# Addition and Subtraction of Integers

**Strand:** Number

**Outcome:** 6

## Step 5: Follow-up on Assessment

### Guiding Questions

- What conclusions can be made from assessment information?
- How effective have instructional approaches been?
- What are the next steps in instruction?

### A. Addressing Gaps in Learning

- Use manipulatives of various kinds to develop and demonstrate understanding of adding and subtracting integers.
- Emphasize the connection between adding integers and subtracting integers.
- Relate adding and subtracting integers to adding and subtracting whole numbers. The types of problems involving the addition or subtraction of whole numbers are the same for fraction problems; e.g., part-part-whole, comparison and join or separate problems. Substituting whole numbers for integers helps students to decide which operation to use in solving the problems.
- Use problem contexts that students can relate to and keep the integers simple initially; i.e., use integers close to zero so that they can easily be represented by using integer tiles or a number line.
- Connect the concrete, pictorial and symbolic modes.
- Provide the option for students to use manipulatives as long as needed, even on tests.
- Encourage students to explain their thinking orally if they have difficulty explaining it in writing.

### B. Reinforcing and Extending Learning

Students who have achieved or exceeded the outcomes will benefit from ongoing opportunities to apply and extend their learning. These activities should support students in developing a deeper understanding of the concept and should not progress to the outcomes in subsequent grades.

Strategies for Reinforcing and Extending Learning