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English Language Arts K - Grade 9 (2000)

© Alberta Education, Canada 
 Table of Contents   Program of Studies

This program of studies may contain references to the previous Kindergarten to Grade 6 curriculum. For the new Kindergarten to Grade 6 curriculum, please visit new.LearnAlberta.ca.

Introduction

Clear student learning outcomes and high learning standards in the program of studies are designed to prepare students for present and future language requirements. Changes in society and technology have affected, and will continue to affect, the ways in which people use language to think, to communicate and to learn. Students must be prepared to meet new literacy demands in Canada and the international community. The ability to use language effectively enhances student opportunities to experience personal satisfaction and to become responsible, contributing citizens and lifelong learners.

The Importance of Language
The Nature of Language

Language is the basis of all communication and the primary instrument of thought. Composed of interrelated and rule-governed symbol systems, language is a social and uniquely human means of exploring and communicating meaning. As well as being a defining feature of culture, language is an unmistakable mark of personal identity and is essential for forming interpersonal relationships, extending experiences, reflecting on thought and action, and contributing to society.

Language Acquisition and Development

Language learning is an active process that begins at birth and continues throughout life. Children learn language as they use it to communicate their thoughts, feelings and experiences; establish relationships with family members and friends; and strive to make sense and order of their world. They may come to school speaking more than one language or learn another language in school. It is important to respect and build upon a child's first language. Experience in one language will benefit the learning of other languages.

In their early years, children develop language informally. Long before they understand explicit language rules and conventions, children reproduce the language they hear, and use language to construct and to convey new meaning in unique ways. Later, language learning occurs in specific contexts for specific purposes, such as learning about a specific subject, participating in the community, and pursuing work and leisure activities.

Language development is continuous and recursive throughout a student's life. Students enhance their language abilities by using what they know in new and more complex contexts and with increasing sophistication. They reflect on and use prior knowledge to extend and enhance their language and understanding. By learning and incorporating new language structures into their repertoire and using them in a variety of contexts, students develop language fluency and proficiency. Positive learning experiences enable students to leave school with a desire to continue to extend their knowledge, skills and interests.

Language Learning: A Shared Responsibility

Responsibility for language learning is shared by students, parents, teachers and the community. Students require ongoing opportunities to use language in its many forms. Opportunities to learn language occur first at home and are extended as children move into the larger community. Schools provide environments where students develop language knowledge, skills and strategies to achieve academic, personal and social goals.

Language development is the responsibility of all teachers. For example, subject area teachers teach the specialized language and forms of each subject. English language arts teachers; however, have a special role because of their focus on language, its forms and functions. They help students develop and apply strategies for comprehending, composing and responding in a variety of situations.

Thinking and Learning through Language

Thinking, learning and language are interrelated. From Kindergarten to Grade 12, students use language to make sense of and bring order to their world. They use language to examine new experiences and knowledge in relation to their prior knowledge, experiences and beliefs. They make connections, anticipate possibilities, reflect upon ideas and determine courses of action.

Language enables students to play an active role in various communities of learners within and beyond the classroom. As students speak, write and represent, they also listen to, read about and view the ideas and experiences of others. Critical and creative thinking and learning through language occur when students reflect, speculate, create, analyze and synthesize.

In addition, language facilitates student development of metacognitive awareness; that is, it enables them to reflect on and control their own thinking and learning processes. Language helps students develop an awareness of the skills and strategies they need to complete learning tasks successfully and to communicate about themselves as learners.

English Language Arts

The aim of English language arts is to enable each student to understand and appreciate language, and to use it confidently and competently in a variety of situations for communication, personal satisfaction and learning.

Students become confident and competent users of all six language arts through many opportunities to listen and speak, read and write, and view and represent in a variety of combinations and relevant contexts. All the language arts are interrelated and interdependent; facility in one strengthens and supports the others. In the outcomes of the program of studies, the six language arts are integrated.

Listening and Speaking

Oral language is the foundation of literacy. Through listening and speaking, people communicate thoughts, feelings, experiences, information and opinions, and learn to understand themselves and others. Oral language carries a community's stories, values, beliefs and traditions.

Listening and speaking enable students to explore ideas and concepts, as well as to understand and organize their experiences and knowledge. They use oral language to learn, solve problems and reach goals. To become discerning, lifelong learners, students at all grades need to develop fluency and confidence in their oral language abilities. They benefit from many opportunities to listen and speak both informally and formally for a variety of purposes.

Reading and Writing

Reading and writing are powerful means of communicating and learning. They enable students to extend their knowledge and use of language, increase their understanding of themselves and others, and experience enjoyment and personal satisfaction.

Reading provides students with a means of accessing the ideas, views and experiences of others. By using effective reading skills and strategies, students construct meaning and develop thoughtful and critical interpretations of a variety of texts. Writing enables students to explore, shape and clarify their thoughts, and to communicate them to others. By using effective writing strategies, they discover and refine ideas and compose and revise with increasing confidence and skill.

Viewing and Representing

Viewing and representing are integral parts of contemporary life. These skills allow students to understand the ways in which images and language may be used to convey ideas, values and beliefs.

Viewing is an active process of attending to and comprehending such visual media as television, advertising images, films, diagrams, symbols, photographs, videos, drama, drawings, sculpture and paintings. Viewing enables students to acquire information and to appreciate the ideas and experiences of others. Many of the comprehension processes involved in reading, such as previewing, predicting and making inferences, may also be used in viewing.

