfolio will include exemplars of the student’s on- and off-campus experiences and can be used when the student is seeking employment or further education/training opportunities. Items appropriate for inclusion in career portfolios include resumes, samples of written work, awards and/or their representations, teacher and self-evaluation checklists, workplace assessment tools and employer letters of recommendation.

Safety

Safety is emphasized and relevant information is incorporated throughout Knowledge and Employability courses, including basic safety rules and guidelines and information regarding the safe use of tools, equipment and materials in school, home, community and workplace settings.

Technology

Because technology is best learned within an applied context, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) outcomes, and the use of computers and other technologies, are included in the Knowledge and Employability courses. This technology integration will help students make the transition to the world beyond school.

Essential Universal Skills and Strategies

Knowledge and Employability courses emphasize the universal skills and strategies that are essential to all students, including the following:

  • Interpersonal skills promote teamwork and respect for, support of and cooperation with others.
  • Critical thinking promotes the analysis and appropriate applications of information.
  • Creative thinking promotes the identification of unique connections among ideas and insightful approaches to questions and issues.
  • Decision-making processes promote the making of timely and appropriate decisions.
  • Problem-solving processes promote the ability to identify or pose problems and apply learning to consider the causes and dimensions of, and the solutions to, problems.
  • Metacognition2 enables students to become more aware of, and have greater control over, their own thinking and learning processes.

2Metacognition: Learning-to-learn strategies; awareness of processes and strategies one uses when learning.

Relationship to Other Courses

Each Knowledge and Employability course is consistent with the rationale, philosophy, program foundations and organization of other secondary courses. This consistency enables students, as appropriate, to progress through the Knowledge and Employability course sequence and/or to other secondary courses.

Enrollment in Knowledge and Employability Courses

Students may take one or more courses in the sequence at any time during grades 8 through 12. Students may be enrolled in only Knowledge and Employability courses or in a combination of Knowledge and Employability and other secondary courses.

Information regarding the identification of students for enrollment in one or more courses can be accessed in the Knowledge and Employability Courses Handbook, Grades 8–12.

Introduction to Knowledge & Employability English Language Arts

The core responsibility of Knowledge and Employability English language arts courses is to foster and strengthen the development of language. Learning the foundational skills of communication enhances confidence, builds personal identity and enables individuals to create and sustain meaningful relationships. Becoming successful communicators at home, at school, at work and in the community enables students to experience personal satisfaction and become responsible, contributing citizens and lifelong learners.

The Importance of Language

The Nature of Language

Language is the basis of communication and the primary instrument of thought. Composed of interrelated and rule-governed symbols systems, language is a social and uniquely human means of exploring and communicating meaning. As well as being a defining feature of culture, language is an unmistakable mark of personal identity and is essential for forming interpersonal relationships, extending experience, reflecting on thought and action and contributing to society.

Language Development

Language development is contextual. Students enhance their language abilities by using what they know, continuously and recursively, in new and more complex contexts and with increased sophistication. They reflect on and use prior knowledge to extend and enhance their language abilities and understanding. By learning and incorporating new language structures into their repertoire, and using them in a variety of contexts, students develop greater language fluency and proficiency.

Critical Thinking and Learning through Language

Critical thinking, learning and language are interrelated. Students use language to make sense of and bring order to their world and play active roles in learning communities within and beyond the classroom. They use language to examine new experiences and knowledge in relation to their prior knowledge, experiences and beliefs. They make connections, anticipate possibilities, reflect upon and evaluate ideas and determine courses of action. By becoming critical thinkers, students become self-reliant, successful, contributing members of society.

Metacognition

Language study helps students develop an awareness of the strategies they use to complete learning tasks successfully. Students are encouraged to talk about, write about and otherwise represent themselves as learners. In essence, the study of language enables students to develop metacognition.

Metacognition involves reflection, critical awareness, analysis, monitoring and reinvention. Students who are engaged in metacognition:

  • recognize the requirements of the task at hand
  • reflect on the strategies and skills they may employ
  • appraise their strengths and weaknesses in the use of these strategies and skills
  • make modifications
  • monitor the use of these reworked or new strategies in future situations.
English Language Arts

Knowledge and Employability English language arts highlights six language arts - listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and representing.

Students engage all six language arts as they study texts and as they create their own texts in relevant situations for a variety of purposes and audiences. All of the language arts are interrelated and interdependent; proficiency in one strengthens and supports proficiency in the others.

Listening and Speaking

Oral language is the foundation of literacy. Through listening and speaking, individuals communicate thoughts, feelings, experiences, information and opinions and learn to understand themselves and others. Oral language carries a community’s stories, values, beliefs and traditions. Aboriginal perspectives and experiences of oral language strengthen their communities and culture.

Listening and speaking enable students to explore ideas and concepts and to understand and organize their experiences and knowledge. They use oral language to learn, solve problems and reach goals. Students, at all grade levels, need to develop fluency and confidence in their oral language abilities in order to become discerning, lifelong learners. They benefit from many opportunities to listen and speak, both formally and informally, for a variety of purposes. Instruction integrates facets of Aboriginal oral language traditions as an example of the power of language for communities and their members.

Reading and Writing

Reading and writing are powerful means of communicating and learning. These language arts enable students to extend their knowledge and use of language, increase their understanding of themselves and others and experience enjoyment and personal satisfaction.

Reading provides students with a means of accessing the ideas, views and experiences of others. By using effective reading skills and strategies, students construct meaning and develop thoughtful and critical interpretations of a variety of texts.

Writing enables students to explore, shape and clarify their thoughts and to communicate these thoughts to others. By using effective writing strategies, students discover and refine ideas and compose and revise with increasing confidence and skill.

Viewing and Representing

Viewing and representing are integral parts of contemporary life. These skills allow students to understand the ways in which images and language may be used to convey ideas, values and beliefs.

Viewing is an active process of attending to and comprehending such visual media as television, advertising images, films, diagrams, symbols, photographs, videos, drama, drawings, sculpture and paintings. Viewing enables students to acquire information and to appreciate the ideas and experiences of others. Many of the comprehension processes involved in reading, e.g., previewing, predicting and making inferences, may also be used in viewing.

Representing enables students to communicate information and ideas through a variety of media; e.g., video presentations, posters, diagrams, charts, symbols, visual art, drama, mime and models.

Inquiry and Research

Through the process of inquiry, students learn to manage ideas and information. Acquiring foundational skills in research will allow students to identify their current knowledge and construct new knowledge within a variety of contexts. The inquiry process includes planning, selecting, organizing, assessing and representing information and is also included in science and social studies courses.

Texts

In today’s technological society, individuals not only access information and find enjoyment in print forms but in other language forms as well. For example, oral communication and visual media are becoming increasingly important. Often these forms are used both in combination with one another and in conjunction with print forms. Therefore, texts refer not only to print but also to oral and visual forms that can be discussed, studied and analyzed. In addition, texts are affected and influenced by how they are transmitted; e.g., in computer, television, radio or book forms. Students require knowledge, skills and strategies in all six language arts to compose, comprehend and respond to such texts. Oral texts include storytelling, dialogues, speeches and conversations. Visual texts include pictures, diagrams, tableaux, mime and nonverbal communication. Combinations of oral, print or visual texts include videos, films, cartoons, drama and drum dancing.

Organization of the Program of Studies

General outcomes are broad statements identifying the knowledge, skills and attitudes that students are expected to demonstrate, with increasing competence and confidence, from Kindergarten to Grade 12. Five general outcomes, represented by the icons below, serve as the foundation for the Knowledge and Employability program of studies. The student outcomes are interrelated and interdependent; each is to be achieved through a variety of listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and representing experiences.

