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### Step 1 References

Alberta Education.* Patterns and Pre-algebra, Grades 4–6* (unpublished workshop handout). Edmonton, AB: Alberta Education, 2007.

Ma, Liping. *Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics: Teachers' Understanding of Fundamental Mathematics in China and the United States*. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. "Pan Balance—Numbers." *NCTM Illuminations*. 2000–2007. http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=26 (Accessed October, 2007).

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. *Principles and Standards for School Mathematics*. Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000.

Van de Walle, John A. and LouAnn H. Lovin. *Teaching Student-Centered Mathematics: Grades 5–8*. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006.

### Step 2 References

Alberta Education. *The Alberta K–9 Mathematics Program of Studies with Achievement Indicators*. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Education, 2007.

### Step 3 References

Mann, Robert. "Responses to the 'A Walk in the Park' Problem." *Teaching Children Mathematics *10, 3 (September 2003), pp. 54–59.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. "Responses to 'Guess the Weight' Problem." *Teaching Children Mathematics* 6, 1 (September 1999), pp. 31–33.

Van de Walle, John A. and LouAnn H. Lovin. *Teaching Student-Centered Mathematics: Grades 5–8*. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006.

### Step 4 References

Mann, Robert. "Responses to the 'A Walk in the Park' Problem." *Teaching Children Mathematics* 10, 3 (September 2003), pp. 54–59.

Van de Walle, John A. and LouAnn H. Lovin. *Teaching Student-Centered Mathematics: Grades 5–8*. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006.

### Step 5 References

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. "Pan Balance—Shapes." *NCTM Illuminations*. 2000–2007. http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=33 (Accessed October, 2007).

Timoteo, Enzo. *Equations: A PowerPoint Presentation*. Edmonton, AB: Enzo Timoteo, 2005.

### Other References

Cathcart, W. George, Yvonne M. Pothier and James H. Vance. *Learning Mathematics in Elementary and Middle Schools*. 2nd ed. Scarborough, ON: Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., 1997.

Phillips, Elizabeth. *Patterns and Functions: Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics Addenda Series, Grades 5–8*. Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1991.

Van de Walle, John A. *Elementary and Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally*.4th ed. Boston, MA: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 2001.

Wiggins, Grant and Jay McTighe. *Understanding by Design*. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1998.