Representing enables students to communicate information and ideas through a variety of media, such as video presentations, posters, diagrams, charts, symbols, visual art, drama, mime and models.

Texts

In today's technological society, people access information and find enjoyment in print, as well as other language forms. For example, oral communication and visual media are becoming increasingly important. Often these forms are used in combination with one another and in conjunction with print. Therefore, texts refer not only to print but also to oral and visual forms that can be discussed, studied and analyzed. In addition, texts are affected and influenced by how they are transmitted, whether by computer, television, radio or book. Students need knowledge, skills and strategies in all six language arts to compose, comprehend and respond to such texts. Oral texts include storytelling, dialogues, speeches and conversations. Visual texts include pictures, diagrams, tableaux, mime and nonverbal communication. Combinations of oral, print or visual texts include videos, films, cartoons, drama and drum dancing.

Organization of the Program of Studies

Five general student outcomes serve as the foundation for the program of studies. General outcomes are broad statements identifying the knowledge, skills and attitudes that students are expected to demonstrate with increasing competence and confidence from Kindergarten to Grade 12. The general outcomes are interrelated and interdependent; each is to be achieved through a variety of listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and representing experiences.

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to:

  • explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences
  • comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts
  • manage ideas and information
  • enhance the clarity and artistry of communication
  • respect, support and collaborate with others.

Each general learning outcome includes specific outcomes that students are to achieve by the end of each grade. Specific outcomes are categorized under headings within each of the five general outcomes. The specific outcomes state the knowledge, skills and attitudes that students are expected to demonstrate by the end of each grade. They are relevant for all students in a variety of learning environments and are cumulative across the grades. Students are expected to demonstrate the specific outcomes for their current grade while building on and maintaining their ability to demonstrate the specific outcomes for previous grades.

It is intended that students engage in purposeful language activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

Outcomes for English Language Arts

The aim of English language arts is to enable each student to understand and appreciate language, and to use it confidently and competently in a variety of situations for communication, personal satisfaction and learning.

General Outcome 1

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

  • 1.1 Discover and explore
  • 1.2 Clarify and extend

General Outcome 2

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

  • 2.1 Use strategies and cues
  • 2.2 Respond to texts
  • 2.3 Understand forms, elements and techniques
  • 2.4 Create original text

General Outcome 3

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

  • 3.1 Plan and focus
  • 3.2 Select and process
  • 3.3 Organize, record and evaluate
  • 3.4 Share and review

General Outcome 4

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

  • 4.1 Enhance and improve
  • 4.2 Attend to conventions
  • 4.3 Present and share

General Outcome 5

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

  • 5.1 Respect others and strengthen community
  • 5.2 Work within a group
General Outcome 1 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.   

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It is intended that students engage in purposeful language arts activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

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Exploratory language enables students to organize and give meaning to experiences. Students use exploratory language to share thoughts, ideas and experiences, and to express and acknowledge emotions. Exploratory language enables students to discover and understand what they think and who they are. It also helps them reflect on themselves as language learners and language users. In addition, it helps them establish and maintain relationships.

Exploratory language is often oral. Through talk and conversation, students make observations, ask questions, hypothesize, make predictions and form opinions. Exploratory talk is often spontaneous. Sometimes students discover what they think at the point of utterance. Exploratory writing also helps students clarify their thinking. When students can see their ideas, thoughts, feelings and experiences in writing, they can reconsider, revise and elaborate on them in thoughtful ways. Representing is also used to explore ideas and interrelationships in diagrams, thought webs, charts and other visual media. Exploratory listening, reading and viewing enable students to gather and verify information, identify areas for further inquiry or research, and develop support for opinions.

As students progress through the grades, they develop the ability to use exploratory language to achieve the other English language arts learning outcomes. For example, exploratory talk and writing enhance student comprehension by focusing their prior knowledge and experiences before reading, listening and viewing, and subsequently help them understand and manage information. Students use exploratory language when analyzing, evaluating and responding to texts, and when deciding how to use language more effectively. They use conversation to collaborate on projects and to develop a classroom community.

General Outcome 2 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.   

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It is intended that students engage in purposeful language arts activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

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Students use a variety of strategies and cueing systems as they interact with oral, print and other media texts. They preview, ask questions and set purposes. Students attend to the ideas being presented, make and confirm predictions and inferences, and monitor their understanding. As they interact with texts, students respond by reflecting, creating, analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating. Successful learners adapt these strategies as they construct meaning from a variety of oral, print and other media texts.

Making meaning of oral, print and other media texts is fundamental to English language arts. Through these texts, students experience a variety of situations, people and cultures, and learn about themselves. Oral, print and other media texts allow for multiple interpretations. Students can respond personally to texts, by relating them to their prior knowledge, to their feelings and experiences, and to other texts. Through personal response, students explore and form values and beliefs. They respond critically to texts, by making interpretations and evaluating ideas, forms and techniques.

Students enhance their comprehension of and response to oral, print and other media texts through learning experiences in all the general outcomes. Exploratory talk and writing, for example, strengthen student understanding and evaluation of texts. Their appreciation of literary texts provides students with a range of topics and encourages them to experiment with a variety of forms in their own communication. Responding to oral, print and other media texts provides students with new insights.

