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**Step 1 References**

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. *Principles and Standards for School Mathematics*. Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000.

Van de Walle, John A. *Elementary and Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally*. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 2001.

Van de Walle, John A. and LouAnn H. Lovin. *Teaching Student-Centered Mathematics: Grades K–3*. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006.

Willis, Sue et al. *First Steps in Mathematics: Operation Sense—Operations, Computations, and Patterns and Algebra*. Don Mills, ON: Pearson Professional Learning, 2006.

**Step 2 References**

Alberta Education. *The Alberta K–9 Mathematics Program of Studies with Achievement Indicators*. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Education, 2007.

**Step 3 References**

Alberta Education. *Diagnostic Mathematics Program, Elementary: Operations and Properties, Division II*. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Education, 1990.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. *Principles and Standards for School Mathematics*. Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000.

Russell, Susan Jo. "Developing Computational Fluency with Whole Numbers." *Teaching Children Mathematics* 7, 3 (November 2000), pp.154–158.

Van de Walle, John A. *Elementary and Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally*. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 2001.

Willis, Sue et al. *First Steps in Mathematics: Operation Sense—Operations, Computations, and Patterns and Algebra*.Don Mills, ON: Pearson Professional Learning, 2006.

**Step 4 References**

No references.

**Step 5 References**

Barton, Mary Lee and Clare Heidema.* Teaching Reading in Mathematics: A Supplement to Teaching Reading in the Content Areas Teacher's Manual*. 2nd ed. Aurora, CO: McREL (Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning), 2002.

**Other References**

Behrend, Jean L. "Are Rules Interfering with Children's Mathematical Understanding?" *Teaching Children Mathematics* 8, 1 (September 2001), pp. 36–40.

Wiggins, Grant and Jay McTighe. *Understanding by Design*. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1998.