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Alberta Education. *The Alberta K–9 Mathematics Program of Studies with Achievement Indicators*. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Education, 2007.

__ __.* Diagnostic Mathematics Program, Operations and Properties, *

Division II. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Education, 1990.

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__ __. *Learning Mathematics in Elementary and Middle Schools*. Scarborough, ON: Allyn and Bacon Canada, 1994.

Fuson, Karen. "Meaning of Numerical Operations through Word Problem Solving: Access to All through Student Situational Drawings within an Algebraic Approach." Presentation at the Annual Conference for the National Council of Supervisors of Mathematics, St. Louis, USA, April 26, 2006.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. "Pan Balance–Numbers." *NCTM Illuminations*. 2000–2008. http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=26 (Accessed April 25, 2008).

__ __*.*"Pan Balance–Shapes." *NCTM* *Illuminations.* 2000–2008. http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=33

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__ __*. Principles and Standards for School Mathematics.* Reston, VA:

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Proulx, Jérôme. "Making the Transition to Algebraic Thinking: Taking Students' Arithmetic Modes of Reasoning into Account." *delta–K *44, 1 (2006), pp. 8–16.

Van de Walle, John A. *Elementary and Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally. *4th ed. Boston, MA: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 2001.

Van de Walle, John A. and LouAnn H. Lovin. *Teaching Student-Centered Mathematics: Grades 3–5*. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006.