General Outcome 3 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

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It is intended that students engage in purposeful language arts activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

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The ability to manage information is important in school, in the workplace, on the land, and for personal growth and satisfaction. Students learn to access and communicate information through language arts. Viewing and representing take on new importance in managing ideas and information; through these language arts, students learn to enhance the clarity and effectiveness of communication. Students learn to interpret and analyze texts, considering such factors as author, purpose, audience and source. They learn to define the need for information, ask questions, and gather and evaluate information.

Students enhance their ability to manage ideas and information in collaboration with others. For example, they benefit from opportunities to engage in exploratory language to focus their research and determine the kind and amount of information needed to accomplish their various purposes, both artistic and functional. Students communicate ideas and information more effectively when they select forms and conventions appropriate to specific purposes, content and audiences. The use of technology enhances student opportunities to access, create and communicate ideas and information. Skill in managing ideas and exchanging information helps students encourage, support and work with others.

General Outcome 4 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

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It is intended that students engage in purposeful language arts activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

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Learning effective strategies for using language with precision, clarity and artistry is interrelated with learning in the other general outcomes. Students use exploratory language to discover and focus their communication (General Outcome 1). Oral, print and other media texts provide vicarious experiences and new perspectives that students use for speaking, writing and representing (General Outcome 2). Students locate, gather and organize data to communicate ideas and information (General Outcome 3). Creating and communicating with language enhance collaboration and build community (General Outcome 5).

As students use English language arts in a variety of contexts with instruction, encouragement and support, they revise and edit to clarify meaning, achieve purposes and affect audiences. In doing so, they apply the conventions of grammar, language usage, spelling, punctuation and capitalization. They develop an understanding of how language works and use the specialized vocabulary of English language arts. As well, they develop confidence and skill in sharing and responding to thoughts, ideas and experiences through informal and formal presentations.

In school and in daily life, students are required to communicate ideas and information using well-organized, clear and precise language. They use artistic language to create, to express who they are and what they feel, and to share their experiences with others in a variety of oral, print and other media texts.

General Outcome 5 Overview

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.   

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It is intended that students engage in purposeful language arts activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

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Language is necessary for working together. Students learn collaboration skills by discussing in groups, by building on the ideas of others, and by planning and working together to meet common goals and strengthen community. In every classroom, students develop a sense of community. They learn to use language to offer assistance and to participate in and enrich their classroom community. In this way, students share perspectives and ideas, develop understanding and respect diversity.

Students learn that language is important for celebrating events of personal, social, community and national significance. In their language learning and use, they develop their knowledge of language forms and functions. As well, they come to know how language preserves and enriches culture. To celebrate their own use of language, students display their work, share with others, and delight both in their own and others' use of the language arts. Throughout Kindergarten to Grade 9, students use language to celebrate significant community and national events. Students need opportunities to reflect on, appraise and celebrate their achievements and growth.

Grade 7
General Outcome 1 (Gr. 7)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and Explore

Express ideas and develop understanding

  • extend understanding of ideas and information by finding and exploring oral, print and other media texts on related topics and themes
  • express personal understandings of ideas and information based on prior knowledge, experiences with others and a variety of oral, print and other media texts
  • reflect on own observations and experiences to understand and develop oral, print and other media texts

Experiment with language and forms

  • discuss and respond to ways that content and forms of oral, print and other media texts interact to influence understanding

Express preferences

  • explore and assess oral, print and other media texts recommended by others

Set goals

  • use appropriate terminology to discuss developing abilities in personal language learning and use
1.2 Clarify and Extend

Consider the ideas of others

  • listen and respond constructively to alternative ideas or opinions

Combine ideas

  • use talk, writing and representing to examine, clarify and assess understanding of ideas, information and experiences

Extend understanding

  • talk with others to elaborate ideas, and ask specific questions to seek helpful feedback
General Outcome 2 (Gr. 7)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues

Use prior knowledge

  • select and focus relevant ideas from personal experiences and prior knowledge to understand new ideas and information
  • use expectations and preferences developed during previous reading experiences to select and read new texts with purpose

Use comprehension strategies

  • identify, connect, and summarize in own words, the main ideas from two or more sources on the same topic
  • use concept mapping and mental rehearsal to remember main ideas and relevant details
  • adjust reading rate and strategies to account for changes in structural features of texts and complexity of content

Use textual cues

  • identify and use visual and textual cues, such as numbers, bullets and words; for example, first/then/next, before/after, on the one hand/on the other hand and if/then, that signal organizational patterns in print and other media texts, to enhance understanding of ideas and information
  • identify and use, effectively and efficiently, structural features of textbooks, such as tables of contents and indices, to access ideas and nformation and to read with purpose

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • apply, flexibly, knowledge of phonics, sight vocabulary, structural analysis, language and context clues, depending on the purpose and rate of reading

Use references

  • skim and scan reference materials to confirm the spellings or locate the meanings of unfamiliar words
2.2 Respond to Texts

Experience various texts

  • experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as journals, nature programs, short stories, poetry, letters, CDROM programs, mysteries, historical fiction, drawings and prints
  • justify own point of view about oral, print and other media texts, using evidence from texts
  • organize interpretations of oral, print and other media texts around two or three key ideas
  • express interpretations of oral, print and other media texts in another form or genre
  • predict and discuss the consequences of events or characters' actions, based on information in oral, print and other media texts

Construct meaning from texts

  • compare the choices and behaviours of characters portrayed in oral, print and other media texts with those of self and others
  • analyze how plot develops; the connection between plot and subplot; and the interrelationship of plot, setting and characters
  • identify and explain conflict, and discuss how it develops and may be resolved
  • develop, clarify and defend own interpretation, based on evidence from the text with support from own experiences