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to:

  • explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences
  • comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts
  • manage ideas and information
  • enhance the clarity and artistry of communication
  • respect, support and collaborate with others

Specific Outcomes

Specific outcomes are categorized under headings within each of the five general outcomes. The specific outcomes state the knowledge, skills and attitudes that students are expected to demonstrate by the end of each grade.

General and Specific Outcomes for English Language Arts Grades 8 and 9

The aim of English language arts is to enable each student to understand and appreciate language and to use it confidently and competently in a variety of situations for communication, personal satisfaction and learning purposes.

General Outcome 1

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

  • 1.1 Discover and explore
    • 1.1.1 Express ideas and develop understanding
    • 1.1.2 Experiment with language and forms
    • 1.1.3 Express preferences
    • 1.1.4 Set goals
  • 1.2 Clarify and extend
    • 1.2.1 Consider the ideas of others
    • 1.2.2 Combine ideas
    • 1.2.3 Extend understanding

General Outcome 2

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally, critically and creatively to oral, print and other media texts.

  • 2.1 Use strategies and cues
    • 2.1.1 Use prior knowledge
    • 2.1.2 Use comprehension strategies
    • 2.1.3 Use textual cues
    • 2.1.4 Use phonics and structural analysis
    • 2.1.5 Use references
  • 2.2 Respond to texts
    • 2.2.1 Experience various texts
    • 2.2.2 Construct meaning from texts
    • 2.2.3 Appreciate the artistry of texts
  • 2.3 Understand forms, elements and techniques
    • 2.3.1 Understand forms and genres
    • 2.3.2 Understand techniques and elements
    • 2.3.3 Experiment with language
  • 2.4 Create original texts
    • 2.4.1 Generate ideas
    • 2.4.2 Elaborate on the expression of ideas
    • 2.4.3 Structure texts

General Outcome 3

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

  • 3.1 Plan and focus
    • 3.1.1 Focus attention
    • 3.1.2 Determine information needs
    • 3.1.3 Plan to gather information
  • 3.2 Select and process
    • 3.2.1 Use a variety of sources
    • 3.2.2 Access information
    • 3.2.3 Evaluate sources
  • 3.3 Organize, record and evaluate
    • 3.3.1 Organize information
    • 3.3.2 Record information
    • 3.3.3 Evaluate information
  • 3.4 Share and Review
    • 3.4.1 Share ideas and information
    • 3.4.2 Review research process

General Outcome 4

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

  • 4.1 Enhance and improve
    • 4.1.1 Appraise their own and others’ work
    • 4.1.2 Revise and edit
    • 4.1.3 Enhance legibility
    • 4.1.4 Expand knowledge of language
    • 4.1.5 Enhance artistry
  • 4.2 Attend to conventions
    • 4.2.1 Attend to grammar and usage
    • 4.2.2 Attend to spelling
    • 4.2.3 Attend to capitalization and punctuation
  • 4.3 Present and share
    • 4.3.1 Present information
    • 4.3.2 Enhance presentation
    • 4.3.3 Use effective oral and visual communication
    • 4.3.4 Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

General Outcome 5

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

  • 5.1 Respect themselves and others and strengthen community
    • 5.1.1 Appreciate diversity
    • 5.1.2 Relate texts to culture
    • 5.1.3 Celebrate accomplishments and events
    • 5.1.4 Use language to show respect
  • 5.2 Work within a group
    • 5.2.1 Cooperate with others
    • 5.2.2 Work in groups
    • 5.2.3 Evaluate group process

General Outcome 1 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

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Note: Knowledge and Employability English language arts emphasizes the exploration of language in relation to practical and everyday home, community and workplace applications.

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Exploration is fundamental to learning. The specific outcomes that support General Outcome 1 set the foundation for learning in the other outcomes. Students engage in exploration to discover possibilities and to extend their awareness. Through exploration, students begin to formulate their thoughts and ideas, organize and make sense of their experiences and acknowledge and express their feelings. Exploration enables students to discover and understand who they are and what they think. As language users and language learners, exploration helps students to reflect on their weaknesses and strengths.

As students become engaged in exploration, they express their preferences and interests and they set personal goals for language growth. When students face a new task or assignment and study a new text, they explore possibilities and form tentative interpretations and positions. Students experiment with language and forms of expression to continually expand the horizon of opportunities that language learning offers to them. In this way, students consider new perspectives and form new understandings. Ultimately, through exploration, students expand their interest in a variety of texts.

Through talk and conversation, students make observations, ask questions, generate hypotheses, make predictions and form opinions. Often, it is at the point of utterance that students discover what they think or how they feel.

Writing and representing help students to clarify and expand their thinking. When students use such means as dialogue journals to aid their exploration, and when they see their ideas, feelings and experiences in writing, they can reconsider, revise and elaborate in thoughtful ways. Students may also use diagrams, thought webs, collages, charts and other representational forms to explore ideas and interpretations and to make and present new connections among ideas.

Listening, reading and viewing also enable students to explore and consider new perspectives, gather and verify information, identify areas for further inquiry or research and develop support for opinions. A climate conducive to exploration and risk taking fosters learning in General Outcome 1.

Learning effective exploration strategies is interrelated with learning in the other general outcomes.

  • Exploratory talk, writing and representation enhance students’ comprehension by focusing their prior knowledge and experiences before listening, reading and viewing and when analyzing, evaluating and responding to texts (General Outcome 2).
  • Exploration also helps students to find and manage information (General Outcome 3).
  • Students are involved in exploration when deciding how to use language effectively when creating their own texts (General Outcome 4).
  • Students often use exploratory talk when they work together to collaborate on projects and to develop a classroom learning community (General Outcome 5).
General Outcome 2 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally, critically and creatively to oral, print and other media texts.

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Note: The what and the how of a text (text content and text form) have been separated under the first two headings of General Outcome 2 to allow learning outcomes to be clearly specified. In their study of texts, students should be encouraged to understand the relationship between form and content.

Knowledge and Employability English language arts emphasizes comprehension of print and nonprint texts in relation to practical and everyday home, community and workplace applications.

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Constructing meaning from texts is fundamental to English language arts. As students study texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, they use a variety of strategies to determine the what of a text - the content that is being presented by the text creator. Students engage their prior knowledge of content as they encounter new texts. They identify and examine a text creator’s purpose and audience and they consider the interplay between text and context. Students use their skills as listeners, readers and viewers to detect the tones and emotional range adopted by text creators. They use references, including the understandings and interpretations of others, to assist them in forming their own understandings and interpretations of texts.

Students also use a variety of strategies to understand the craft of the text creator and the how of a text - the form that the text creator has fashioned and the textual elements, rhetorical devices and stylistic techniques that the text creator has employed. By studying a variety of texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, students develop an understanding of the relationship between a text’s content and its form. They identify the effects that are created by particular forms, elements, devices and techniques and relate a text’s form, structure and medium to its purpose, audience and content.

Students respond personally, critically and creatively - often simultaneously - to the contents and contexts of a variety of texts and to the craft of a variety of text creators. They respond personally by relating texts to their own experiences, feelings, values and beliefs. They respond critically by making interpretations and by evaluating ideas, forms, devices and techniques. They respond creatively by visualizing the settings and situations that are presented in texts and by imagining the persons and characters inhabiting texts. By using their creative imaginations, students synthesize responses that take them deeply into the world of a text or that extend their own worlds by transforming their understandings and perspectives.

