Grade 2
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# Measurement

Strand: Shape and Space (Measurement)
Outcomes: 2, 3, 4, 5

## Curriculum Focus

This sample targets the following changes to the curriculum:

• The general outcome now focuses on using direct or indirect measurement to solve problems; whereas the previous mathematics curriculum focused on estimating, measuring and comparing using standard units of measure for length and primarily nonstandard units for other measures.
• The specific outcomes have changed dramatically in number and scope. The 2007 curriculum has only five specific outcomes in Grade 2 Measurement, whereas in the previous mathematics curriculum there were seventeen. The first one not included in this section is about time and substantially differs from the outcomes nine through thirteen in the previous curriculum that dealt with time. The emphasis on time has shifted to Grade 3. Outcome fourteen was about reading a thermometer and is not in the new curriculum under Measurement, but would be a required skill in the science unit on Heat and Cold. Outcomes fifteen through seventeen relate to money and are no longer included in Shape and Space in the new curriculum. This leaves specific outcomes one through eight of the previous curriculum to be compared with outcomes two through five of the new curriculum.
• The previous mathematics curriculum included specific outcomes that focused on using the standard units of centimetre, decimetre and metre to measure a length. These no longer apply since units of measurement at Grade 2 are limited to nonstandard units in the current curriculum.
• Specific outcomes four and five of the previous curriculum were about measuring and comparing areas with nonstandard units and recognizing that various shapes could have the same area. Area and capacity are in the Grade 1 measurement section of Shape and Space in the recent curriculum and then does not show up again until Grade 4, although it is likely to be covered in Grade 3 as they develop a deeper understanding of multiplication.
• Specific outcome six of the previous curriculum focused on capacity, whereas there is no mention of capacity in the grades 2 and 3 curricula now. It is part of the Grade 1 measurement expectations, along with area.
• Specific outcome eight: recognition that the size and shape of an object does not determine its mass is no longer included as either a specific outcome or an indicator of achievement in the new curriculum; however, it may be one of the Big Ideas that students gain while comparing masses of identical containers that hold different contents.
• The new curriculum focus is on relationships and processes. Specific outcomes two, three and five are about relationships. The first relates the number of nonstandard units of measure required to the size of the nonstandard unit; the smaller the unit chosen, the more units required. Specific outcome three looks at the relationship of length, height, circumference and mass of one item to the length, height, circumference and mass of other items. The fifth specific outcome is the conservation of measurement attributes regardless of orientation. The fourth specific outcome focuses on the two processes that can be used during measurement with non-standard units, iteration, or repeated use of a single copy of the unit, and the alternative process, using multiple copies of the unit.

Measurement addresses the following outcomes from the Program of Studies:

Strand: Shape and Space (Measurement)
Specific Outcomes:
 2 Relate the size of a unit of measure to the number of units (limited to nonstandard units) used to measure length and mass (weight). 3 Compare and order objects by length, height, distance around and mass (weight), using nonstandard units, and make a statement of comparison. 4 Measure length to the nearest nonstandard unit by: using multiple copies of a unit using a single copy of a unit (iteration process). 5 Demonstrate that changing the orientation of an object does not alter the measurements of its attributes.

## What is a Planning Guide?

Planning Guides are a tool for teachers to use in designing instruction and assessment that focuses on developing and deepening students' understanding of mathematical concepts. This tool is based on the process outlined in Understanding by Design, by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe.

The following steps will help you through the Planning Guide:

See Bibliography for reference information.