Appreciate the artistry of texts

  • discuss how techniques, such as colour, shape, composition, suspense, foreshadowing and flashback, are used to communicate meaning and enhance effects in oral, print and other media texts
  • identify and explain the usefulness, effectiveness and limitations of various forms of oral, print and other media texts
  • reflect on, revise and elaborate on initial impressions of oral, print and other media texts, through subsequent reading, listening and viewing activities
2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques

Understand forms and genres

  • identify various forms and genres of oral, print and other media texts, and describe key characteristics of each
  • identify the characteristics of different types of media texts

Understand techniques and elements

  • discuss connections among plot and subplot, main and supporting characters, main idea and theme in a variety of oral, print and other media texts
  • identify the narrator's perspective, and explain how it affects the overall meaning of a text
  • identify and explain how narrative hooks, foreshadowing, flashback, suspense and surprise endings contribute to the effectiveness of plot development
  • explain how sound and image work together to create effects in media texts

Experiment with language

  • explore surprising and playful uses of language and visuals in popular culture, such as cartoons, animated films and limericks; explain ways in which imagery and figurative language, such as simile, convey meaning
2.4 Create Original Text

Generate ideas

  • choose appropriate strategies for generating ideas and focusing topics for oral, print and other media texts

Elaborate on the expression of ideas

  • use suspense, exaggeration, foreshadowing, dialogue and description to show rising action and develop conflict

Structure texts

  • create oral, print and other media texts that are unified by point of view, carefully developed plot and endings consistent with previous events
  • create a variety of oral, print and other media texts to explore ideas related to particular topics or themes
General Outcome 3 (Gr. 7)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and Focus

Focus attention

  • consider audience, purpose, point of view and form when focusing topics for investigation
  • use note-taking, outlining or representing to summarize important ideas and information in oral, print and other media texts

Determine information needs

  • discuss the types and sources of information appropriate for topic, audience, form, purpose and point of view

Plan to gather information

  • plan and organize data collection based on instructions, explanations and pre-established parameters
3.2 Select and Process

Use a variety of sources

  • obtain information from a variety of sources, such as adults, peers, advertisements, magazines, lyrics, formal interviews, almanacs, broadcasts and videos, to explore research questions

Access information

  • use a variety of tools and text features, such as headings, subheadings, topic sentences, summaries, staging and pacing, and highlighting, to access information
  • distinguish between fact and opinion, and follow the development of argument and opinion
  • scan to locate specific information quickly; summarize and record information useful for research purposes

Evaluate sources

  • use pre-established criteria to evaluate the usefulness of a variety of information sources in terms of their structure and purpose
3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate

Organize information

  • organize ideas and information by selecting or developing categories appropriate to a particular topic and purpose
  • produce oral, print and other media texts with well-developed and well-linked ideas and sections

Record information

  • make notes, using headings and subheadings or graphic organizers appropriate to a topic; reference sources
  • reflect on ideas and information to form own opinions with evidence to support them
  • compare, contrast and combine ideas and information from several sources

Evaluate information

  • assess if the amount and quality of gathered information is appropriate to purpose and audience; address information gaps
  • connect new information with prior knowledge to build new understanding
3.4 Share and Review

Share ideas and information

  • communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as reports, autobiographies, brochures and video presentations
  • use appropriate visual, print and/or other media effectively to inform and engage the audience

Review research process

  • identify strengths and areas for improvement in personal research skills
General Outcome 4 (Gr. 7)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and Improve

Appraise own and others' work

  • identify particular content features that enhance the effectiveness of published oral, print and other media texts
  • incorporate particular content features of effective texts into own oral, print and other media texts

Revise and edit

  • revise introductions, conclusions and the order of ideas and information to add coherence and clarify meaning
  • revise to eliminate unnecessary repetition of words and ideas
  • use paragraphs, appropriately, to organize narrative and expository texts

Enhance legibility

  • choose and use printing, cursive writing or word processing, depending on the task, audience and purpose
  • identify how the format of documents enhances the presentation of content

Expand knowledge of language

  • identify differences between standard English and slang, colloquialism or jargon, and explain how these differences affect meaning
  • identify and explain figurative and metaphorical use of language in context

Enhance artistry

  • experiment with figurative language, illustrations and video effects to create visual images, provide emphasis or express emotion
4.2 Attend to Conventions

Attend to grammar and usage

  • use a variety of subordinate clauses correctly and appropriately in own writing
  • use correct subject-verb agreement in sentences with compound subjects
  • distinguish between formal and informal conventions of oral and written language, and use each appropriately, depending on the context, audience and purpose
  • identify and use common subjective and objective forms of pronouns, appropriately and correctly in own writing

Attend to spelling

  • use reference materials to confirm spellings and to solve spelling problems when editing and proofreading
  • extend spelling vocabulary to include words frequently used in literature, but infrequently used in oral and other media texts
  • apply specific and effective strategies for learning and remembering the correct spelling of words in own writing

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

  • use periods and commas with quotation marks that indicate direct speech in own writing
  • use commas to separate phrases and clauses in own writing
  • use quotation marks to identify information taken from secondary sources in own writing
4.3 Present and Share

Present information

  • present ideas and opinions confidently, but without dominating the discussion, during small group activities and short, whole class sessions