Learning effective comprehension and response strategies is interrelated with learning in all of the other general outcomes.

  • Exploratory talk and writing enhance and extend student understandings and evaluations of texts (General Outcome 1).
  • Student understandings of text forms, structures and media help them to find information when they are involved in inquiry (General Outcome 3).
  • The study of texts provides students with a range of topics and organizing structures for their own text creation (General Outcome 4).
  • As students respond positively to the texts created by their classmates, they help to encourage others and to build a community of learners (General Outcome 5).
General Outcome 3 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

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Note: Knowledge and Employability English language arts emphasizes the management of ideas and information in relation to practical and everyday home, community and workplace applications.

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Students manage ideas and information to fulfill particular inquiry or research needs. Such needs may include communicating with a particular audience, considering a variety of literary interpretations or gathering details that contribute to the verisimilitude of a created text.

Students develop the ability to determine:

  • why they need to pursue an inquiry or to conduct research
  • what types of questions need to be answered
  • what types of data and information are needed
  • where to locate information sources
  • how to record and organize selected information
  • if chosen sources and gathered information satisfy the requirements of purpose, audience and situation
  • if chosen sources are reputable and of good quality.

Students integrate and synthesize their findings and, in the course of managing ideas and information, formulate generalizations and conclusions and develop personal perspectives.

Students use inquiry or research findings for a variety of purposes. A finding may simply be a new understanding that a student records in a journal for future use. Findings may also include facts, examples or generalizations that are used immediately by students involved in text creation. Findings often lead students to formulate new questions for further research.

As they progress through their English language arts courses, students develop strategies for managing ideas and information with increasing independence and sophistication. As well, they evaluate their own and others’ inquiry and research processes and findings with a view to refining such processes and considering alternative ways of conducting inquiry or research in the future.

Learning effective strategies for managing ideas and information is interrelated with learning in the other general outcomes.

  • Students explore ideas to frame questions and plan research processes (General Outcome 1).
  • When students examine sources to identify ideas and gain information, they are engaged in comprehending and responding to text (General Outcome 2).
  • As they record and organize the information and other material that they have uncovered, students are engaged in the creation of text (General Outcome 4).
  • Students often collaborate to conduct research or pursue inquiry (General Outcome 5).
General Outcome 4 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

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Note: Knowledge and Employability English language arts emphasizes creating and enhancing print, visual and multimedia texts in relation to practical and everyday home, community and workplace applications.

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Students draft and develop a variety of oral, print, visual and multimedia texts as a means of discovering, understanding and communicating their thoughts, feelings and experiences. When beginning the task of text creation, students assess context: they determine the purpose they wish to accomplish, they identify their audience and they consider the nature of the communication situation. They also develop or use form, structure and media that are consistent with context.

Students develop ideas through text creation. They share their experiences and communicate the events that are significant to them. They create images and develop themes imaginatively and artistically. By creating texts in a variety of oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, students develop their personal voices and learn the craft of the text creator.

As students produce texts for publication or presentation, they ensure that the expectations of the text creation task and the requirements of the communication situation have been met. They also consider the time and space limitations of a particular text creation, publication or presentation situation.

Students develop confidence and skill by sharing thoughts, ideas and experiences through formal and informal presentations. They select and use presentation technologies that are appropriate to the purpose, audience and communication situation.

Students enhance the communicative power of their texts by assessing and revising thought and detail, organization, matters of choice and matters of correctness. They develop an understanding of how language works and they use the specialized terminology of the discipline of English language arts to communicate that understanding.

Learning effective strategies for creating text and for enhancing the thoughtfulness, effectiveness and correctness of communication is interrelated with learning in the other general outcomes.

  • Students explore text creation possibilities and experiment with language, image and structure (General Outcome 1).
  • The oral, print, visual and multimedia texts under study provide vicarious experiences, new perspectives and potential forms and media that students may use for speaking, writing and representing (General Outcome 2).
  • Students locate, gather, record and organize material to communicate ideas and information (General Outcome 3).
  • Students work in groups to complete tasks and assignments and to collaborate on text creation (General Outcome 5).
General Outcome 5 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

__________________________________

Note: Knowledge and Employability English language arts emphasizes that students respect and advocate for themselves and others, and demonstrate support and collaboration with others, in relation to practical and everyday home, community and workplace applications.

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As students collaborate with others, they use language to show respect and consideration. Together, students access, understand, use and create texts when seeking answers to questions regarding the human condition. They appreciate the diversity of expression, opinion and perspective displayed by other students in their community of learners; they willingly share their personal knowledge, expertise and perspectives to help build and strengthen that community. They learn to use language in ways that demonstrate sensitivity to the feelings of their peers and enrich the classroom atmosphere.

Students develop and display positive attitudes that are observable in the verbal and nonverbal communication they exhibit. Students’ positive attitudes are displayed as they celebrate their own accomplishments and honour the accomplishments of their classmates. As they recognize events of importance to their communities and their cultures, students come to understand their personal connections to community in a broader sense.

Students learn collaboration skills by working well together. They discuss in groups, build on others’ ideas and plan and work together to meet common goals. They learn to use language to reflect upon their own behaviours and values and the behaviours and values of others. They participate fully and positively in a classroom community.

As they collaborate with others, students demonstrate that they understand and employ group processes. They cooperate with others as they contribute to the processes their groups are using to complete tasks. They assess and evaluate the work that their groups have accomplished, and the processes that their groups have used, so that future collaboration may benefit from the understandings they have developed.

Students learn the importance of respecting, supporting and collaborating with others. It is these processes that set the context for students to experience success in the English language arts classroom, at home, in the community and at the workplace.

Learning effective strategies for collaborating with others is interrelated with learning in the other general outcomes.

  • Students work collaboratively to discover possibilities and to experiment with language and forms (General Outcome 1).
  • Students learn from the understandings and interpretations of their classmates as they comprehend and respond to oral, print, visual and multimedia texts (General Outcome 2).
  • Students often work collaboratively to conduct inquiry and research and to share findings (General Outcome 3).
  • Students work collaboratively on text creation: they discuss topics and forms of expression, they act as peer editors to assess their classmates’ texts and to offer constructive suggestions for improvement and they often work together to deliver a presentation (General Outcome 4).
Grade 8
General Outcome 1 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and explore

1.1.1 Express ideas and develop understanding

Students will:

1.1.2 Experiment with language and forms

Students will:

  • a experiment with language, form, structure and images to create different effects, considering purpose and audience
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

  • b. examine ways that language and forms influence the development and communication of ideas, information and experiences in print and nonprint texts; e.g., read a novel, view a film adaptation and compare the development and communication of the story
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

  • c. experiment with language to enhance language development; e.g., use new vocabulary, vary sentence structure and use figurative language
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

1.1.3 Express preferences

Students will:

1.1.4 Set goals

Students will:

  • a. apply self-evaluation and other strategies and tools, e.g., checklists and inventories, to identify language strengths and weaknesses and develop personal language learning goals
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

  • b. create a language learning plan to meet attainable secondary, post-secondary and career goals and include a record/collection of achievements and goals; e.g., career portfolio
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

  • c. investigate career-related language skills using self-evaluation and other strategies to identify attainable career opportunities; e.g., Alberta Learning Information Service (ALIS) Web site, National Occupation Classification (NOC)
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking

  • d. review and revise their language learning plan design to extend language growth
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

1.2 Clarify and extend

1.2.1 Consider the ideas of others

Students will:

1.2.2 Combine ideas

Students will:

1.2.3 Extend understanding

Students will:

General Outcome 2 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use strategies and cues

