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# Basic Facts to 18

Strand: Number
Outcome: 10

## Step 1: Identify Outcomes to Address

### Guiding Questions

• What do I want my students to learn?
• What can my students currently understand and do?
• What do I want my students to understand and be able to do, based on the Big Ideas and specific outcomes in the program of studies? See Sequence of Outcomes from the Program of Studies

Strand: Number

Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2

 Specific Outcomes

 Specific Outcomes 10. Describe and use mental mathematics strategies (memorization not included), such as: counting on and counting back making 10 using doubles thinking addition for subtraction for basic addition facts and related subtraction facts to 18.

 Specific Outcomes 10. Apply mental mathematics strategies, such as: using doubles making 10 one more, one less two more, two less building on a known double thinking addition for subtraction for basic addition facts and related subtraction facts to 18.

### Big Ideas

In Grade 1, students will need various opportunities to look at numbers between 10 and 20 with concrete materials. They should make connections with how these numbers are used in their everyday lives. Teachers must prepare here for later outcomes where the relationships of one more than, two more than, one less than and two less than will be built upon these lessons and the work students have done in Kindergarten. For example, students use 15 as a referent, knowing that two more than 15 is 17 and they use 20 as a referent, seeing 18 as two less than 20.

Students also need to be encouraged to develop an intuitive sense of number and how numbers relate to each other. Given three sets of counters, students should be able to indicate which has more and which has less without counting. Teachers need to listen to students while at the same time challenging them to share their ideas about numbers. 