Enhance presentation

  • clarify and support ideas or opinions with details, visuals or media techniques

Use effective oral and visual communication

  • identify and use explicit techniques to arouse and maintain interest and to convince the audience

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

  • listen and view attentively to organize and classify information and to carry out multistep instructions
  • ask questions or make comments that elicit additional information; probe different aspects of ideas, and clarify understanding
General Outcome 5 (Gr. 7)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect Others and Strengthen Community

Appreciate diversity

  • discuss how ideas, people, experiences and cultural traditions are portrayed in various oral, print and other media texts
  • explain how differing perspectives and unique reactions expand understanding

Relate texts to culture

  • identify and discuss recurring themes in oral, print and other media texts from diverse cultures and communities

Celebrate accomplishments and events

  • select and use appropriate form and tone for specific audiences to celebrate special events and accomplishments

Use language to show respect

  • demonstrate respect for diverse ideas, cultures and traditions portrayed in oral, print and other media texts
5.2 Work within a Group

Cooperate with others

  • contribute collaboratively in group situations, by asking questions and building on the ideas of others
  • take responsibility for assuming a variety of roles in a group, depending on changing contexts and needs

Work in groups

  • contribute ideas, knowledge and questions to establish an information base for research or investigations
  • assist in setting and achieving group goals by inviting others to speak, suggesting alternatives, assigning tasks, sharing resources, following up on others' ideas and listening to a variety of points of view

Evaluate group process

  • evaluate group process and personal contributions according to pre-established criteria to determine strengths and areas for improvement
Grade 8 
General Outcome 1 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and Explore

Express ideas and develop understanding

  • revise understanding and expression of ideas by connecting new and prior knowledge and experiences
  • review, reread, discuss and reflect on oral, print and other media texts to explore, confirm or revise understanding
  • seek out and consider diverse ideas, opinions and experiences to develop and extend own ideas, opinions and experiences

Experiment with language and forms

  • discuss and respond to ways that forms of oral, print and other media texts enhance or constrain the development and communication of ideas, information and experiences

Express preferences

  • pursue personal interest in specific genres by particular writers, artists, storytellers and filmmakers

Set goals

  • examine and reflect on own growth in effective use of language to revise and extend personal goals
1.2 Clarify and Extend

Consider the ideas of others

  • acknowledge the value of the ideas and opinions of others in exploring and extending personal interpretations and perspectives

Combine ideas

  • exchange ideas and opinions to clarify understanding and to broaden personal perspectives

Extend understanding

  • reconsider and revise initial understandings and responses in light of new ideas, information and feedback from others
General Outcome 2 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues

Use prior knowledge

  • use strategies to supplement and extend prior knowledge and experiences when interpreting new ideas and information
  • use knowledge of authors, forms and genres, developed during previous reading, to direct and extend reading experiences

Use comprehension strategies

  • enhance understanding by paraphrasing main ideas and supporting details, and by rereading and discussing relevant passages
  • monitor understanding; skim, scan or read slowly and carefully, as appropriate, to enhance comprehension
  • take notes, make outlines and use such strategies as read, recite, review to comprehend and remember ideas and information

Use textual cues

  • identify and use visual and textual cues in reference materials, such as catalogues, databases, web sites, thesauri and writers' handbooks, to access information effectively and efficiently
  • identify and use structural features of a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as newspapers, magazines, instruction booklets, advertisements and schedules, encountered in everyday life to access ideas and information and to read with purpose

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • choose and use strategies for word identification, vocabulary development and spelling that either build on specific strengths or address areas for improvement

Use references

  • use a thesaurus to extend vocabulary and locate appropriate words that express particular aspects of meaning
2.2 Respond to Texts

Experience various texts

  • experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as magazine articles, diaries, drama, poetry, Internet passages, fantasy, nonfiction, advertisements and photographs
  • write and represent narratives from other points of view
  • expect that there is more than one interpretation for oral, print and other media texts, and discuss other points of view
  • explain connections between own interpretation and information in texts, and infer how texts will influence others
  • make connections between biographical information about authors, illustrators, storytellers and filmmakers and their texts

Construct meaning from texts

  • interpret the choices and motives of characters portrayed in oral, print and other media texts, and examine how they relate to self and others
  • identify and describe characters' attributes and motivations, using evidence from the text and personal experiences
  • discuss various ways characters are developed and the reasons for and plausibility of character change
  • compare two similar oral, print or other media texts by considering the characters, plot, conflicts and main ideas

Appreciate the artistry of texts

  • discuss how techniques, such as word choice, balance, camera angles, line and framing, communicate meaning and enhance effects in oral, print and other media texts
  • identify ways that characters can be developed, and discuss how character, plot and setting are interconnected and mutually supportive
  • identify and discuss how word choice and order, figurative language, plot, setting and character work together to create mood and tone
2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques

Understand forms and genres

  • discuss how the choice of form or genre of oral, print and other media texts is appropriate to purpose and audience
  • compare the usefulness of different types of media texts

Understand techniques and elements

  • distinguish theme from topic or main idea in oral, print and other media texts
  • identify and explain characters' qualities and motivations, by considering their words and actions, their interactions with other characters and the author's or narrator's perspective
  • compare and contrast the different perspectives provided by first and third person narration
  • summarize the content of media texts, and discuss the choices made in planning and producing them

Experiment with language

  • identify creative uses of language and visuals in popular culture, such as commercials, rock videos and magazines; explain how imagery and figurative language, such as hyperbole, create tone and mood
2.4 Create Original Text