2.1.1 Use prior knowledge

Students will:

  • a. connect new ideas and information to prior knowledge to enhance their understanding of print and nonprint texts
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. use their knowledge of text creators, forms and genres, developed during previous experiences, to direct and extend experiences with print and nonprint texts
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • c. recognize that an interpretation of the same text may vary based on prior knowledge and individual experience
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

2.1.2 Use comprehension strategies

Students will:

  • a. apply appropriate reading strategies to enhance understanding; e.g., skim, read out loud, form questions, make predictions, reread and read slowly)
  • Reading

  • b. apply a variety of vocabulary strategies, e.g., word attack skills, context clues and dictionary skills, to enhance their comprehension of oral, print and multimedia texts
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • c. identify vocabulary specific to a topic to enhance understanding
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • d. paraphrase directions or key messages from various sources, e.g., oral directions, assignments, manuals, diagrams, forms, lists, labels and workbooks, to enhance and verify their understanding of tasks
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

  • e. use metacognition and a variety of other strategies to identify and remember main ideas and relevant information in print and nonprint texts; e.g., concept map, mental rehearsal, paraphrase, question and take notes
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Viewing

  • f. identify and examine the appropriate communication strategies used to convey intent such as verbal/ nonverbal mood indicators; e.g., use of lighting, camera angle, irony, sarcasm, gestures, volume and tone
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • g. identify a speaker’s nonverbal communication strategies to increase understanding; e.g., posture, eye contact, facial expression and gestures
  • Viewing

2.1.3 Use textual cues

Students will:

  • a. use a variety of textual cues to enhance understanding; e.g., indexes, tables of contents, chapters, bolded words/phrases, charts, glossaries, graphics and bullets
  • Reading | Writing

  • b. use visual and textual cues and structural features to enhance their comprehension of a variety of everyday print and nonprint texts and to read and view with purpose; e.g., newspapers, magazines, instruction manuals, advertisements, schedules and Web sites
  • Reading | Viewing

  • c. identify and use a variety of cues to enhance their understanding of nonprint texts; e.g., colour, setting, shape, movement, lighting, camera angle and size of images
  • Viewing

2.1.4 Use phonics and structural analysis

Students will:

2.1.5 Use references

Students will:

  • a. skim and scan reference materials to confirm spelling, locate meaning, extend vocabulary, verify usage and address uncertainties; e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, writer’s handbook, personal glossary and computer software
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Listening | Viewing | Representing

2.2 Respond to texts

2.2.1 Experience various texts

Students will:

  • a. explore and experience a range of print and nonprint texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres; e.g., journals, magazine articles, nature programs, diaries, drama, poetry, mysteries, historical fiction, drawings, prints, photographs, advertisements, Aboriginal oral stories, artifacts, films, essays, electronic and print magazines and realistic fiction 
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. recognize that many interpretations of the same text exist and examine other points of view
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • c. consider the historical context when developing points of view or interpretations of texts
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • d. justify their point of view and interpretation using evidence from a text
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

2.2.2 Construct meaning from texts

Students will:

  • a. use metacognition and other appropriate strategies, e.g., graphic organizers and technology, to categorize parts of a plot, e.g., introduction, characters, setting, initial incident, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution and main conflict, and recognize their relationships in developing a story
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. examine how a character changes as a result of an event within a plot by examining elements of character; e.g., personality traits, motivation, relationships, attitudes and values
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • c. compare the choices and behaviours of characters portrayed in texts to themselves and others
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

  • d. identify the main message and supporting details from various texts; e.g., short stories, articles, novels, electronic sources, CD–ROMs, television commercials and directions to complete tasks
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • e. identify conflict and examine how it develops and may be resolved
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • f. define their own interpretation of texts, based on experience, prior knowledge and evidence from the text
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • g. differentiate between fact and fiction in media portrayals of everyday life
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • h. use a variety of strategies to understand and follow oral directions; e.g., paraphrase, mental maps, take notes
  • Writing | Listening

2.2.3 Appreciate the artistry of texts

Students will:

  • a. examine the ways that a character can be developed and how character, plot and setting are interconnected, mutually supportive and work together to create mood and tone
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. recognize and appreciate the use and effectiveness of a variety of techniques, e.g., word choice, camera angle, irony, symbolism, line and framing, in communicating meaning and enhancing the text experience for the audience
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

2.3 Understand forms, elements and techniques

2.3.1 Understand forms and genres

Students will:

  • a. examine how the choice of form and genre in oral, visual and multimedia texts is appropriate to the purpose and audience
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. identify various forms and genres of oral, print and other media texts and identify the key characteristics of each
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • c. examine the effectiveness of different types of forms for presenting ideas and information; e.g., presentations of news through television, radio and newspapers; CDs and music videos
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

2.3.2 Understand techniques and elements

Students will:

  • a. examine how narrative hooks, foreshadowing, flashbacks, suspense and surprise endings contribute to the effectiveness of plot development
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. identify graphic design techniques, e.g., graphic quality, colour, sound, camera angle, composition, movement and editing, that create and/or manipulate emotion, mood and point of view
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • c. examine how sound and image work together to create effects in media texts
  • Listening | Viewing

  • d. summarize the content of media texts and examine the choices made in planning and producing them
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

2.3.3 Experiment with language

Students will:

  • a. explore the creative uses of language and visuals in popular culture, e.g., cartoons, animated films, limericks, advertisements, electronic and print magazines and the Internet, and communicate ways in which imagery and figurative language, e.g., simile, hyperbole and metaphor, convey meaning, tone and mood 
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

2.4 Create original texts

2.4.1 Generate ideas

Students will:

  • a. take ownership of text creation by selecting a topic, concept or idea that is personally meaningful, engaging and based on personal experience and/or prior knowledge
  • Reading | Speaking | Writing | Listening | Viewing | Representing

  • b. apply appropriate prewriting strategies to generate ideas and focus a topic; e.g., discussion, brainstorm, webs, outlines, journals, graphic organizers and technology
  • Writing | Listening | Speaking | Representing

  • c. create oral, print and other media texts related to issues encountered in their own life
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

2.4.2 Elaborate on the expression of ideas

Students will:

  • a. use a variety of techniques to communicate meaning and enhance the effectiveness of texts; e.g., colour, shape, composition, suspense, foreshadowing, flashbacks, word choice, gestures, movement, balance, camera angles, framing, irony and symbolism
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

2.4.3 Structure texts

Students will:

  • a. create a variety of oral, print and other media texts with well-developed, supported and linked ideas and components, including:
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

    • personal correspondence, e.g., personal letters, e-mail messages, using electronic and other templates as appropriate
    • descriptive, persuasive, expository and narrative paragraphs

    Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. create a variety of texts to examine the connections between form, elements and techniques; e.g., advertisements, brochures, book jackets, plays, poetry, instruction sheets, posters and multimedia presentations
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. complete actual, or samples of, common home- and work-related forms; e.g., Social Insurance Number (SIN) form, job application form and performance checklists
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

General Outcome 3 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and focus

3.1.1 Focus attention

Students will:

  • a. use metacognition and a variety of other strategies, e.g., discussions, brainstorms and webs, to identify a topic and focus ideas
  • Reading | Writing | Representing

  • b. consider a variety of factors that may influence a topic; e.g., audience, purpose, point of view and form
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking

  • c. create categories and questions using who, what, where, when, why and how to guide inquiry and topic development
  • Writing | Listening | Speaking

  • d. identify a tentative presentation form appropriate to the audience, purpose and point of view
  • Writing | Listening | Speaking

