# Numbers 1–10

**Strand:** Number

**Outcomes:** 3, 4, 5

## Step 3: Plan for Instruction

### Guiding Questions

- What learning opportunities and experiences should I provide to promote learning of the outcomes and permit students to demonstrate their learning?
- What teaching strategies and resources should I use?
- How will I meet the diverse learning needs of my students?

### A. Assessing Prior Knowledge and Skills

Before introducing new material, consider ways to assess and build on students' knowledge and skills related to number. For example:

- Given one spatial relationship, can students show another spatial arrangement; e.g., given one arrangement of five dots on a pie plate, will they recognize a different arrangement of the five dots? This shows an understanding of equivalent sets.
- If they are shown two sets of objects, can they tell you which set has the largest number of objects and/or which set has the smallest number of objects?
- If they are shown one set of objects, can they find another set with the same number of objects?
- If they are given a numeral, can they represent the numeral, and one or two more and one or two less than the numeral? (Remember to call the written number a
*numeral*.)
- Give students a set of eight buttons. Ask students how many buttons are in the collection. If the student correctly counts and says "eight," ask, "Are there eight buttons?" If the student hesitates and counts again, question whether or not the student has developed cardinality, which is the ability to know that the last count word is the number of items in the set.

If a student appears to have difficulty with these tasks, consider further individual assessment, such as a structured interview, to determine the student's level of skill and understanding.

Sample Structured Interview: Assessing Prior Knowledge and Skills

### B. Choosing Instructional Strategies

Consider the following strategies when planning lessons.

- Wherever possible, the number activities should involve some physical materials.
- Students should communicate numbers in various ways.
- Provide opportunities for students to represent numbers in many different ways.
- Encourage students to display numbers whenever possible, either with manipulatives or by enacting the number physically; e.g., showing fingers, clapping.
- To motivate students, use familiar objects whenever possible.
- Expect students to explain, verbally, how they know how many are in a set.

### C. Choosing Learning Activities

Learning Activities are examples of activities that could be used to develop student understanding of the concepts identified in Step 1.