Generate ideas

  • create oral, print and other media texts related to issues encountered in texts and in own life

Elaborate on the expression of ideas

  • retell oral, print and other media texts from different points of view

Structure texts

  • create oral, print and other media texts with both main and minor characters
  • choose forms or genres of oral, print or other media texts for the particular affects they will have on audiences and purposes
General Outcome 3 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and Focus

Focus attention

  • experiment with several ways to focus a topic, and select a form appropriate to audience and purpose
  • identify and trace the development of arguments, opinions or points of view in oral, print and other media texts

Determine information needs

  • select the most appropriate information sources for topic, audience, purpose and form

Plan to gather information

  • choose a plan to access, gather and record information, according to self-selected parameters
3.2 Select and Process

Use a variety of sources

  • obtain information from a variety of sources, such as artifacts, debates, forums, biographies, autobiographies, surveys, documentaries, films, CDROMs, charts and tables, when conducting research

Access information

  • expand and use a variety of tools and text features, such as subtitles, margin notes, key words, electronic searches, previews, reviews, visual effects and sound effects, to access information
  • record key ideas and information from oral, print and other media texts, avoiding overuse of direct quotations
  • adjust rate of reading or viewing to suit purpose and density of information in print or other media texts

Evaluate sources

  • develop and use criteria for evaluating the usefulness, currency and reliability of information for a particular research project
3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate

Organize information

  • organize ideas and information creatively, as well as logically, to develop a comparison or chronology, or to show a cause-effect relationship
  • organize ideas and information to establish an overall impression or point of view in oral, print and other media texts

Record information

  • make notes in point form, summarizing major ideas and supporting details; reference sources
  • discard information that is irrelevant for audience, purpose, form or point of view
  • use a consistent and approved format to give credit for quoted and paraphrased ideas and information

Evaluate information

  • evaluate the relevance and importance of gathered information; address information gaps
  • incorporate new information with prior knowledge and experiences to develop new understanding
3.4 Share and Review

Share ideas and information

  • communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as interviews, minilessons and documentaries
  • integrate appropriate visual, print and/or other media to inform and engage the audience

Review research process

  • assess the research process, and consider alternative ways of achieving research goals
General Outcome 4 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and Improve

Appraise own and others' work

  • share draft oral, print and other media texts in a way that will elicit useful feedback
  • evaluate how particular content features contribute to, or detract from, the overall effectiveness of own and others' oral, print and other media texts; make and suggest revisions

Revise and edit

  • revise by adding words and phrases that emphasize important ideas or create dominant impressions
  • revise to enhance sentence variety, word choice and appropriate tone
  • enhance the coherence and impact of documents, using electronic editing functions
  • use paragraph structures to demonstrate unity and coherence

Enhance legibility

  • vary handwriting style and pace, depending on the context, audience and purpose
  • choose an effective format for documents, depending on the content, audience and purpose

Expand knowledge of language

  • explore and explain ways that new words, phrases and manners of expression enter the language as a result of factors, such as popular culture, technology, other languages
  • infer the literal and figurative meaning of words in context, using idioms, analogies, metaphors and similes

Enhance artistry

  • experiment with figurative language, voice, sentence patterns, camera angle and music to create an impression or mood
4.2 Attend to Conventions

Attend to grammar and usage

  • use words and phrases to modify, clarify and enhance ideas and descriptions in own writing
  • use a variety of simple, compound and complex sentence structures to communicate effectively, and to make writing interesting
  • use correct pronoun-antecedent agreement in ownwriting
  • use verb tenses consistently throughout a piece of writing

Attend to spelling

  • develop a systematic and effective approach to studying and remembering the correct spelling of key words encountered in a variety of print and other media texts
  • use knowledge of spelling generalizations and how words are formed to spell technical terms and unfamiliar words in own writing
  • identify the use of spelling variants in print and other media texts, and discuss the effectiveness depending on audience and purpose

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

  • use hyphens to break words at the end of lines, and to make a new word from two related words in own writing
  • identify semicolons, dashes and hyphens when reading, and use them to assist comprehension
  • use parentheses appropriately in own writing
  • use appropriate capitalization and punctuation for referencing oral, print and other media texts
4.3 Present and Share

Present information

  • plan and facilitate small group and short, whole class presentations to share information

Enhance presentation

  • present information to achieve a particular purpose and to appeal to interest and background knowledge of reader or audience

Use effective oral and visual communication

  • plan and shape presentations to achieve particular purposes or effects, and use feedback from rehearsals to make modifications

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

  • anticipate the organizational pattern of presentations, and identify important ideas and supporting details
  • use appropriate verbal and nonverbal feedback to respond respectfully
General Outcome 5 (Gr. 8)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect Others and Strengthen Community

Appreciate diversity

  • compare own with others' understanding of people, cultural traditions and values portrayed in oral, print and other media texts
  • clarify and broaden perspectives and opinions, by examining the ideas of others

Relate texts to culture

  • compare ways in which oral, print and other media texts reflect specific elements of cultures or periods in history

Celebrate accomplishments and events

  • participate in organizing and celebrating special events, recognizing the appropriateness and significance of language arts

Use language to show respect

  • use inclusive language and actions that demonstrate respect for people of different races, cultures, genders, ages and abilities
5.2 Work within a Group