  • e. use note taking, outlining or representing strategies to summarize important ideas and information in oral, print and other media texts
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

3.1.2 Determine information needs

Students will:

  • a. identify and record their prior knowledge related to a topic and determine information gaps
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. select appropriate information sources for a topic, audience, purpose and form; e.g., library, encyclopedia, community members and Web sites
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

3.1.3 Plan to gather information

Students will:

  • a. create a plan to access, gather, record, organize and present information, considering the topic, time, purpose, audience, form, access to technology and other resources and using appropriate strategies; e.g., webs, outlines and discussions
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. assess and modify their plan as needed
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

3.2 Select and process

3.2.1 Use a variety of sources

Students will:

  • a. use a variety of oral, print, visual and multimedia information sources appropriate to the inquiry; e.g., textbooks, encyclopedias, graphs, oral stories, artifacts, diagrams, posters, pictures, films, community members, databases, CD–ROMs and the Internet
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

3.2.2 Access information

Students will:

3.2.3 Evaluate sources

Students will:

  • a. use pre-established criteria to assess whether sources of information are credible, factual, current and appropriate to the purpose, audience and form of presentation
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. select alternate information sources as appropriate
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

3.3 Organize, record and evaluate

3.3.1 Organize information

Students will:

  • a. organize ideas and information, logically and creatively, using categories, questions, sequence and technology, as appropriate
  • Reading | Writing | Viewing

  • b. integrate ideas and information using their prior knowledge and new information and ideas
  • Reading | Writing | Viewing

3.3.2 Record information

Students will:

  • a. make notes in point form, summarizing main ideas and supporting details, using appropriate strategies; e.g., headings, subheadings, key words, supporting details and phrases and graphic organizers
  • Reading | Writing | Viewing

  • b. record information accurately and completely, in a consistent and appropriate style, using quotations and citing sources within footnotes and using word processing software when appropriate
  • Reading | Writing | Viewing

  • c. use appropriate keyboarding techniques, e.g., proper fingering when using alphabet and punctuation keys, and apply appropriate strategies to increase accuracy and speed
  • Writing

  • d. reference information sources using appropriate form and consistency
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

3.3.3 Evaluate information

Students will:

  • a. use appropriate criteria and metacognition strategies to assess whether the information gathered is relevant, important, accurate, complete, current and significant to determine its usefulness to the overall purpose, audience and form of presentation
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

  • b. recognize that different viewpoints on issues may exist and that information may have a bias or be limited
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

3.4 Share and review

3.4.1 Share ideas and information

Students will:

  • a. communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts; e.g., posters, photo essays, brochures, video/multimedia presentations, interviews, newspaper articles and expository/descriptive oral reports
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. use appropriate oral, visual, print and/or other media effectively to inform and engage the audience
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. apply the appropriate moral and ethical standards acceptable for a presentation
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • d. demonstrate responsibility for following appropriate security and safety measures when using technology and the Internet; e.g., language and etiquette, ergonomics to promote personal health and well-being and respect the products and privacy of others
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

3.4.2 Review research process

Students will:

  • a. identify their strengths and areas for improvement in their personal research skills and research plan
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

General Outcome 4 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and improve

4.1.1 Appraise their own and others’ work

Students will:

4.1.2 Revise and edit

Students will:

  • a. work collaboratively to make appropriate revisions based on feedback
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. proofread, edit and revise to follow language conventions; e.g., capitalization, punctuation, sentence structure, parts of speech, dialogue, grammar, spelling and word usage
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. select and use appropriate tools to edit and revise; e.g., dictionary, thesaurus and electronic editing functions
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • d. revise to ensure consistency of content in the use of a main idea, a point of view and supporting details
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • e. revise the introduction, conclusion and supporting ideas and information to enhance coherence and clarify meaning
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • f. revise to enhance sentence structure and variety, word choice and appropriate tone and to eliminate unnecessary repetition
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • g. demonstrate the effective effort and behaviour required to achieve a goal or create a product; e.g., be positive, focus on the goal, work independently and/or in groups as appropriate, take initiative
  • Listening | Speaking

4.1.3 Enhance legibility

Students will:

  • a. use an appropriate handwriting style, word processor, font type and size, graphics and other techniques to produce their own texts, considering the content, audience and purpose
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

4.1.4 Expand knowledge of language

Students will:

4.1.5 Enhance artistry

Students will:

  • a. experiment with figurative language, illustrations, voice, sentence patterns, video effects, music and other techniques to provide emphasis, express emotion or create a mood
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. explore and select appropriate aspects of style, e.g., font size and style, colours, spacing of text, image placement, sound and video links, within the presentation form or product, to convey meaning to the audience
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. use a consistent style within a print or multimedia product; e.g., layout, headers, footers, margins and columns
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • d. use metacognition strategies to examine the effectiveness and limitations of various forms of texts for an intended purpose and audience
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

4.2 Attend to conventions

4.2.1 Attend to grammar and usage

Students will:

  • a. use appropriate tools, e.g., handbooks, exemplars, models, dictionaries, spell and grammar check software, to assist in attending to conventions
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. attend to grammar conventions; e.g., subject–verb agreement in sentences; use of a variety of simple, compound and complex sentences; use of transitional devices and pronouns; use of consistent verb tenses
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. distinguish between formal and informal language conventions and recognize the appropriate use of each; e.g., oral language use during a job interview and when speaking with friends
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

4.2.2 Attend to spelling

Students will:

  • a. attend to spelling conventions; e.g., confirm spelling, remember key words, develop and use their knowledge of spelling generalization and how words are formed
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. develop a systematic and effective approach to studying and remembering the correct spelling of key words
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. use a variety of strategies to verify or correct spelling; e.g., dictionary, thesaurus and electronic software
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • d. identify everyday situations in which careful attention to correct spelling is particularly important; e.g., complete forms and schoolwork
  • Reading | Speaking | Representing

4.2.3 Attend to capitalization and punctuation

Students will:

  • a. attend to capitalization and punctuation conventions; e.g., use periods and commas appropriately with quotation marks, use commas to separate phrases and clauses in their own writing
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. use appropriate capitalization and punctuation when referencing oral, print and other texts
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. identify everyday situations in which careful attention to correct capitalization and punctuation is particularly important; e.g., cover letters for employment and writing at the workplace
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

4.3 Present and share

4.3.1 Present information

Students will:

  • a. apply appropriate common conventions when integrating information gathered from various sources; e.g., word processing, publishing, multimedia software, spreadsheets, graphics and database templates
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. present information using various forms of print and nonprint texts; e.g., posters, documents, charts, graphs, timetables, calendars, paintings, drawings, collages, cartoons, multimedia presentations and Web pages
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. plan and create short, small-group, whole-class and other presentations to share information and ideas
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • d. recognize that different settings may require different techniques or different forms of verbal and nonverbal communication; e.g., volume at different settings and the size of visuals
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • e. apply appropriate verbal and nonverbal strategies when presenting; e.g., tone, volume, eye contact, gestures and posture
  • Writing | Listening | Speaking | Representing

  • f. recognize the need for preparedness in effective communication
  • Writing | Listening | Speaking | Representing

4.3.2 Enhance presentation

Students will:

4.3.3 Use effective oral and visual communication

Students will:

4.3.4 Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

Students will:

  • a. listen and view attentively and actively to carry out instructions; e.g., identify important ideas, organize and classify information
  • Listening | Viewing

  • b. use appropriate listening and viewing skills to demonstrate respect and consideration; e.g., make eye contact, nod and face the presenter/presentation
  • Listening | Viewing