Cooperate with others

  • propose ideas or advocate points of view that recognize the ideas of others and advance the thinking of the group
  • use opportunities as a group member to contribute to group goals and extend own learning

Work in groups

  • contribute ideas, knowledge and strategies to identify group information needs and sources
  • organize and complete tasks cooperatively by defining roles and responsibilities, negotiating to find the basis for agreement, setting objectives and time frames, and reviewing progress

Evaluate group process

  • evaluate the quality of own contributions to group process, and offer constructive feedback to others; propose suggestions for improvement
Grade 9 
General Outcome 1 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and Explore

Express ideas and develop understanding

  • talk with others and experience a variety of oral, print and other media texts to explore, develop and justify own opinions and points of view
  • explore and explain how interactions with others and with oral, print and other media texts affect personal understandings
  • extend understanding by taking different points of view when rereading and reflecting on oral, print and other media texts

Experiment with language and forms

  • develop and extend understanding by expressing and responding to ideas on the same topic, in a variety of forms of oral, print and other media texts

Express preferences

  • explain preferences for texts and genres by particular writers, artists, storytellers and filmmakers

Set goals

  • reflect on own growth in language learning and use, by considering progress over time and the attainment of personal goals
1.2 Clarify and Extend

Consider the ideas of others

  • integrate own perspectives and interpretations with new understandings developed through discussing and through experiencing a variety of oral, print and other media texts

Combine ideas

  • examine and re-examine ideas, information and experiences from different points of view to find patterns and see relationships

Extend understanding

  • assess whether new information extends understanding by considering diverse opinions and exploring ambiguities
General Outcome 2 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues

Use prior knowledge

  • discuss how interpretations of the same text might vary, according to the prior knowledge and experiences of various readers
  • use previous reading experiences, personal experiences and prior knowledge as a basis for reflecting on and interpreting ideas encountered in texts

Use comprehension strategies

  • identify explicit and implicit ideas and information in texts; listen and respond to various interpretations of the same text
  • select appropriate reading rate and strategies for comprehending texts less closely connected to prior knowledge and personal experiences
  • preview complex texts as to their intent, content and structure, and use this information to set a purpose and select strategies for reading

Use textual cues

  • use knowledge of visual and textual cues and structural features when skimming and scanning various print and other media texts to locate relevant information effectively and efficiently
  • analyze and discuss how the structural features of informational materials, such as textbooks, bibliographies, databases, catalogues, web sites, commercials and newscasts, enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of communication

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • apply and explain effective procedures for identifying and comprehending words in context; adjust procedures according to the purpose for reading and the complexity of the texts

Use references

  • use reference materials, including a writer's handbook, to verify correct usage, address uncertainties and solve problems that arise
2.2 Respond to Texts

Experience various texts

  • experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as essays, broadcast advertisements, novels, poetry, documentaries, films, electronic magazines and realistic fiction
  • identify and discuss how timeless themes are developed in a variety of oral, print and other media texts
  • consider historical context when developing own points of view or interpretations of oral, print and other media texts
  • compare and contrast own life situation with themes of oral, print and other media texts
  • express the themes of oral, print or other media texts in different forms or genres
  • consider peers' interpretations of oral, print and other media texts, referring to the texts for supporting or contradicting evidence

Construct meaning from texts

  • analyze how the choices and motives of characters portrayed in oral, print and other media texts provide insight into those of self and others
  • identify and discuss theme and point of view in oral, print and other media texts
  • discuss and explain various interpretations of the same oral, print or other media text
  • relate the themes, emotions and experiences portrayed in oral, print and other media texts to issues of personal interest or significance

Appreciate the artistry of texts

  • discuss how techniques, such as irony, symbolism, perspective and proportion, communicate meaning and enhance effect in oral, print and other media texts
  • discuss character development in terms of consistency of behaviour and plausibility of change
  • describe how theme, dominant impression and mood are developed and sustained through choices in language use and the interrelationship of plot, setting and character
  • identify features that define particular oral, print and other media texts; discuss differences in style and their effects on content and audience impression
2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques

Understand forms and genres

  • explain the relationships between purposes and characteristics of various forms and genres of oral, print and other media texts
  • evaluate the effectiveness of different types of media texts for presenting ideas and information

Understand techniques and elements

  • compare the development of character, plot and theme in two oral, print or other media texts
  • evaluate the effectiveness of oral, print and other media texts, considering the believability of plot and setting, the credibility of characters, and the development and resolution of conflict
  • compare a main character in one text to the main character in another text from a different era, genre or medium
  • identify ways that a change in narrator might affect the overall meaning of oral, print and other media texts
  • summarize the content of media texts, and suggest alternative treatments

Experiment with language

  • analyze creative uses of language and visuals in popular culture, such as advertisements, electronic magazines and the Internet; recognize how imagery and figurative language, such as metaphor, create a dominant impression, mood and tone
2.4 Create Original Text

Generate ideas

  • generalize from own experience to create oral, print and other media texts on a theme

Elaborate on the expression of ideas

  • create oral, print and other media texts on common literary themes

Structure texts

  • create oral, print and other media texts that interrelate plot, setting and character, and reveal the significance of the action
  • create oral, print and other media texts that include main and minor characters, and show how the main character develops and changes as a result of the action and events
General Outcome 3 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and Focus

Focus attention

  • synthesize ideas and information from a variety of sources to develop own opinions, points of view and general impressions
  • assess adequacy, accuracy, detail and appropriateness of oral, print and other media texts to support or further develop arguments, opinions or points of view

Determine information needs

  • select types and sources of information to achieve an effective balance between researched information and own ideas

Plan to gather information

  • select information sources that will provide effective support, convincing argument or unique perspectives
3.2 Select and Process

Use a variety of sources

  • obtain information reflecting multiple perspectives from a variety of sources, such as expository essays, graphs, diagrams, online catalogues, periodical indices, film libraries, electronic databases and the Internet, when conducting research

Access information

  • expand and use a variety of tools and text features, such as organizational patterns of texts, page layouts, font styles and sizes, colour and voice-overs, to access information
  • distinguish between primary and secondary sources, and determine the usefulness of each for research purposes
  • follow up on cited references to locate additional information

Evaluate sources

  • evaluate sources for currency, reliability and possible bias of information for a particular research project
3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate

Organize information

  • organize ideas and information by developing and selecting appropriate categories and organizational structures
  • balance all sections of oral, print and other media texts and ensure sentences, paragraphs and key ideas are linked throughout
  • develop coherence by relating all key ideas to the overall purpose of the oral, print or other media text

Record information

  • use own words to summarize and record information in a variety of forms; paraphrase and/or quote relevant facts and opinions; reference sources
  • select and record ideas and information that will support an opinion or point of view, appeal to the audience, and suit the tone and length of the chosen form of oral, print or other media text
  • choose specific vocabulary, and use conventions accurately and effectively to enhance credibility

Evaluate information

  • evaluate usefulness, relevance and completeness of gathered information; address information gaps
  • reflect on new understanding and its value to self and others
3.4 Share and Review

Share ideas and information

  • communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as media scripts, multimedia presentations, panel discussions and articles
  • integrate appropriate visual, print and/or other media to reinforce overall impression or point of view and engage the audience

Review research process

  • reflect on the research process, identifying areas of strength and ways to improve further research activities
General Outcome 4 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and Improve

Appraise own and others' work

  • share sample treatments of a topic with peers, and ask for feedback on the relative effectiveness of each
  • work collaboratively to make appropriate revisions based on feedback provided by peers

Revise and edit

  • revise to ensure effective introductions, consistent points of view, effective transitions between ideas and appropriate conclusions
  • revise to enhance effective transitions between ideas and maintain a consistent organizational pattern
  • revise to combine narration, description and exposition effectively

Enhance legibility

  • develop personal handwriting styles appropriate for a variety of purposes
  • identify and experiment with some principles of design that enhance the presentation of texts

Expand knowledge of language

  • distinguish between the denotative and connotative meaning of words, and discuss effectiveness for achieving purpose and affecting audience
  • explore the derivation and use of words, phrases and jargon, including variations in language, accent and dialect in Canadian communities and regions

Enhance artistry

  • experiment with the language and components of particular forms to communicate themes or represent the perspectives of a variety of people or characters
4.2 Attend to Conventions

Attend to grammar and usage

  • identify and use parallel structure in own writing
  • identify and use coordination, subordination and apposition to enhance communication
  • use a variety of strategies to make effective transitions between sentences and paragraphs in own writing

Attend to spelling

  • demonstrate the deliberate, conscientious and independent application of a variety of editing and proofreading strategies to confirm spellings in own writing
  • identify situations in which careful attention to correct spelling is especially important
  • identify and use variant spellings for particular effects, depending on audience, purpose, content and context

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

  • use quotation marks to distinguish words being discussed in own writing
  • use dashes to show sentence breaks or interrupted speech, where appropriate in own writing
  • know that rules for punctuation can vary, and adjust punctuation use for effect in own writing
4.3 Present and Share

Present information

  • select, organize and present information to appeal to the interests and background knowledge of various readers or audiences

Enhance presentation

  • choose appropriate types of evidence and strategies to clarify ideas and information, and to convince various readers and audiences

Use effective oral and visual communication

  • integrate a variety of media and display techniques, as appropriate, to enhance the appeal, accuracy and persuasiveness of presentations

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

  • follow the train of thought, and evaluate the credibility of the presenter and the evidence provided
  • provide feedback that encourages the presenter and audience to consider other ideas and additional information
General Outcome 5 (Gr. 9)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect Others and Strengthen Community

Appreciate diversity

  • examine how personal experiences, cultural traditions and Canadian perspectives are presented in oral, print and other media texts
  • take responsibility for developing and sharing oral, print and other media texts and for responding respectfully to the texts of others

Relate texts to culture

  • analyze how oral, print and other media texts reflect the traditions, beliefs and technologies of different cultures, communities or periods in history

Celebrate accomplishments and events

  • explore and experiment with various ways in which language arts are used across cultures, age groups and genders to honour and celebrate people and events

Use language to show respect

  • create or use oral, print and other media texts in ways that are respectful of people, opinions, communities and cultures
5.2 Work within a Group

Cooperate with others

  • contribute to group efforts to reach consensus or conclusions, by engaging in dialogue to understand the ideas and viewpoints of others
  • discuss and choose ways to coordinate the abilities and interests of individual group members to achieve group goals

Work in groups

  • generate and access ideas in a group, and use a variety of methods to focus and clarify topics for research or investigations
  • share responsibility for the completion of team projects by establishing clear purpose and procedures for solving problems, monitoring progress and making modifications to meet stated objectives

Evaluate group process

  • establish and use criteria to evaluate group process and personal contributions; set goals and make plans for improvement





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