General Outcome 5 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect themselves and others and strengthen community

5.1.1 Appreciate diversity

Students will:

  • a. examine how ideas, people, experiences and cultural traditions and values are portrayed in print and nonprint texts and compare their own with others’ understanding; e.g., Aboriginal oral stories and artifacts
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. recognize that individual differences and perspectives are influenced by culture, religion, age, gender and experiences and are valuable and honourable
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • c. clarify and enhance their understanding, perspectives and opinions by examining the ideas of others
  • Reading | Listening | Speaking | Viewing

5.1.2 Relate texts to culture

Students will:

  • a. identify and compare the ways in which texts reflect specific elements of cultures or periods in history; e.g., Aboriginal peoples
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

5.1.3 Celebrate accomplishments and events

Students will:

  • a. participate in organizing and celebrating special events, considering the various ways language arts are used across cultures, age groups and genders to honour and celebrate people and accomplishments; e.g., Aboriginal and other cultural/community events
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

5.1.4 Use language to show respect

Students will:

  • a. use inclusive language and behaviour and create texts in ways that demonstrate respect for people of different heritage, cultures, genders, ages, abilities, opinions and communities
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

5.2 Work within a group

5.2.1 Cooperate with others

Students will:

  • a. demonstrate respect for their rights and the rights of others, within a group and a community, by being fair and honest, demonstrating integrity and personal ethics and by valuing equity within the group
  • Listening | Speaking | Representing

  • b. contribute collaboratively in group situations by asking questions and listening and building on the ideas of others
  • Listening | Speaking

  • c. identify and model the behaviours of a successful student and/or worker; e.g., listen to and follow directions, seek assistance, arrive on time, organize materials, paraphrase directions, prioritize tasks and recognize expectations
  • Listening | Speaking

  • d. distinguish among constructive criticism, ridicule and sarcasm and identify strategies to respond appropriately
  • Listening | Speaking

5.2.2 Work in groups

Students will:

  • a. communicate appropriately with group members to develop and/or identify goals, generate ideas, monitor progress and share responsibility for the completion of a project/group goal
  • Listening | Speaking

  • b. identify and demonstrate appropriate behaviour within a group; e.g., listen without interrupting, contribute when appropriate, disagree and/or offer suggestions in an appropriate manner
  • Listening | Speaking

  • c. identify and model motivational techniques, e.g., positive reinforcement, suggestions and paraphrasing, to focus group members on tasks and achieve group goals
  • Listening | Speaking | Viewing

  • d. acknowledge conflicting points of view within a group and contribute to compromise in a positive manner, using a variety of strategies; e.g., follow a problem-solving or issue-resolution model
  • Listening | Speaking

  • e. identify and demonstrate the responsibilities of each member within a group; e.g., leader, recorder, motivator
  • Listening | Speaking

  • f. identify leadership roles within a group to enhance personal leadership skills
  • Listening | Speaking | Viewing

Evaluate group process

Students will:

  • a. evaluate group processes, and personal contributions to group processes, to determine and communicate strengths and areas for improvement
  • Listening | Speaking

Grade 9
General Outcome 1 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and explore

1.1.1 Express ideas and develop understanding

Students will:

1.1.2 Experiment with language and forms

Students will:

  • a experiment with language, form, structure and images to create different effects, considering purpose and audience
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

  • b. examine ways that language and forms influence the development and communication of ideas, information and experiences in print and nonprint texts; e.g., read a novel, view a film adaptation and compare the development and communication of the story
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

  • c. experiment with language to enhance language development; e.g., use new vocabulary, vary sentence structure and use figurative language
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

1.1.3 Express preferences

Students will:

1.1.4 Set goals

Students will:

  • a. apply self-evaluation and other strategies and tools, e.g., checklists and inventories, to identify language strengths and weaknesses and develop personal language learning goals
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

  • b. create a language learning plan to meet attainable secondary, post-secondary and career goals and include a record/collection of achievements and goals; e.g., career portfolio
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

  • c. investigate career-related language skills using self-evaluation and other strategies to identify attainable career opportunities; e.g., Alberta Learning Information Service (ALIS) Web site, National Occupation Classification (NOC)
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking

  • d. review and revise their language learning plan design to extend language growth
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

1.2 Clarify and extend

1.2.1 Consider the ideas of others

Students will:

1.2.2 Combine ideas

Students will:

1.2.3 Extend understanding

Students will:

General Outcome 2 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use strategies and cues

2.1.1 Use prior knowledge

Students will:

  • a. connect new ideas and information to prior knowledge to enhance their understanding of print and nonprint texts
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. use their knowledge of text creators, forms and genres, developed during previous experiences, to direct and extend experiences with print and nonprint texts
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • c. recognize that an interpretation of the same text may vary based on prior knowledge and individual experience
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

2.1.2 Use comprehension strategies

Students will:

  • a. apply appropriate reading strategies to enhance understanding; e.g., skim, read out loud, form questions, make predictions, reread and read slowly)
  • Reading

  • b. apply a variety of vocabulary strategies, e.g., word attack skills, context clues and dictionary skills, to enhance their comprehension of oral, print and multimedia texts
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • c. identify and define new vocabulary specific to a topic to enhance understanding
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • d. paraphrase directions or key messages from various sources, e.g., oral directions, assignments, manuals, diagrams, forms, lists, labels and workbooks, to enhance and verify their understanding of tasks
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

  • e. use metacognition and a variety of other strategies to identify and remember main ideas and relevant information in print and nonprint texts; e.g., concept map, mental rehearsal, paraphrase, question and take notes
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Viewing

  • f. identify and examine the appropriate communication strategies used to convey intent such as verbal/ nonverbal mood indicators; e.g., use of lighting, camera angle, irony, sarcasm, gestures, volume and tone
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • g. identify a speaker’s nonverbal communication strategies to increase understanding; e.g., posture, eye contact, facial expression and gestures
  • Viewing

2.1.3 Use textual cues

Students will:

  • a. use a variety of textual cues to enhance understanding; e.g., indexes, tables of contents, chapters, bolded words/phrases, charts, glossaries, graphics and bullets
  • Reading | Writing

  • b. use visual and textual cues and structural features to enhance their comprehension of a variety of everyday print and nonprint texts and to read and view with purpose; e.g., newspapers, magazines, instruction manuals, advertisements, schedules and Web sites
  • Reading | Viewing

  • c. identify and use a variety of cues to enhance their understanding of nonprint texts; e.g., colour, setting, shape, movement, lighting, camera angle and size of images
  • Viewing

2.1.4 Use phonics and structural analysis

Students will:

2.1.5 Use references

Students will:

  • a. skim and scan reference materials to confirm spelling, locate meaning, extend vocabulary, verify usage and address uncertainties; e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, writer’s handbook, personal glossary and computer software
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Listening | Viewing | Representing

2.2 Respond to texts

2.2.1 Experience various texts

Students will:

  • a. explore and experience a range of print and nonprint texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres; e.g., journals, magazine articles, nature programs, diaries, drama, poetry, mysteries, historical fiction, drawings, prints, photographs, advertisements, Aboriginal oral stories, artifacts, films, essays, electronic and print magazines and realistic fiction 
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. recognize that many interpretations of the same text exist and examine other points of view
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • c. consider the historical context when developing points of view or interpretations of texts
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • d. justify their point of view and interpretation using evidence from a text
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

2.2.2 Construct meaning from texts

Students will:

  • a. use metacognition and other appropriate strategies, e.g., graphic organizers and technology, to categorize parts of a plot, e.g., introduction, characters, setting, initial incident, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution and main conflict, and recognize their relationships in developing a story
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. examine how a character changes as a result of an event within a plot by examining elements of character; e.g., consistency of behaviour and plausibility of change
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • c. analyze how the choices, behaviours and motives of characters in texts provide insight into themselves and others
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

  • d. identify the main message, theme, point of view, argument and lesson or moral within a text
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • e. identify conflict and examine how it develops and may be resolved
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • f. define their own interpretation of texts, based on experience, prior knowledge and evidence from the text
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • g. differentiate between fact and fiction in media portrayals of everyday life
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • h. use a variety of strategies to understand and follow oral directions; e.g., paraphrase, mental maps, take notes
  • Writing | Listening

2.2.3 Appreciate the artistry of texts

Students will:

  • a. examine the ways that a character can be developed and how character, plot and setting are interconnected, mutually supportive and work together to create mood and tone
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. recognize and appreciate the use and effectiveness of a variety of techniques, e.g., word choice, camera angle, irony, symbolism, line and framing, in communicating meaning and enhancing the text experience for the audience
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

2.3 Understand forms, elements and techniques

2.3.1 Understand forms and genres

Students will:

  • a. examine how the choice of form and genre in oral, visual and multimedia texts is appropriate to the purpose and audience
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. identify various forms and genres of oral, print and other media texts and identify the key characteristics of each
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • c. examine the effectiveness of different types of forms for presenting ideas and information; e.g., presentations of news through television, radio and newspapers; CDs and music videos
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

2.3.2 Understand techniques and elements

Students will:

  • a. examine how narrative hooks, foreshadowing, flashbacks, suspense and surprise endings contribute to the effectiveness of plot development
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. identify graphic design techniques, e.g., graphic quality, colour, sound, camera angle, composition, movement and editing, that create and/or manipulate emotion, mood and point of view
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • c. examine how sound and image work together to create effects in media texts
  • Listening | Viewing

  • d. summarize the content of media texts and examine the choices made in planning and producing them
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

2.3.3 Experiment with language

Students will:

  • a. analyze the creative uses of language and visuals in popular culture and explain the ways in which imagery and figurative language, e.g., simile, hyperbole and metaphor, convey meaning, tone and mood 
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

2.4 Create original texts

2.4.1 Generate ideas

Students will:

  • a. take ownership of text creation by selecting a topic, concept or idea that is personally meaningful, engaging and based on personal experience and/or prior knowledge
  • Reading | Speaking | Writing | Listening | Viewing | Representing

  • b. apply appropriate prewriting strategies to explore, develop and justify their own ideas, opinions and point of view and develop new ideas and determine the scope of writing
  • Writing | Listening | Speaking | Representing

  • c. create oral, print and other media texts related to issues encountered in their own life
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

2.4.2 Elaborate on the expression of ideas

Students will:

  • a. use a variety of techniques to communicate meaning and enhance the effectiveness of texts; e.g., colour, shape, composition, suspense, foreshadowing, flashbacks, word choice, gestures, movement, balance, camera angles, framing, irony and symbolism
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

2.4.3 Structure texts

Students will:

  • a. create a variety of oral, print and other media texts with well-developed, supported and linked ideas and components, including:
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

    • forms of functional writing, e.g., résumé, cover letter, memo, using electronic and other templates as appropriate
    • descriptive, persuasive, expository and narrative paragraphs and three- to five-paragraph essays

    Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. create a variety of texts to examine the connections between form, elements and techniques; e.g., advertisements, brochures, book jackets, plays, poetry, instruction sheets, posters and multimedia presentations
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. complete actual, or samples of, common home- and work-related forms; e.g., Social Insurance Number (SIN) form, job application form and performance checklists
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

General Outcome 3 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and focus

3.1.1 Focus attention

Students will:

  • a. use metacognition and a variety of other strategies, e.g., discussions, brainstorms and webs, to identify a topic and focus ideas
  • Reading | Writing | Representing

  • b. consider a variety of factors that may influence a topic; e.g., audience, purpose, point of view and form
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking

  • c. create categories and questions using who, what, where, when, why and how to guide inquiry and topic development
  • Writing | Listening | Speaking

  • d. identify a tentative presentation form appropriate to the audience, purpose and point of view
  • Writing | Listening | Speaking

  • e. use note taking, outlining or representing strategies to summarize important ideas and information in oral, print and other media texts
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

3.1.2 Determine information needs

Students will:

  • a. identify and record their prior knowledge related to a topic and determine information gaps
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. select appropriate information sources for a topic, audience, purpose and form; e.g., library, encyclopedia, community members and Web sites
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

3.1.3 Plan to gather information

Students will:

  • a. create a plan to access, gather, record, organize and present information, considering the topic, time, purpose, audience, form, access to technology and other resources and using appropriate strategies; e.g., webs, outlines and discussions
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. assess and modify their plan as needed
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

3.2 Select and process

3.2.1 Use a variety of sources

Students will:

  • a. use a variety of oral, print, visual and multimedia information sources appropriate to the inquiry; e.g., textbooks, encyclopedias, graphs, oral stories, artifacts, diagrams, posters, pictures, films, community members, databases, CD–ROMs and the Internet
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

3.2.2 Access information

Students will:

3.2.3 Evaluate sources

Students will:

  • a. use pre-established criteria to assess whether sources of information are credible, factual, current and appropriate to the purpose, audience and form of presentation
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. select alternate information sources as appropriate
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

3.3 Organize, record and evaluate

3.3.1 Organize information

Students will:

  • a. organize ideas and information, logically and creatively, using categories, questions, sequence and technology, as appropriate
  • Reading | Writing | Viewing

  • b. integrate ideas and information using their prior knowledge and new information and ideas
  • Reading | Writing | Viewing

3.3.2 Record information

Students will:

  • a. make notes in point form, summarizing main ideas and supporting details, using appropriate strategies; e.g., headings, subheadings, key words, supporting details and phrases and graphic organizers
  • Reading | Writing | Viewing

  • b. record information accurately and completely, in a consistent and appropriate style, using quotations and citing sources within footnotes and using word processing software when appropriate
  • Reading | Writing | Viewing

  • c. use appropriate keyboarding techniques, e.g., proper fingering when using alphabet and punctuation keys, and apply appropriate strategies to increase accuracy and speed
  • Writing

  • d. reference information sources using appropriate form and consistency
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

3.3.3 Evaluate information

Students will:

  • a. use appropriate criteria and metacognition strategies to assess whether the information gathered is relevant, important, accurate, complete, current and significant to determine its usefulness to the overall purpose, audience and form of presentation
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

  • b. recognize that different viewpoints on issues may exist and that information may have a bias or be limited
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

3.4 Share and review

3.4.1 Share ideas and information

Students will:

  • a. communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts; e.g., posters, photo essays, brochures, video/multimedia presentations, interviews, newspaper articles and expository/descriptive oral reports
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. use appropriate oral, visual, print and/or other media effectively to inform and engage the audience
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. apply the appropriate moral and ethical standards acceptable for a presentation
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • d. demonstrate responsibility for following appropriate security and safety measures when using technology and the Internet; e.g., language and etiquette, ergonomics to promote personal health and well-being and respect the products and privacy of others
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

3.4.2 Review research process

Students will:

  • a. use appropriate metacognition strategies to assess the effectiveness of the research process and identify strategies to improve future research
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

General Outcome 4 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and improve

4.1.1 Appraise their own and others’ work

Students will:

4.1.2 Revise and edit

Students will:

  • a. work collaboratively to make appropriate revisions based on feedback
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. proofread, edit and revise to follow language conventions; e.g., capitalization, punctuation, sentence structure, parts of speech, dialogue, grammar, spelling and word usage
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. select and use appropriate tools to edit and revise; e.g., dictionary, thesaurus and electronic editing functions
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • d. revise to ensure consistency of content in the use of a main idea, a point of view and supporting details
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • e. revise the introduction, conclusion and supporting ideas and information to enhance coherence and clarify meaning
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • f. revise to enhance sentence structure and variety, word choice and appropriate tone and to eliminate unnecessary repetition
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • g. demonstrate the effective effort and behaviour required to achieve a goal or create a product; e.g., be positive, focus on the goal, work independently and/or in groups as appropriate, take initiative
  • Listening | Speaking>

4.1.3 Enhance legibility

Students will:

  • a. use an appropriate handwriting style, word processor, font type and size, graphics and other techniques to produce their own texts, considering the content, audience and purpose
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

4.1.4 Expand knowledge of language

Students will:

4.1.5 Enhance artistry

Students will:

  • a. experiment with figurative language, illustrations, voice, sentence patterns, video effects, music and other techniques to provide emphasis, express emotion or create a mood
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. explore and select appropriate aspects of style, e.g., font size and style, colours, spacing of text, image placement, sound and video links, within the presentation form or product, to convey meaning to the audience
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. use a consistent style within a print or multimedia product; e.g., layout, headers, footers, margins and columns
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • d. use metacognition strategies to examine the effectiveness and limitations of various forms of texts for an intended purpose and audience
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

4.2 Attend to conventions

4.2.1 Attend to grammar and usage

Students will:

  • a. use appropriate tools, e.g., handbooks, exemplars, models, dictionaries, spell and grammar check software, to assist in attending to conventions
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. attend to grammar conventions; e.g., subject–verb agreement in sentences; use of a variety of simple, compound and complex sentences; use of transitional devices and pronouns; use of consistent verb tenses
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. distinguish between formal and informal language conventions and recognize the appropriate use of each; e.g., oral language use during a job interview and when speaking with friends
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

4.2.2 Attend to spelling

Students will:

  • a. attend to spelling conventions; e.g., confirm spelling, remember key words, develop and use their knowledge of spelling generalization and how words are formed
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. develop a systematic and effective approach to studying and remembering the correct spelling of key words
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. use a variety of strategies to verify or correct spelling; e.g., dictionary, thesaurus and electronic software
  • Reading | Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • d. identify everyday situations in which careful attention to correct spelling is particularly important; e.g., complete forms and schoolwork
  • Reading | Speaking | Representing

4.2.3 Attend to capitalization and punctuation

Students will:

  • a. attend to capitalization and punctuation conventions; e.g., use periods and commas appropriately with quotation marks, use commas to separate phrases and clauses in their own writing
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. use appropriate capitalization and punctuation when referencing oral, print and other texts
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. identify everyday situations in which careful attention to correct capitalization and punctuation is particularly important; e.g., cover letters for employment and writing at the workplace
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

4.3 Present and share

4.3.1 Present information

Students will:

  • a. apply appropriate common conventions when integrating information gathered from various sources; e.g., word processing, publishing, multimedia software, spreadsheets, graphics and database templates
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • b. present information using various forms of print and nonprint texts; e.g., posters, documents, charts, graphs, timetables, calendars, paintings, drawings, collages, cartoons, multimedia presentations and Web pages
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • c. plan and create short, small-group, whole-class and other presentations to share information and ideas
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • d. recognize that different settings may require different techniques or different forms of verbal and nonverbal communication; e.g., volume at different settings and the size of visuals
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

  • e. apply appropriate verbal and nonverbal strategies when presenting; e.g., tone, volume, eye contact, gestures and posture
  • Writing | Listening | Speaking | Representing

  • f. recognize the need for preparedness in effective communication
  • Writing | Listening | Speaking | Representing

4.3.2 Enhance presentation

Students will:

4.3.3 Use effective oral and visual communication

Students will:

4.3.4 Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

Students will:

  • a. listen and view attentively and actively to carry out instructions; e.g., identify important ideas, organize and classify information
  • Listening | Viewing

  • b. use appropriate listening and viewing skills to demonstrate respect and consideration; e.g., make eye contact, nod and face the presenter/presentation
  • Listening | Viewing

General Outcome 5 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect themselves and others and strengthen community

5.1.1 Appreciate diversity

Students will:

  • a. examine how ideas, people, experiences and cultural traditions and values are portrayed in print and nonprint texts and compare their own with others’ understanding; e.g., Aboriginal oral stories and artifacts
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • b. recognize that individual differences and perspectives are influenced by culture, religion, age, gender and experiences and are valuable and honourable
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

  • c. clarify and enhance their understanding, perspectives and opinions by examining the ideas of others
  • Reading | Listening | Speaking | Viewing

5.1.2 Relate texts to culture

Students will:

  • a. analyze how texts reflect the traditions, beliefs and technologies of different cultures, communities or periods in history; e.g., Aboriginal peoples
  • Reading | Listening | Viewing

5.1.3 Celebrate accomplishments and events

Students will:

  • a. participate in organizing and celebrating special events, considering the various ways language arts are used across cultures, age groups and genders to honour and celebrate people and accomplishments; e.g., Aboriginal and other cultural/community events
  • Reading | Writing | Listening | Speaking | Viewing | Representing

5.1.4 Use language to show respect

Students will:

  • a. use inclusive language and behaviour and create texts in ways that demonstrate respect for people of different heritage, cultures, genders, ages, abilities, opinions and communities
  • Writing | Speaking | Representing

5.2 Work within a group

5.2.1 Cooperate with others

Students will:

  • a. demonstrate respect for their rights and the rights of others, within a group and a community, by being fair and honest, demonstrating integrity and personal ethics and by valuing equity within the group
  • Listening | Speaking | Representing

  • b. contribute collaboratively in group situations by asking questions and listening and building on the ideas of others
  • Listening | Speaking

  • c. identify and model the behaviours of a successful student and/or worker; e.g., listen to and follow directions, seek assistance, arrive on time, organize materials, paraphrase directions, prioritize tasks and recognize expectations
  • Listening | Speaking

  • d. distinguish among constructive criticism, ridicule and sarcasm and identify strategies to respond appropriately
  • Listening | Speaking

5.2.2 Work in groups

Students will:

  • a. communicate appropriately with group members to develop and/or identify goals, generate ideas, monitor progress and share responsibility for the completion of a project/group goal
  • Listening | Speaking

  • b. identify and demonstrate appropriate behaviour within a group; e.g., listen without interrupting, contribute when appropriate, disagree and/or offer suggestions in an appropriate manner
  • Listening | Speaking

  • c. identify and model motivational techniques, e.g., positive reinforcement, suggestions and paraphrasing, to focus group members on tasks and achieve group goals
  • Listening | Speaking | Viewing

  • d. acknowledge conflicting points of view within a group and contribute to compromise in a positive manner, using a variety of strategies; e.g., follow a problem-solving or issue-resolution model
  • Listening | Speaking

  • e. identify and demonstrate the responsibilities of each member within a group; e.g., leader, recorder, motivator
  • Listening | Speaking

  • f. identify leadership roles within a group to enhance personal leadership skills
  • Listening | Speaking | Viewing

Evaluate group process

Students will:

  • a. evaluate group processes, and personal contributions to group processes, to determine and communicate strengths and areas for improvement
  • Listening | Speaking

 





Resources to support: